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D5 Stimulants

Feb 23, 2016

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D5 Stimulants. Physiological effects Amphetamine and adrenaline ( epinephrine ) Short- and longterm effects of nicotine Effects of caffeine. Physiological effects. Stimulants are chemical substances that enhance the activity of the brain and the central nervous system - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

D5 Stimulants

D5 StimulantsPhysiological effectsAmphetamine and adrenaline (epinephrine)Short- and longterm effects of nicotineEffects of caffeine

Physiological effectsStimulants are chemical substances that enhance the activity of the brain and the central nervous system They cause increased alertness and wakefulness. In many cases they also act to decrease appetite.

Sympathomimetic drugsChemical substances that mimic the effects of the hormone adrenalin (epinephrine)Generally they cause constriction of the arteries and increase metabolismStructurally similar to phenylethylamine

adrenalineamphetaminephenylethylamine

Amphetamine derivativesSpeedEcstacyAmphetamineSynthesised from ephedrineInitially used to treat narcolepsyIssued to airmen in World War II- Wakey-Wakey-pillsAnti-depressants and slimming pillsRegular use can lead to tolerance and dependanceShort-term effects- increase in heart rate and rate of breathing, dilatation of pupilsLong-term effects- weight loss, constipation and emotional instability

Ephedra plant6 NicotineNicotine is an alkaloid found in the nightshade family of plants (Solanaceae) It constitutes approximately 0.63.0% of dry weight of tobacco

AlkaloidsNitrogen-containing compounds found in plants with heterocyclic rings and a tertiary amine group

Cocain

Nicotine

Caffeine

Morphine

Ergometrin, cf LSD

8 Nicotine - Short TermSympathomimeticIncreases concentration and relieves tensionIncreases heart rate and blood pressureReduction in urine output

Nicotine Long TermHighly addictiveIncreased risk of heart disease and coronary thrombosisIncreased stomach acid and risk of peptic ulcersChronic lung diseaseIncreased risk of cancer (lung, throat, mouth)9

10 Cessation of smoking difficultCravings Nausea, weight gain, insomnia, irritability, and depressionNicotine - Addiction and Withdrawal

Caffeine CharacteristicsWidely used stimulant found in coffee, chocolate and teaAdded to some pain killers to speed up their effects, e.g. aspirinDiuretic (frequent urination)Increases alertness, concentration and restlessnessCan cause anxiety, irritability and sleeplessness

11

12 Found in chocolateEffects similar to caffeineAlthough theobromine does not cause harmful effects with humans, it is highly toxic to some domestic animals, including dogs and horses

Theobromine

TheobromineCaffeine

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