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CTEC1465 A+ Content 7 Notebooks Complete this unit, and you'll know how to: A Identify and replace notebook components. B Identify the types of and components in notebook displays. C Identify and use various notebook features. 7.1 Topic A: Notebook hardware components Objective 3.1 Install and configure laptop hardware and components. • Expansion options
o Express card/34 o Express card/54 o PCMCIA o Flash o SODIMM
• Hardware/device replacement o Keyboard o Mini-PCIe o Plastics o Hard Drive (2.5" vs. 3.5") o Screen o Speaker o Memory o DC jack o System board o Optical drive o Battery o CPU o Wireless card o Touchpad
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7.1.1 Notebook computer components Notebook computers are small computers with all the necessary input and output components contained in a portable unit. They typically weigh less than five pounds, although some of the more powerful notebooks weigh closer to eight pounds. Notebooks use standard client operating systems, such as Microsoft Windows, Mac OS, or Linux. They contain all of the components a desktop computer needs to be a functional computing device, although most components are modified to some extent from their desktop versions.
Exhibit 7-1 shows a notebook computer. A typical notebook computer contains the following components: • CPU • Hard drive • Memory • CD or DVD drive • Keyboard • Peripheral ports • Pointing device • Network adapter • Monitor • Modem • One or more slots for expansion cards (However, the cards aren't the same as those used
with desktop computers.) Although notebook computers contain the same components as their desktop counterparts, due to their smaller size and decreased capacity to dissipate the heat generated by more powerful internal components, you'll find that notebooks typically aren't as powerful or fast as desktop models.
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Notebook computers aren't nearly as easy to upgrade as their desktop counterparts, either. There's little compatibility between notebook models from the same manufacturer, and even less between notebooks from different companies. There aren't extra slots and bays awaiting the latest additions. Typically, notebooks are more expensive to begin with because the components are specifically made for each model or line. When pricing a notebook computer that contains components with comparable performance as a desktop computer, you'll pay more for the notebook computer. 7.1.2 Netbooks There's a class of notebook computers called subcompact notebooks or netbooks. These notebooks are much smaller than their regular counterparts, but also have an integrated monitor. Netbooks can be as small as 5" across and weigh as little as two pounds. Netbooks are designed for wireless Internet use -- web browsing, e-mail, and cloud computing (accessing remote-based applications). Therefore, they don't have the processing power or storage capacity of a regular notebook computer running local applications. A big advantage, however, is that netbooks are very easy to travel with because of their small size. Netbooks have been available with these operating systems: Linux (Ubuntu, EasyPeasy, Joli OS, MeeGo, Android, Chrome OS), Windows (CE, XP, Vista, 7, 8), and Mac OS X. 7.1.3 Power sources Notebook computers contain a battery that provides anywhere from 30 minutes to 8 hours of power. Notebook batteries come in a variety of sizes and shapes. They're designed to fit in around other notebook components, so they might be oddly shaped. Usually, they're rectangular or square with a connector on one edge.
Exhibit 7-3: A notebook battery There are three basic types of batteries: nickel cadmium (NiCad), nickel metal-hydride (NiMH), and lithium ion (Li-Ion). Most notebooks have Li-Ion batteries. Older systems might still use Ni-Cad or NiMH batteries.
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• NiCad batteries often have a problem called memory effect. A NiCad battery remembers how full it was during the last charge and doesn't charge past that point.
• Nickel metal-hydride batteries have two to three times the capacity of a similar size NiCad battery. They also suffer from memory effect, but not as great as NiCad batteries. However, NiMH batteries have a higher self-discharge rate than both NiCad and Li-Ion batteries. NiMH batteries use hydrogen instead of cadmium lead, making them a more environmentally friendly choice.
• Li-Ion batteries are lightweight and have a long battery life. The liquid electrolyte is contained within a steel structure to prevent leakage. Another alternative is lithium polymer, which uses a jellied substance rather than a liquid for the electrolyte material.
• Zinc Air batteries are a new technology that uses a carbon membrane to absorb oxygen. They also contain a zinc plate and use potassium hydroxide for the electrolyte. However, this type of battery is not rechargeable and needs to be used quickly before the chemicals dry out.
• Fuel cells are predicted to be a popular battery choice in the future. These are still in development, but they show great potential, not only for notebook computers, but also for cars and other devices all around us.
