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+ Cyclone Nargis & Humanitarian Intervention Jenny & Steve
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Cyclone Nargis & Humanitarian Intervention

Feb 22, 2016

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Cyclone Nargis & Humanitarian Intervention. Jenny & Steve. Storyline. Introductory video Cyclone Nargis & humanitarian intervention R2P+ ?? NGO: an alternative to R2P. Aung San Suu Kyi @Oxford. http ://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oGqlsS6Zseg&feature= related. Source: BBC. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation
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Cyclone Nargis: A Reason or An Alibi for Humanitarian Intervention?

Cyclone Nargis & Humanitarian Intervention

Jenny & Steve

+StorylineIntroductory videoCyclone Nargis & humanitarian interventionR2P+ ??NGO: an alternative to R2P

+Aung San Suu Kyi @Oxfordhttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oGqlsS6Zseg&feature=related

Source: BBC

+From Yangoon to Naypyidaw: Problems along the storyMyanmar has been with violation of human rights, ethnic conflicts since its formation in 1948As of 2011, about 800,000 Muslim refugees coming from Myanmar, most of them reside in borders with Thailand and in South-east Myanmar (http://www.unhcr.org/pages/49e4877d6.html)Under President Thein Sein, Myanmar has improved its freedom (overall) by at least 4 points (http://www.freedomhouse.org/sites/default/files/inline_images/FIW%202012%20Booklet--Final.pdf)The release of Aung San Suu KyiNLD managed to secure seats at the parliament

+Cyclone Nargis-1According to Haacke:Myanmars junta, no capacity to respond to the humanitarian disasterGovt blocking international relief, rejecting the use of foreign military assets to deliver aids Myanmar is the first country within SE Asia that has become a target for explicit discussion about applying R2P principle.R2P:GenocideWar crimesEthnic cleansingCrimes against humanity

+Cyclone Nargis-2UN Charter Art 39Dynamics of the post-cyclone situation and R2P?Invocation of the R2P principle and the response to Nargis?International reaction towards Nargis and armed conflict? Implications and conclusions follow from the Myanmar case in relation to R2P more generally?

+Cyclone Nargis-3Myanmars malign neglectPro-R2PAnti-R2PBernard CouhnerKevin RuddKhalizad (former US ambassador to the UN)ASEAN member statesGovernment of USAFrench Foreign Ministry: Not in the categoryGordon Brown: even without help, UK will interfereGareth Evans: true essence of R2P and the suspection from the junta+Cyclone Nargis Diplomatic solutions 1Visas to international staff working for the UN and humanitarian agencies and granting of access to more remote parts of the deltaAgreement to receive an emergency assessment team from the ASEANThe hosting of EU Commissioner for Development and Humanitarian AidWFP using ten helicopters to ferry supplies from warehouse facilities in Yangon directly to remote locations the deltaASEAN Disaster Management and Emergency Response mechanism not fully ratified as of 2005, so help has been on bilateral basisASEAN + ERAT + Govt of Myanmar relief efforts

+Cyclone Nargis Diplomatic solution 2Singapore Foreign Minister, George Yeo:Many western countries feel that much more should be done and perhaps it should be forced to them, but I dont see how this can be done, because if you try to do that, you make the situation worse and will only increase the suffering of the people in MyanmarASEAN foreign ministerial meeting: open a way7th ASEAN Security Summit:The responsibility of disaster-hit countries to quickly and effectively bring humanitarian reliefCountries concerned should provide entry for humanitarian reliefConsent and supervision from the affected countries

+Cyclone Nargis and Ongoing ProblemsArmed conflictOutflow of refugees, ethnic group vs govtEastern Myanmar: local govt vs Karen National Union refugees in northwest ThailandMyanmar: highest IDP rate in SE AsiaIn 2006, there was a shared idea of Myanmar potentially being a stumbling block to the international peace1100 political prisoners (including Aung San Suu Kyi), outflow of refugees (problems with Thailand), drugs, HIV-AIDS and diseases.Objection from Russia, China, Congo and QatarChina and Russia argue that Myanmars problem is far from disturbance to the international peace and stability

+Cyclone Nargis and Ongoing ProblemsObstacles of applying RtoP to MyanmarThere is no genocide, war crimes, ethnic cleansing and crimes against humanity which disturb international peace and/or stabilityThere is no clear picture on problems related to refugees in North-west Thailand and Eastern Myanmar.There is no significant number of victims to be classified as ethnic cleansingLack of access to eastern MyanmarChina and the UNSCTies between Beijing and NaypidawRussia has always been against the idea of interventionIndonesia has been abstain since Jan 2007 draft resolution on Myanmar ASEAN does not really agree on intervention

