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DATA HIDING TECHNIQUES IN STEGANOGRAPHY USING ... ... 1.1 Steganography domain 2 1.2 Embedding methods for spatial domain 5 1.3 The model of steganography and steganalysis 6 2.1 Classification

Oct 13, 2020

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  • 1

    DATA HIDING TECHNIQUES IN STEGANOGRAPHY USING FIBONACCI

    SEQUENCE AND KNIGHT TOUR ALGORITHM

    MOHAMMED ABDULLAH KHALAF

    UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MALAYSIA

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    DATA HIDING TECHNIQUES IN STEGANOGRAPHY USING FIBONACCI

    SEQUENCE AND KNIGHT TOUR ALGORITHM

    MOHAMMED ABDULLAH KHALAF

    A project report submitted in partial fulfilment of the

    requirements for the award of the degree of

    Master of Engineering ( Computer & Microelectronics System )

    Faculty of Electrical Engineering

    Universiti Teknologi Malaysia

    JUNE 2016

  • iii

    To my virtuous supervisor who taught me in a truthful, fair, and honorable way

    To my colleagues in the Universiti Teknologi Malaysia

    To all those who contributed to the success of this research

    I dedicate this research to you

  • iv

    ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

    Initially, all praise is to Allah, the most kind and the merciful for helping me

    to accomplish this study. Special appreciation goes to my parents, friends, studying

    colleagues and supervisors for standing beside me in the good and bad times spent to

    complete this research. The great effort goes to Dr. Nasrul Humaimi Mahmood for

    support me to complete this research praying to Allah Almighty to grant him all that

    is good.

  • v

    ABSTRACT

    The foremost priority in the information and communication technology era,

    is achieving an efficient and accurate steganography system for hiding information.

    The developed system of hiding the secret message must capable of not giving any

    clue to the adversaries about the hidden data. In this regard, enhancing the security

    and capacity by maintaining the Peak Signal-to-Noise Ratio (PSNR) of the

    steganography system is the main issue to be addressed. This study proposed an

    improved for embedding secret message into an image. This newly developed

    method is demonstrated to increase the security and capacity to resolve the existing

    problems. A binary text image is used to represent the secret message instead of

    normal text. Three stages implementations are used to select the pixel before random

    embedding to select block of (64 × 64) pixels, follows by the Knight Tour algorithm

    to select sub-block of (8 × 8) pixels, and finally by the random pixels selection. For

    secret embedding, Fibonacci sequence is implemented to decomposition pixel from 8

    bitplane to 12 bitplane. The proposed method is distributed over the entire image to

    maintain high level of security against any kind of attack. Gray images from the

    standard dataset (USC-SIPI) including Lena, Peppers, Baboon, and Cameraman are

    implemented for benchmarking. The results show good PSNR value with high

    capacity and these findings verified the worthiness of the proposed method. High

    complexities of pixels distribution and replacement of bits will ensure better security

    and robust imperceptibility compared to the existing systems in the literature.

  • vi

    ABSTRAK

    Keutamaan pertama di dalam maklumat dan komunikasi dalam era teknologi,

    adalah mencapai sistem steganografi yang cekap dan tepat untuk menyembunyikan

    maklumat. Sistem yang dibangunkan menyembunyi mesej rahsia, mestilah mampu

    tidak memberi apa-apa petunjuk kepada musuh mengenai data tersembunyi. Dalam

    hal ini, meningkatkan keselamatan dan kapasiti dengan mengekalkan Nisbah Puncak

    Isyarat-Hingar (PSNR) sistem steganografi adalah isu utama yang perlu ditangani.

    Kajian ini mencadangkan lebih baik untuk menerapkan mesej rahsia ke dalam imej.

    Kaedah yang baru dibangunkan menunjukkan kebolehan untuk meningkatkan

    keselamatan dan keupayaan untuk menyelesaikan masalah yang sedia ada. Satu imej

    teks binari digunakan untuk mewakili mesej rahsia dan bukannya teks normal. Tiga

    peringkat pelaksanaan digunakan untuk memilih piksel sebelum membenam secara

    rawak untuk memilih blok (64 × 64) piksel, diikuti oleh algoritma Knight Tour untuk

    memilih sub-blok (8 × 8) piksel, dan akhirnya dengan pemilihan piksel secara rawak.

    Turutan Fibonacci digunakan untuk penguraian piksel dari 8 bitplan ke 12 bitplan

    untuk membenam maklumat secara rahsia. Kaedah yang dicadangkan diaplikasikan

    ke seluruh imej untuk mengekalkan tahap keselamatan yang tinggi terhadap sebarang

    serangan. Imej kelabu dari set data piawai (USC-SIPI) termasuk Lena, Peppers,

    Baboon dan Jurukamera dilaksanakan sebagai penanda aras. Keputusan

    menunjukkan nilai PSNR baik dengan kapasiti tinggi dan penemuan ini

    mengesahkan kebenaran tentang kaedah yang dicadangkan. Kerumitan tinggi taburan

    piksel dan penggantian bit akan memastikan keselamatan yang lebih baik dan lebih

    teguh berbanding dengan sistem yang sedia ada.