Replacing notebook batteries is usually a straightforward procedure. A battery is typically located on the bottom of the notebook, and has a release switch to remove it. Then, you simply slide the new battery into place. Either it will automatically click to indicate that it's fully installed, or you will slide the release switch again to lock it. 7.1.4 Power adapters Notebook computers also come with an external power cord and transformer (often referred to as an "AC adapter" or "fixed-input power supply"), which you can use to power the notebook when you aren't mobile. The power cord has a transformer between the outlet and the computer. It's a square or rectangular box, so it's often referred to as the power brick. Exhibit 7-4 shows a notebook power cord. The power cord's size and shape vary from notebook to notebook but are similar to the one shown. If you need to replace either the power cord or the battery, make sure you purchase one specifically designed for your notebook computer.
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Computer plug Transformer Outlet plug
You can purchase a 12-volt power adapter that connects to the auxiliary power socket in a vehicle or on an airplane. These adapters are available from the manufacturer or from a third party with adapters to fit your notebook model. The 12-volt power adapters also work in the cigarette-lighter socket of older automobiles. 7.1.5 Auto-switching Notebook computers have the ability to switch between the battery and the AC power supply automatically. When the AC power supply is connected to the notebook and an external power supply, the notebook computer runs on the power supplied by the external source. When you unplug the AC power supply from the notebook computer or from the external power source, the notebook computer automatically switches to battery power. The notebook continues to run on battery power until the battery is fully discharged or you reconnect the notebook to an external power supply. The operating system on the notebook monitors the power remaining in the battery and displays warnings as the power reaches low levels. This allows you either to save your work and shut down the computer or to connect the notebook to an external power supply. 7.1.6 Power states The power button is usually located on the interior surface near the keyboard. This location prevents the computer from accidentally turning on when you're transporting it in a case or under your arm. In addition, there might be a switch that puts the notebook in hibernation mode if you close the lid. Opening the lid is usually not enough to wake the computer up from this mode; you need to press the power button to bring the computer back to life. The power light's color and state indicate how power is being supplied and used.
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• A solid light, typically green or blue, indicates that the notebook is being powered from the outlet, and its battery is fully charged.
• A solid alternate-color light, such as orange or yellow, indicates that the notebook is being powered from the outlet, and its battery is being recharged.
• A blinking light indicates that the notebook is in power-saving sleep mode. You can press the
power button to wake it up. The color of light varies. On some models, it's the same green or blue that indicates that the notebook is powered from the outlet. On other models, the blinking light is orange, yellow, or another color.
Check the documentation for your notebook to determine which colors and steadiness modes it uses to indicate power use. 7.1.7 Processors Notebook computers often use special CPUs that are engineered specifically to use less power and generate less heat than typical desktop CPUs. Intel, AMD, and other manufacturers are continually improving and updating their processors. For the most up-to-date specifications, you should refer to the manufacturers' web sites. AMD notebook processors: http://www.amd.com/us/products/notebook/processors/Pages/notebook-processors.aspx Intel notebook processors: http://www.intel.com/products/laptop/processors/index.htm The website "NOTEBOOKCHECK" maintains a comparison of CPU benchmarks for mobile processors. You can find the searchable list at: http://www.notebookcheck.net/mobile-ProcessorsBenchmarklist.2436.0.html 7.1.8 Heat dissipation As processors work at faster speeds, they produce additional heat. Typically, desktop computers dissipate this heat with a heat sink. Most notebook computers also use a heat sink, but it's not as large as that of a desktop computer. Notebook computers employ a feature called thermal throttling, in which the processor senses that it's getting too hot and automatically reduces the clock speed to consume less power and produce less heat. Thermal throttling reduces the notebook's power consumption enough to prevent heat damage to the processor and other internal components.
