Top Banner

Click here to load reader

Digital image processing

Feb 07, 2017

ReportDownload

Engineering

  • Seminar Report on

    Digital Image Processing

    Submitted by

    Trishna Pattanaik

    < Regd. No.: 1301229183 >

    Project Report submitted in partial fulfillment of the

    requirements for the award of the degree of

    B.Tech. in Computer Science & Engineering under

    Biju Pattnaik University of Technology (BPUT)

    2016-2017

    Under the Guidance of

    Surajit Mohanty

    HOD Dept. of CSE

    Department of Computer Science & Engineering

    DRIEMS Tangi, Cuttack-745022

  • CERTIFICATE

    This is to certify that the project Digital Image Processing presented

    by Trishna Pattanaik bearing Registration No. 1301229183 of

    Department of Computer Science and Engineering in DRIEMS,

    Cuttack has been completed successfully.

    This is in partial fulfillment of the requirements of Bachelor Degree in

    Computer Science and Engineering under Biju Pattnaik University of

    Technology, Rourkela, Orissa.

    I wish her success in all future endeavors.

    Prof. Surajit Mohanty Prof. Surajit Mohanty Head of the Department Guide Computer Science & Engineering Computer Science & Engineering

    Date: 19th March 2016 Date: 19th March 2016

  • ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

    I express my sincere gratitude to Prof. Surajit Mohanty of Computer

    Science and Engineering for giving me an opportunity to accomplish

    seminar on the project. Without his active support and guidance, this

    seminar would not have been successfully completed.

    Trishna Pattanaik Department of Computer Science & Engineering Regd.No.- 1301229183

  • Digital Image Processing

    ABSTRACT

    Digital image processing (dip) methods stems for two principal application areas: improvement of pictorial information for human interpretation and processing of image data for storage, transmission and representation for autonomous machine perception. Thus, the objectives of the topic are: to define the scope of the field, to give a historical perspective of the origins of this field, to give the idea of the state of the art in dip by examining some of the principal areas in which it is applied, to discuss briefly the principal approaches used in dip and to give an overview of the components contained in a typical general-purpose image processing system. Signature of the Guide Signature of the Student

    Name : Prof. Surajit Mohanty Name : Trishna Pattanaik

    Date : 19th March 2016 Regn. No : 1301229183

    Semester : 6th

    Branch : CSE

    Section : C

    Date : 19th March 2016

  • TABLE OF CONTENTS

    CHAPTER NO. TITLE PAGE NO.

    CERTIFICATE i

    ACKNOWLEDGEMENT ii

    ABSTRACT iii

    LIST OF FIGURES v

    1. INTRODUCTION 1

    1.1 What is digital image processing? 1

    1.2 The origins of Digital Image Processing 1

    1.3 Fundamental steps for Digital Image Processing 2

    2. DIGITAL IMAGE FUNDAMENTALS 4

    2.1 Image Acquisition 4

    2.2 Image Enhancement 5

    2.3 Image Restoration 6

    3. COLOR IMAGE PROCESSING 13

    5.1 Pseudocolor Image Processing 13

    5.2 Full-color Image Processing 13

    4. MULTIRESOLUTION & MORPHOLOGICAL 14

    IMAGE PROCESSING

    4.1 Wavelets & Multiresolution Processing 14

    4.2 Morphological Image Processing 15

    5. IMAGE SEGMENTATION 16

    6. COMPRESSION & REPRESENTATION 17

    6.1 Image Compression 17

    6.2 Representation & Description 18

    6.3 Object Recognition 20

    7. FIELDS OF APPLICATION 21

    CONCLUSION 23

    REFERENCES 24

  • LIST OF FIGURES

    Figure1.1: A digital picture produced in 1921 from a coded tape by a telegraph printer with

    special type faces.

    Figure 1.2: A digital picture made in 1922 from a tape punched after the signals had crossed

    the Atlantic twice.

    Figure1.3: The first picture of the moon by a U.S. spacecraft Ranger 7 took this image on

    July 31, 1964 at 9:09 A.M. EDT about 17 minutes before impacting the lunar surface.

    Figure 1.4: Fundamental steps in digital image processing.