  • vii

    TABLE OF CONTENTS

    CHAPTER TITLE PAGE

    DECLARATION ii

    DEDICATION iii

    ACKNOWLEDGEMENT iv

    ABSTRACT v

    ABSTRAK vi

    TABLE OF CONTENTS vii

    LIST OF TABLES xi

    LIST OF FIGURES xii

    LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS xix

    LIST OF SYMBOLS xx

    1 INTRODUCTION 1

    1.1 Introduction 1

    1.2 Problem Background 3

    1.2.1 Security Issues in Steganography 3

    1.2.2 Embedding method Issues in

    Steganography

    4

    1.2.4 Capacity 5

    1.3 Steganography Model 6

    1.4 Problem Statements 7

    1.5 Objective of the Study 8

    1.6 Scope of the Study 9

    1.7 Significant of the Study 9

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    1.8 Thesis Overview 10

    2 LITERATURE REVIEW 11

    2.1 Introduction 11

    2.2 History of information hiding 12

    2.3 Steganography 14

    2.3.1 Steganography Definition 14

    2.3.1.1 Steganography

    Classification

    15

    2.3.1.2 Structure of Steganography 16

    2.3.1.4 Steganography applications 17

    2.3.1.5 Steganography techniques 18

    2.3.2 Image Preparation 19

    2.3.2.1 Fibonacci decomposition 19

    2.3.2.2 Knight Tour 22

    2.3.3 Embedding Methods 30

    2.3.3.1 LSB Substitution Method 31

    2.3.3.2 Pixel Value Differencing

    (PVD)

    32

    2.3.3.3 Histogram Based Method 34

    2.3.3.4 Spread Spectrum Method 34

    2.3.3.5 DCT Domain

    Steganography

    35

    2.3.4 Attacks on Steganography 36

    2.3.4.1 Human Visual System

    (HVS) attack

    38

    2.3.4.2 Chi-square (X2) Attack 40

    2.4 Summary 46

    3 METHODOLOGY 47

    3.1 Introduction 47

    3.2 Research Framework 48

    3.2.1 Data preparation 50

    3.2.2 Cover image and Fibonacci 51

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    3.2.3 Pixels Decomposition using Fibonacci 54

    3.3 Secret message preparation 56

    3.4 Random Stage (RND) in Proposed Method 57

    3.5 Knight Tour (KT) in Proposed method 62

    3.6 Pixel Selection in Proposed method 68

    3.7 Imperceptibility Evaluation 60

    3.8 Chi-square (χ2) Attack Implementation 69

    3.9 Embedding Process 70

    3.10 Extracting Process 73

    3.11 Summary 76

    4 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 77

    4.1 Introduction 77

    4.2 Implementation Results 78

    4.2.1 Imperceptibility 78

    4.2.1.1 PSNR Results 79

    4.2.2 Visual Attack 83

    4.3 Summary 89

    5 CONCLUSION AND FUTURE WORK 90

    5.1 Thesis Summary 90

    5.2 Work Summary 90

    5.2.1 Pre-processing Stage 91

    5.2.2 Pixel Selection Stage 91

    5.2.3 Embedding and Evaluation 92

    5.3 Contributions of The Study 92

    5.4 Future Work 93

    REFERENCES 94

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    LIST OF TABLES

    TABLE NO. TITLE PAGE

    2.1 Summary of reviewed literatures (2012-2016) 44

    3.1 Table 3.1 Impact of each Fibonacci bitplane into

    whole image 51

    3.2 Impact of each Binary bitplane into the whole

    image 52

    3.3 The decimal and binary representation for lower

    case letters and whitespace 56

    4.1 PSNR of Lena 512x512 pixel cover image after

    embedding variable size payloads 80

    4.2 PSNR of Peppers 512x512 pixel cover image after

    embedding variable size payloads 80

    4.3 PSNR of Cameraman 512x512 pixel cover image

    after embedding variable size payloads 80

    4.4 PSNR of Baboon 512x512 pixel cover image after

    embedding variable size payloads 81

    4.5 PSNR of Lake 512x512 pixel cover image after

    embedding variable size payloads

    81

    4.6 PSNR of Pirate 512x512 pixel cover image

    embedding variable size payloads 81

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    LIST OF FIGURES

    FIGURE NO. TITLE PAGE

    1.1 Steganography domain 2

    1.2 Embedding methods for spatial domain 5

    1.3 The model of steganography and steganalysis 6

    2.1 Classification of steganography 15

    2.2 Classification of security system (Atawneh, S., et

    al., 2013) 16

    2.3 Image steganog