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7.1.9 Power management Notebook computers also use power management features to help keep overheating in check and manage battery usage. The processor runs at a low speed until it detects that you have requested processor-intensive tasks. The processor speed increases to accomplish the tasks. If you do a lot of processor-intensive tasks, you might get better performance by manually setting the power management options. You can set them in the system BIOS or, in newer operating systems such as Windows Vista and Windows 7, from within the GUI. You can use the power management options to set your own custom balance among heat, performance, and battery life or to choose one of the operating system's preset power schemes. Most notebook computers now incorporate the Advanced Configuration and Power Interface (ACPI) to control the amount of power drawn from the battery when the notebook is not in use. ACPI is an open industry specification that was co-developed by Compaq, Intel, Microsoft, Phoenix, and Toshiba to establish standard interfaces for operating system configuration and power management on laptops, desktops, and servers. In order to fully use all ACPI features, the computer's hardware, system BIOS, and operating system must support ACPI. You're likely to encounter three power states on notebook computers -- Sleep, Hibernate, and Standby. Newer notebook computers that are designed specifically for mobile computing integrate wireless network adapters onto their motherboards to seamlessly connect to WiFi networks. Manufacturers use this integration to apply power management options to network connectivity. 7.1.10 Drives Notebook computers are equipped with a hard drive and a DVD or CD drive. It's unusual to find a modern notebook with a floppy drive. The DVD or CD drive might or might not be an RW drive. Hard drives in notebooks typically have a smaller capacity than hard drives in desktop computers. Common drive sizes for new notebook computers at the time of writing is 25O GB - 2 TB. The notebook hard drive has a small form factor: it's usually a 2.5" drive. The hard drive is designed to use less power than typical desktop drives. It's often slower than the desktop hard drive as well. 7.1.11 Keyboards The keyboard on a notebook computer is integrated into the unit, and is smaller than a standard desktop keyboard. The keys are placed close together, which can be a problem for people with large fingers, as this can make it more difficult to type.
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Notebooks today have USB ports to which you can connect an external keyboard. If you have a PS/2 keyboard, you can buy a PS/2 to USB adapter to connect the peripheral, assuming the notebook doesn't have a PS/2 port. 7.1.12 Monitors The monitor, like the keyboard, is an integrated component of a notebook computer. The monitor forms the hinged cover for the laptop. Most notebook monitors are very thin LCD devices. LCD technology is used in notebook computers because: • Less power is used. • Less heat is created. • Less space is used for an equivalent size viewable area compared to other technologies. • The user experiences less glare.
7.1.13 Pointing devices Notebook computers have integrated pointing devices built into the middle of the keyboard or below the keys. Some notebooks have a small pointer, much like a joystick, that's located between the center keys of the keyboard; you push this pointer up, down, left, and right to move the mouse. Separate buttons below the spacebar are used as the left and right mouse buttons. 18.104.22.168 Trackballs You might encounter some notebook computers with an integrated trackball. Integrated trackballs work like standard trackballs, except that you can't reposition them next to the computer. 22.214.171.124 Touchpads Other computers have a touch surface, also known as a glide pad or touchpad, below the spacebar. You can tap the pad for a mouse click, or use the buttons below or beside the pad as the left and right mouse buttons. Slide your finger in the direction you want the mouse pointer to move, and then tap the touchpad or the button next to it to make selections. Some notebook cases aren't very substantial, and resting your hands on the surface next to the touchpad can result in the sensors perceiving that you've chosen to move the mouse pointer. This can be bothersome, so advise users only to rest their hands lightly on the surface to avoid this problem.
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An integrated touchpad is shown in Exhibit 7-5. Glide surface Right button Left button
Exhibit 7-5: Touchpad integrated into a notebook computer 7.1.14 Ports Most notebook computers include one or more USB (and IEEE 1394/1394b ports on older models.) Some also include a VGA or DVI port to connect an external monitor, and even an HDMI port for connecting to an HD TV. An S-video port might also be included. Line-in, line-out, and mic ports might be included as well. Speakers are usually built into the notebook, with the speaker grilles located on the surface, but you can attach external speakers through the line-out port. Exhibit 7-6 shows built-in line-out and mic ports, along with volume control, on a notebook computer.
