Jul 15, 2015
DAIRY FARMINGDairy Farming Report1MARY DIANE G ESPIRITU1
SCOPE OF PRESENTATIONObjectiveIndustry SituationerMajor Dairy BreedsProduction Cycle of a CowLand RequirementHousing RequirementEquipment for Small/Medium Scale FarmFinancial AnalysisDairy Farming Report22
OBJECTIVETo apprise the Board of Directors re Dairy IndustryDairy Farming Report33
INDUSTRY SITUATIONERAs of January 1, 2014, the total dairy animal population was 40,322 head. This was 3.21 percent higher than last years headcount.
Dairy cattle stocks grew by 2.55 percent. Dairy carabao and dairy goat population went up by 2.84 percent and 15.26 percent respectively.Dairy Farming Report4
INDUSTRY SITUATIONERDairy Farming Report5
INDUSTRY SITUATIONERDairy Farming Report6
North Luzon2,878 Farmers20 CoopsCentral Visayas970 Farmers35 CoopsEastern Visayas38 Farmers7 CoopsBicol824 Farmers9 CoopsNorthern Mindanao452 Farmers17 CoopsSouthern Mindanao749 Farmers22 CoopsSouth Luzon512 Farmers16 CoopsWestern Visayas4,228 Farmers29 CoopsSmall Holders Dairy OperationsThe Local Dairy Farmers10,651 farmers155 coops
INDUSTRY SITUATIONERDemand and production of dairy milk products (as of December 2013)
Net Supply of Milk Products = 1,916.63M li.Local Production = 19.46M li. higher by 35% of milk output 5 years agoNet imports of Milk Products = 1,897.17 li. Number of Producers = 31,232 farm familiesNumber of primary cooperatives and institutions = 408Dairy Farming Report77
MAJOR DAIRY BREEDS IN THE PHILIPPINESBrahman
Color varies from gray to white, brown, red, and black with occasional spots.
They are resistant to to insects due to their thick skin.
This breed is resistant to diseases and can withstand heat better.
Dairy Farming Report88
MAJOR DAIRY BREEDS IN THE PHILIPPINESOngole or Nellore
Usually colored white but its hump and neck are dark gray.
They are known for their toughness, rapid growth rate and natural tolerance to tropical heat and disease resistance.
Dairy Farming Report99
MAJOR DAIRY BREEDS IN THE PHILIPPINESZebu
This breed is used for its milk, meat and as draft animal.
Dairy Farming Report1010
MAJOR DAIRY BREEDS IN THE PHILIPPINESBatangas Cattle
Dairy Farming Report1111
PRODUCTION CYCLE OF A COWDairy Farming Report12BornHeifer calves retained for herdWeaned6-8 weeksBred15 monthsFirst Calf24 monthsCalving280 days after breedingDries offDry for 60 daysMilking10-14 monthsBreeding90-120 days post-calving12
PRODUCTION CYCLE OF A COWDairy Farming Report13BIRTH
Thecalfis usually removed from herdamafter only a few hours after birth. A newborn calf is fed colostrum milk for the first three days of life.
Calves are usually fed milk or milk replacer starting at 3 days of age. They are also fed calf starter, a grain, beginning at 7 to 10 days of age.
Prior to weaning at 6 to 8 weeks, calves are vaccinated, dehorned, have extrateatsremoved, and male calves may be castrated to be raised as steers.At weaning, calves are moved to group housing. The six month old heifer is usually fed silage, hay, and grain. These heifers may also graze in a pasture.
Calf- A young male or female bovine. Usually referred to as calves until reaching sexual maturity.Dam- Mother or female parent in a pedigree.Teat- The appendage on the udder through which milk from the udder flows.13
PRODUCTION CYCLE OF A COWDairy Farming Report14BREEDINGOn the 15th month, a calf is bred. Following breeding, heifers are maintained until moving to the dairy farm for calving
Heifers anddry cows are usually moved to a close-up dry area for close observation beginning at 3 weeks prior to calving. When calving appears imminent, cows are moved to individualmaternity pensor an open calving area.