+R2P-Plus?Limited applicability of current global demand (particularly in addressing natural catastrophe) + suspicion that it could be a tool of Western neo-imperialists ---- R2P-PlusFocuses on preventive aspect of R2P + Removes the capacity for aggression or armed interference (Omission of reactive element)Responsive pillar (R2P) > Preventive pillar (R2P-Plus)benign preventive pillar

+Addressing the problem of Natural catastrophe R2P-plusR2PR2P-PlusStrictly focuses on mass atrocity crimesConcentrate on natural catastrophes + conflict situations arguable of lighter scale, covers situations of human sufferingPossible military interventionNon-coercive , Non- aggressiveResponsive pillarPreventive pillar

+ASEAN Crisis managementRelative success of ASEAN in crisis managementASEANs involvement in the 1979 Vietnam-Cambodian WarIndonesias request for a peacekeeping force led by ASEAN in the East Timor conflict in 1999Recent inroads made by ASEAN and the Chinese govt in persuading the Myanmar junta to allow humanitarian organizations greater access to the disaster-stricken areas following Cyclone Nargis+R2P-Plus for ASEAN: Prospects and ChallengesR2P-Plus fits strongly with strategic interests of ASEAN states and their traditional ASEAN way of interaction which revolves around diplomacy and minimal interference in each others domestic affairsNon-coercive methods -> response to humanitarian problems + preserve core national interests of member statesR2P-Plus within ASEAN Security community ( to foster regional integration)5 strategic priorities for SCPolitical development Norms-settingConfict prevention Conflict resolutionpost-conflict peace building+ essential conditions of conflict prevention 1. Early warning Capability ASEAN ->utilize the ASEAN Peoples Assembly (APA) networkTo establish a regional network of NGOs, think-tanks, academics -> prevent a crisis from escalatingStrategic partners : China, South Korea, Australia, India -> help to develop effective domestic early warning capability through technical assistance

+2. Preventive ToolboxCould be composed of representative form gov. , academia, civil society and expertiseMonitoring role (Investigation of specific human rights situations that could potentially trigger crisis)ASEAN envoys could be dispatched to mediate and monitor under ASEAN TroikaGoal : to resolve conflicts through regional cooperation if possible Natural catastrophe Disaster response mechanism ( ASEAN Emergency Rapid Assessment (ERAT), ASEAN Humanitarian Task Force, Advisory group, UN, the Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement, the World Bank, the Asian Development Bank, Non-govt. organizations

+3. Generating Political WillASEAN and interested parties to convince states and affected state of the need to actStrong leadership Need to impress upon ASEAN states that security of ones neighbors impact its own3 most recent crisis in ASEAN1. The Saffron Revolution 2. Cyclone Nargis in Myanmar 3. Thai-Cambodian border dispute : how the national interests of individual states are intertwined with the region and being shaped by external forces- regional neighbors will naturally intervene in the affected states affairs but the question is how, when and to what ultimate end those regional interventions will occur +Characteristics of ASEAN and ASEAN CharterASEAN charter (2007) : preserve traditional and conservative norms and consensusHLTF (High Level Task Force)Composed only of 10 people from ASEAN member statesOnly 9-10 months to draft ASEAN CharterNGOS -> didnt have access to the draft before it was presented to and signed by the leaders during the 13th summit in SingaporePublic : no opportunity to debate the document+CriticismsFails to put people at the center, much less empowered themLacks role of citizens and civil society organization in regional community buildingAdopt ASEAN WAY : rule-based organization and remain just thats

+Consensual Decision MakingArticle 20:Decision-making in ASEAN shall be based on consultation and consensus (provide each member state with veto power)Consensus is needed in order to make non-consensus decision and for these to be validNo sanctions (not even have provisions for suspension of members)+ASEANs Traditional consensus approach1. Thai Prime Minister Thanksin Shinawatras treat to walk out of ASEAN Summit in 2005: If the violence in Southern Thailand was raised2. Prime Minister of Myanmars opposition to the planned briefing, on the situation after the military juntas crackdown against protesting Buddihist monksTraditional norms of state sovereignty and non-interference- Promotion of R2P difficult+Regional Human Rights Body

Myanmar and Vietnam opposed to the creation of a human rights body: Premium on State sovereignty and non-interferenceCompromise : all members agreed to include a second paragraph under Article 14operate in accordance the terms of reference to be determined at a later stage by the foreign ministersHigh Level Panel (HLP) created in July 2008