Volume control Line out Microphone port Exhibit 7-6. Built-in sound functions
7.1.15 Wireless communications Wireless connections are a popular means of linking devices, such as PCs, handheld computers, music players, and more. Wireless connections generallyuse one of the following: • Radio waves: WiFi or Bluetooth • Infrared light
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7.1.16 Network connections Most notebooks now include both a LAN interface and a wireless one. The LAN interface is typically an RJ-45 port for an Ethernet network. Many notebook computers also include a modem port. Wireless technology for network connectivity is becoming increasingly popular for LANs, especially in buildings where it might be difficult to install new wiring. Most notebook computers include a toggle switch to turn the wireless antenna on and off. Many manufacturers also use an LED somewhere on the case around the keyboard to indicate that wireless is turned on. One of the reasons you might turn off the wireless antenna is to save power. Also, if you're in a wireless hotspot but aren't using the network connection, when you turn off the wireless, it removes your computer from the public network ... thus preventing hackers from possibly accessing it remotely. 7.1.17 Notebook expansion options You can expand the functionality of notebooks in several ways. In addition to increasing the amount of memory or hard drive storage, you can use expansion cards to add devices not already part of the computer, such as drives or wireless network cards. 126.96.36.199 Expansion cards The expansion cards used in notebook computers are commonly called PC Cards(although PC Card technology has been superseded by ExpressCard, described below). PC Cards are roughly the size of a credit card, with varying thicknesses based on the type of card. There are three types of PC Cards. They all have a 68-pin female connector that plugs into a connector in the PC Card slot on the side of the computer. The Personal Computer Memory Card International Association (PCMCIA) developed the standards for PC Card adapters. However, the PCMCIA Association dissolved in 2009. The standards are now managed by the USB Implementer's Forum, as described on its web site http://www.usb.org. 188.8.131.52 PC card types The three types of PC card adapters are: • Type I - 3.3 mm thick • Type II - 5 mm thick • Type III - 10.5 mm thick
Most often, you'll encounter Type II PC Card adapters. These are typically used for network adapters and modems, for adding ports such as FireWire and SCSI, and sometimes for memory. Some of the cards use a dongle to attach to a network cable or to other cables. Other cards use a pop-out port for the connector to plug into. A Type II PC Card is shown in Exhibit 7-8.
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Exhibit 7-8: A Type II PC Card Type I cards are typically used for memory, but aren't very common because most notebook computers use SODIMMs instead. Type III cards are typically used for additional storage, such as for small hard drives. These aren't very common, either. There is also a Type IV PC card, which was introduced by Toshiba. However, this type isn't part of the PCMCIA standards. These cards are 16 mm thick. There are three types of bus connections that PC Cards might use. They're described in the following table. Bus type Description CardBus Provides 32-bit bus mastering, which allows direct communication between the
card and other cards, without requiring access to the computer CPU. Automatically uses Card and Socket Services to allocate resources required by the add-on.
Zoomed Video (ZV)
Communicates directly between the PC card and the video controller without accessing the system bus.
execute In Place (XIP)
Runs commands directly from code stored on the PC Card without using system RAM.
The conventional PCI bus is a parallel bus. Depending on the version, the PCI bus transfers either 32 or 64 bits of parallel data. 184.108.40.206 ExpressCard A newer version of the PCI bus, called ExpressCard, is the replacement technology for CardBus PC cards. ExpressCard uses a differential serial bus instead of a parallel bus, supporting PCI Express and USB 2.0 connectivity. Compared to conventional PCI buses, the ExpressCard has both a reduced cost and a higher bus speed. ExpressCard modules come in two standard form factors: the ExpressCard/34, which is 34mm x 75mm, and the ExpressCard/54, which is 54mm x 75mm.
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Both are the same thickness as the Type II PC card, but the standard ExpressCard length is shorter than that of a standard PC card. The /34 card will fit into a /54 slot, due to a diagonal guide in the rear of the /54 slot, making the larger slot an efficient and cost-saving option. You can use ExpressCard to add such devices to your notebook as gigabit Ethernet adapters, eSATA ports to connect external hard drives, and SmartCard readers. 7.1.18 Memory Memory modules for notebook computers are different from those found in desktop computers. Notebook memory chips have a smaller form factor than desktop memory chips in order to fit into the notebook memory sockets. Notebooks typically use low-profile SODIMM chips. The SODIMM, which stands for "small outline dual inline memory module" has become a standard for many notebook computers. The SODIMM is approximately half the size of a regular DIMM, measuring 6.76 cm x 3.015 cm. SODIMMs have 72, 100, 144, 200, or 204 pins. Other notebooks might use MicroDIMM memory, which uses CSP architecture, grid ball array, or other such technologies. MicroDIMM memory chips are smaller than SODIMM chips, measuring 4.25 cm x 2.5 cm or 5.4 cm x 3.0 cm, and are typically used in subnotebooks. MicroDIMM modules can have 144, 172 or 214 pins. The type of memory your particular notebook uses depends on the motherboard installed. Exhibit 7-9 shows a notebook memory chip.