    Figure 2.1: Single Imaging Sensor

    Figure 2.2: Combining a single sensor with motion to generate a 2-D image.

    Figure 2.3: Line Sensor

    Figure 2.4: (a) Image acquisition using a linear sensor strip.

    (b) Image acquisition using a circular sensor strip.

    Figure 2.5: Array Sensor

    Figure 2.6: An example of the digital image acquisition process.

    Figure 2.7: Some basic gray-level transformation functions used for image enhancement.

    Figure 2.8: Comparing lowpass filters.

    Figure 2.9: Comparing highpass filters.

    Figure 2.10: Noise Examples.

    Figure 2.11: Noise removal examples.

    Figure 3.1: Result of density slicing into 8 colors on an image of Picker Thyroid Phantom.

    Figure 3.2: Pseudocolor enhancement by using the gray level to color transformation.

    Figure 3.3: A full-color image and its various color space components.

    Figure 4.1: A pyramidal image structure.

    Figure 4.2: Erosion to remove image components.

    Figure 4.3: Dilation of sample text.

    Figure 6.1: Computer Generated 256 X 256 X 8 bit images with (a) coding redundancy

    (b) spatial redundancy (c) irrelevant information.

    Figure 7.1: Images of the Crab Pulsar (in the centre of images) covering the EM spectrum.

    Figure 7.2: A Fractal Image.

    v

  • CHAPTER 1

    INTRODUCTION

    1.1 WHAT IS DIGITAL IMAGE PROCESSING?

    An image may be defined as a two-dimensional function f(x, y), where x and y are spatial

    (plane) coordinates and the amplitude of f at any pair of coordinates (x, y) is called the intensity

    or gray level of the image at that point. When x, y and the amplitude values of f are all finite,

    discrete quantities, we call the image a digital image. The field of digital image processing

    refers to processing digital images by means of a digital computer. Note that a digital image is

    composed of a finite number of elements, each of which has a particular location and value.

    These elements are referred to as picture elements, image elements, pels, and pixels.

    Digital image processing encompasses processes whose inputs and outputs are images and

    in addition, encompasses processes that extract attributes from images up to and including the

    recognition of individual objects. The processes of acquiring an image of the area containing

    the text, preprocessing that image, extracting (segmenting) the individual characters,

    describing the characters in a form suitable for computer processing, and recognizing those

    individual characters are in the scope of what we call digital image processing [2].

    1.2 THE ORIGINS OF DIGITAL IMAGE PROCESSING

    One of the first applications of digital images was in the newspaper industry, when pictures

    were first sent by submarine cable between London and New York. Introduction of the Bartlane

    cable picture transmission system in the early 1920s reduced the time required to transport a

    picture across the Atlantic from more than a week to less than three hours. The printing method

    used to obtain figure 1.1 was abandoned toward the end of 1921 in favor of a technique based

    on photographic reproduction made from tapes perforated at the telegraph receiving terminal.

    Figure1.1: A digital picture produced in 1921 from a coded

    tape by a telegraph printer with special type faces.

    1

  • Figure 1.2 shows an image obtained using this method. The improvements over figure 1.1 are

    evident, both in tonal quality and in resolution.

    Figure 1.2: A digital picture made in 1922 Figure1.3: The first picture of the moon by a U.S. spacecraft

    from a tape punched after the signals had Ranger 7 took this image on July 31, 1964 at 9:09 A.M. EDT

    crossed the Atlantic twice. about 17 minutes before impacting the lunar surface.

    Although the examples just cited involve digital images, they are not considered digital

    image processing results in the context of our definition because computers were not involved

    in their creation. The first computers powerful enough to carry out meaningful image

    processing tasks appeared in the early 1960s. Figure 1.4 shows the first image of the moon

    taken by Ranger 7 on July 31 1964 at 9:09 A.M.Eastern Daylight Time (EDT), about 17

    minutes before impacting the lunar surface. From the 1960s until the present, the field of image

    processing has grown vigorously. In addition to applications in medicine and the space

    program, digital image processing techniques now are used in a broad range of applications.

    1.3 FUNDAMENTAL STEPS FOR DIGITAL IMAGE PROCESSING

    It is helpful to divide the material covered in the following chapters into the two broad

    categories: methods whose input and output are image