Efforts are made to keep these areas clean. Even cows raised on pasture are sometimes moved to pens for calving to allow close observation in case the delivery must be assisted, to keep the calf out of cold drafts, and to allow careful attention to the calf immediately after birth.Dry Cow- A cow that is not lactating or secreting milk after it has completed a lactation period following calving.14
PRODUCTION CYCLE OF A COWDairy Farming Report15MILKING
Normally cows begin to produce milk only after calving, but some heifers may be milked early to reduce stress and udder edema. Each period of production orlactationlasts for 12 to 14 months or longer and spans the time period from calving to dry-off, which is when milking is terminated about 60 days before the next anticipated calving.
Cows are bred while they are producing milk, usually beginning at about 60 days after calving to maintain a yearly calving schedule.
Following the 2-month dry period, the cow calves again and lactation cycle begins anew.Edema- The presence of abnormally large amounts of fluid in the intercellular tissue spaces of the body, as in a swelling of mammary glands commonly accompanying the initiation of the birthing process in many farm animals.15
LAND REQUIREMENTDairy Farming Report16A one-hectare with improved grazing field (planted with forage grasses like napier and pakchong) can accommodate up to 4 animal units per year.
Milking Cow1 animal unitBull1.25 animal unitHeifer0.75 animal unitYearling0.50 animal unitCalf0.25 animal unitFor cut and carry, a one-hectare area planted with napier or pakchong can sustain 10-15 cattle per year.According to AAR re 2nd South Luzon Dairy Fair attended by Ms Fae Rodriguez16
LAND REQUIREMENTDairy Farming Report17For a 25-dairy cattle farm, the following is the land requirement:
3ha of land for cut and carry forage production8 ha of land for animal grazing130 sq meters housing for the animals and feed storage20 sq meters area for milking and milk roomAccording to PCAARRD Investment Brief No 10/2012 re Invest in Dairy Cattle Farming17
HOUSING REQUIREMENTDairy Farming Report18THE CUBICLES (RESTING AREA)
must be covered with a roof made of iron sheets, grass thatch or makuti
has a length of 210 cm (7ft) and a width of 120 cm (4 ft). Cubicles are separated from each other by two timbers.
should not be too small for the cow or too big to allow the cow to turn around inside the cubicle.
floors are raised and filled with plain soil such as murrum; A soft bedding provides comfort to a cow and prevents wounds on its skinhttp://www.ruaf.org/sites/default/files/Zero%20Grazing%20Housing_1.pdf18
HOUSING REQUIREMENTDairy Farming Report19
HOUSING REQUIREMENTDairy Farming Report20THE WALKING AREA
about 3 meters wide i.e. between the resting area
where the feed and water troughs are located. No roofing is required for this area except under very hot conditions.
Floor is made of concrete; for possible collection of urine and manure.
surface of the floor should be rough so that animals cannot slip on it
HOUSING REQUIREMENTDairy Farming Report21
Sample walking areahttp://www.ruaf.org/sites/default/files/Zero%20Grazing%20Housing_1.pdf21
HOUSING REQUIREMENTDairy Farming Report22THE FEED AND WATER TROUGHS
Feed troughs should run along the length of the walking area with a water trough in the middle
Total length of the feed trough should be such that each animal has 2.5-3 feet to itself
inside measurements of the feed trough should be 60 cm (2 ft) wide at the bottom and should be raised at least 15 cm (1/2 ft) above the ground level of the walking area
water trough should be placed such that both the young stock and the mature cows have access to it instead of constructing separate trough for each side
HOUSING REQUIREMENTDairy Farming Report23
Sample feed troughhttp://www.ruaf.org/sites/default/files/Zero%20Grazing%20Housing_1.pdf23
HOUSING REQUIREMENTDairy Farming Report24THE MILKING PLACE
should be constructed next to the cubicles
should also be of same dimensions as cubicles i.e. 120 cm (4 ft) by 210 cm (7 ft)
The floor should be flat and made of firm concrete and slope towards the walking area. The direction of slope of the floor would ensure that dirt collected from the floor can flow through the walking area onto the manure pit.