Exhibit 7-9: A notebook SODIMM
Many notebook computers include memory card readers to read flash memory cards. Flash memory cards are used in consumer electronics, such as digital cameras, MP3 players, and cell phones. You remove the memory card from your electronic device, slide the card into the appropriate card reader port on the notebook, and then you can transfer information between the card and the notebook. 7.1.19 Replacing components in notebooks When an internal component of a notebook computer needs replacing, most often you'll need to purchase the replacement from the manufacturer because most notebooks contain custom devices. However, certain expansion cards and some other components, such as memory, are standardized so that you can purchase them from any manufacturer.
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Some third-party manufacturers make replacement components so that you have an alternative to the original equipment manufacturer. Sometimes you can use an expansion card to replace a function that no longer works on the built-in component. If you do this, you might need to disable the built-in component to prevent a conflict between the two components. When you need to replace an internal component, follow these general guidelines for the disassembly process to ensure proper reassembly: • Refer to the manufacturer's documentation to locate panels or slots through which you can
access internal components. • Document and label screw locations to ensure that the correct screws are reinserted in their
proper locations. • Organize and separate new parts and any parts you remove from inside the case. • Use hand tools appropriate for working with laptop computers.
7.1.20 Hot-swappable components Hot-swappable components are those components that you can add or remove without turning the computer off. Technologies that support hot-swapping include: • PCMCIA • ExpressCard • USB • IEEE 1394 (commonly referred to as the brand name FireWire) • Fibre Channel (used for enterprise storage) • Serial ATA (SATA)
Some computer components require a simple hot-swap. In a simple hot-swap, you shut down the component before removing it. In the Windows operating systems, you accomplish this by clicking the Safely Remove Hardware icon in the system tray and stopping the device. 7.1.21 Inserting and removing PC Cards/expansion cards You insert the PC Card straight into the slot, and it connects to the pins in the back of the slot. Before removing a PC Card, you should stop its services by using the Safely Remove Hardware icon in the system tray. Then, you press the Eject button on the case to pop the card out of the slot.
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7.1.22 Card and socket services The PC Card specification includes specifications for software support of the physical cards. This is a three-layer structure that provides plug-and-play functionality. The following table describes the software layers. Layer Description Metaformat, or Card Information Structure (CIS)
Composed of the Basic Compatibility, Data Recording, Data Organization, and System-Specific layers. The purpose of CIS is to provide a method of data organization and data-recording-format compatibility for a variety of PC Cards.
Card Services An API that enables the sharing of device drivers and other software by PC Cards and sockets. Card Services is designed to provide support for PC Card devices to share device drivers, configuration utilities, and applications. It's also designed to provide a single resource for functions shared by the software.
Socket Services Provides a common interface to the hardware that controls the socket in which PC Cards are connected. This layer provides the upper layers with information about the socket, including the number of sockets, the number of windows, and the power needed for the PC Card.
7.1.23 Installing a wireless card Should the built-in wireless component of your notebook fail, you can avoid having to replace the entire motherboard by installing a wireless expansion card. To install the card, you simply slide it into the appropriate slot as noted above. Be sure to install it with the correct side up so that you don't bend any of the pins. There's often an arrow or other indicator showing which way the card should be inserted. Install any device drivers or software if you're prompted to do so.In Windows 2000 Professional, Windows XP, Windows Vista, and Windows 7, after you've installed a removable device, such as a PC Card, an icon appears in the notification area. You can use the Safely Remove Hardware icon to open the Safely Remove Hardware dialog box, which lists the removable hardware devices that are installed. You can view the properties of a device or stop a device from this dialog box. Exhibit 7-10 shows the icon and dialog box.
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Exhibit 7-10: The Safely Remove Hardware icon and dialog box Before removing a device, you should always stop the service first. This ensures that the device isn't being accessed by any programs or services. If it's a storage device, stopping it ensures that it isn't in the middle of writing information. Data can become corrupted if you remove the storage device while it's being written to.