+What kind of regional human rights body should be createdMember states with HR CommissionMember states without HR commissionIndonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, ThailandSingapore, Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar, VietnamMonitoring and enforcement capacityOnly an advisory function + focus on promotion rather than protection of human rights

+NGO: an alternative to R2P?Review on the situation in MyanmarHuman rights violation no freedom of expressionOngoing conflicts, stateless people & refugeesPoor public health facilityGovernance, democracy and civil society problemsEconomics and livelihoodsEducation only 1.3% of GDP for this sector+Why supporting NGOs?International actor(s)Interests in MyanmarPolicies PursuedSPDC Relationship w/ Actor(s)ASEAN and its member statesRegionalization; reputation; counter Chinas influence, drugs, etcConstructive engagement, historical non-interference shifting to quiet urgingProvides legitimacy; Helps SPDC in its desire to avoid undue influence of ChinaUNIts mandateHumanitarian aid; diplomatic engagementDepends on specific UN representativesJapanCounter Chinas influenceLarge amount of economic assistanceHistorically positive relationshipChinaCheap energy, geopolitically strategicPolitical, economic, and military supportSPDCs lifeline, intervention and UNSCIndiaCounter Chinas influence in region; cheap energy, c disease/drugsEconomic and military suppport SPDC 2nd lifeline, helps SPDC in its desire to avoid undue influence of ChinaUSDemocracy and freedom promotionIsolation, sanctions, withdrawal of aidStrong suspicion towards each otherEUDemocracySanctions and humanitarian aidVaries depends on countryMultilateral Institutions (World Bank, ADB, IMF)

Its mandateLarge amounts of assistanceNon-existent relationship+NGOs in Myanmar Coordination in the fieldThe importance of strong field-based governance structures with mechanisms to hold NGO LO staff to account is underestimated. Where he NGO LO has a responsibility to local NGOS, governance structures must include themRecognising the perceived and actual influence of location, source of fudning, and language on effectiveness of NGO coordinationNGO coordination must regularly consult with and anticipate the rapidly changing demands of field-based stakeholdersWhile a good coordination is necessary an NGO coordinator should have experience working with different stakeholders+NGOs in Myanmar Coordination in the fieldWithout a commitment to the Principles of Partnership and a means to evaluate whether or not they are being met, lip service to endeavouring to build on local capacity remains just thatFacilitating LNGO participation in the mainstream coordination is not necessarily the only or the most effective way to support local response and/or improve coordination and collaborationA mutual recognition of the role and relationship between NGO coordination mechanism, HAP and Sphere can result in the benefits of networking, peer-learning and peer-evaluation, and sound technical advice+What can we do with Myanmar and NGOs?Increase funding levelsImproving local capacityOpening up the humanitarian spaceImproving reliable dataChanging western donor policiesDonor harmonization+Myanmar, UN and ASEANThe three actors Humanitarian aid should take precedence over political reformASEAN and UN should be at the forefront of humanitarian actions in MyanmarEfforts to extend the TCGs operations to other crises in Myanmar should be, and remain, completely apolitical

+IF!! Intervetion does happen?Supreme humanitarian emergency Last resortProportionalityPositive humanitarian outcomeHumanitarian motivesHumanitarian justificationLegalitySelectivity

+Main referencesCyclones and Humanitarian Crises: Pushing the Limits of R2P in SE. Asia by Caballero ChangThe ASEAN Charter and the Promotion of R2P in SE. Asia: Challenges and Constraints by Noel M. MoradaMyanmar, the Responsibility to Protect, and the Need for Practical Assistance by Jurgen HaackeWorking Through Ambiguity: International NGOs in Myanmar by Soubhik Ronnie Saha

+Additional referencesInformation on Tripartite Core Group: ASEAN-Myanmar-UNhttp://www.aseansec.org/publications/AR09.pdfhttp://www.aseansec.org/CN-PR-22TCG-PR.pdfhttp://unic.un.org/imucms/userfiles/yangon/file/19th_TCG_Press_Release.pdfInformation on Cyclone Nargis Chronologyhttp://www.siiaonline.org/?q=research/myanmar-cyclone-nargis-timelineBreakdown of international actors interestshttp://www.etd.ceu.hu/2008/brown_elizabeth.pdfThe Case Study 2008-2010: NGOs in Myanmarhttp://www.icva.ch/doc00004598.pdf

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