feed trough should also be placed at the head of milking place for cow feeding during milking
HOUSING REQUIREMENTDairy Farming Report25
Milk area with a feed trough and neck yokehttp://www.ruaf.org/sites/default/files/Zero%20Grazing%20Housing_1.pdf25
HOUSING REQUIREMENTDairy Farming Report26THE CALFPEN (optional)
recommended when free suckling is not permitted like in the case of zero-grazing system
Situated opposite the milking place or on the side of a cubicle or milking place; can also be movable or fixed
Floor surface of 4x5ft and should be slatted and raised by to 1 foot above the concrete floor to make cleaning easier
HOUSING REQUIREMENTDairy Farming Report27Sample calf pen
HOUSING REQUIREMENTDairy Farming Report28THE MANURE STORAGE
Manure can be stored in a small pit dug out of the soil. The pit mayor may not be cemented.
Manure can also be stored as compost made from dung, urine and plant materials. In this case the compost is heaped next to the unit. Compost may be covered with soil or plastic.http://www.ruaf.org/sites/default/files/Zero%20Grazing%20Housing_1.pdf28
HOUSING REQUIREMENTDairy Farming Report29Plan View zero grazing unit with 5 cubicles
EQUIPMENT FOR SMALL/MEDIUM SCALEMilking Equipment
Milking machine with Single Cluster
Milking machine with Two Clusters and Two CansDairy Farming Report3030
EQUIPMENT FOR SMALL/MEDIUM SCALETractor
Dairy Farming Report31Semen Container
EQUIPMENT FOR SMALL/MEDIUM SCALEGreen Fodder Chaff Cutter with Motor
Feed Grinder with Motor (Optional)
Dairy Farming Report3232
EQUIPMENT FOR SMALL/MEDIUM SCALEMist Cooling System
Dairy Farming Report3333
EQUIPMENT FOR SMALL/MEDIUM SCALEMilk Cooling TankMilk Cans
Dairy Farming Report34
EQUIPMENT FOR SMALL/MEDIUM SCALEGeneratorBorewell with MotorWeighing ScaleTrollyRopes, chains, tagging equipment, water pipesDairy Farming Report3535
FINANCIAL ANALYSISDairy Farming Report36Capital costs 4,123,000.00 Pasture establishment 220,000.00 Farm and Infrastructure Facilities 165,000.00 Purchase and installation of farm equipment 243,000.00 Purchase of dairy animals 1,295,000.00 Land 2,200,000.00 Initial working capital 934,973.00 Total capital investment 5,057,973.00 Average annual net income 644,010.29 Internal rate of return22%Net present value at 15% discount rate 923,617.15 Payback Period5.9 yearsSummary of Financial Analysis for a 25-dairy cattle moduleAccording to PCAARRD Investment Brief No 10/2012 re Invest in Dairy Cattle Farming36
REFERENCESDairy Farming Report37http://www.bas.gov.ph/?ids=dairysituationhttp://www.dairyfarmguide.com/machinery-and-equipment-required-0112.htmlhttp://www.epa.gov/oecaagct/ag101/dairyphases.htmlhttp://www.freefarm.orghttp://www.nda.da.gov.phhttp://www.ruaf.org/sites/default/files/Zero%20Grazing%20Housing_1.pdfhttp://www.fao.org/docrep/s1250e/S1250E12.htm#Milking Parlourhttp://bioengr.ag.utk.edu/extension/extpubs/planlist97.htm#Dairy PlansPCCAARD Investment Brief No 10/2012 re Invest in Dairy Cattle Farming
According to PCAARRD Investment Brief No 10/2012 re Invest in Dairy Cattle Farming37
THANK YOUDairy Farming Report3838