Exhibit 7-11: Safely Remove Hardware menu
After stopping the device, you can press the eject button on the computer to release the card from the slot. The button is usually located next to the slot. 7.1.24 Non-hot-swappable components A component that isn't hot-swappable requires that you shut down the computer before you add or remove the component. You might hear this process referred to as coldplug. In notebook computers, internal components, such as the hard disk and memory, are often coldplug devices. If you're adding or removing a coldplug component in a notebook computer, you should remove the battery in addition to unplugging the AC power. The battery continues to supply power to the notebook even when the notebook is off. Replacing components while the battery is still in the notebook might permanently damage the unit. Always remember to follow proper ESD guidelines. Notebook computers vary in how they are disassembled. The following sections provide the general steps for replacing each type of internal component. Before attempting to remove or replace any component, always refer to the manufacturer's documentation for your specific model.
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7.1.25 Mini PCI cards Another expansion card you might find in notebooks and other portable computer equipment is the mini PCI card. This type of card has the same functionality as a standard PCI card used in desktop computers, but in a smaller format. It's typically used for communications that are integrated into the notebook, including modems, wired and wireless network cards, and video cards. These cards are installed inside the notebook case, rather than being installed externally like PCI Cards.
Exhibits 7-12 and 7-13. Combination modem and network adapter provided by a mini PCI card (left) Bluetooth and Wi-Fi adapter provided by a mini PCIe card (right).
The Mini PCIe card, shown in Exhibit 7-13, is replacing the Mini PCI card found on many Mini-ITX system boards. It's smaller than the Mini PCI card by about half-with the Mini PCIe measuring 30 mm x 51 mm, and it has a 52-pin edge connector. The Mini PCIe technology is essentially the same as ExpressCard. The Mini PCIe slot on the system board must support both ExpressCard and USB 2.0, as the Mini PCIe card can use both technologies for connectivity. To replace the Mini PCIe card, follow these general steps:
1. Power off the notebook, disconnect the power cord and remove the battery. 2. On the bottom of the case, find the panel covering the location of the Mini PCIe, and remove
it. 3. Disconnect any cables attached. 4. Gently spread the retaining clips on either side of the card to release it. 5. Seat the replacement card gently but firmly, and secure with the retaining clips. 6. Replace the cover panel, and power on the notebook. 7. Verify that the installation was successful.
7.1.26 Memory The location of notebook memory modules varies greatly. In some notebooks, you install memory by unscrewing a cover from a compartment on the underside of the case. In others, you need to remove the keyboard from the case to access the memory area. Sometimes, there will be a memory slot in both places.
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Memory has become more standardized for notebook computers than it was in the past. Previously, each notebook used its own version of memory. Now, it's easier to find a notebook that uses a standard SODIMM or something similar. When you're determining the amount of memory to put in a notebook computer, you should be aware of a standard process called shared video memory. In this process, the graphics card uses a portion of the computer's RAM in addition to any on-board memory of its own. Most often this happens when the graphics card is set to one of the higher display modes. Shared video memory can leave you with less memory than you expected for your applications. For example, if you buy a notebook with 2 GB of memory and 512 MB of shared video memory, and you set your display to a high pixel depth with a 32-bit color palette or you use graphics-intensive applications, you might find that you have only 1.5 GB of available memory (2048-512 = 1536). To configure shared memory in the BIOS:
1. Enter the computer's BIOS setup utility. 2. Access the Integrated Peripherals menu. 3. Select the AGP aperture size option. 4. Specify the amount of RAM to be used for shared video memory. 5. Depending on your computer, you can specify from 8 MB up to 128 MB. 6. Save changes and exit the BIOS setup utility.
To install additional memory in your computer, refer to the notebook's documentation for instructions. As with all internal components, you shouldn't install memory until you shut down the computer, unplug the power cord, and remove the battery. You don't want to turn on the computer accidentally while you're installing or replacing the memory. 7.1.27 Drives The hard drive can be accessed from the bottom of the notebook computer. By unscrewing one or more screws, you can remove an access cover and then slide out the hard drive. Removing it might be necessary if the drive falls or if you want to replace it with a higher-capacity drive. Exhibit 7-14 shows a notebook hard drive.
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Exhibit 7-14: Removing the hard drive from a notebook computer Some notebook computers enable the user to exchange the CD or DVD drive with another drive. If the computer is equipped in this manner, you press a release lever or button to eject the drive, and then insert the other drive in its space. Otherwise, the general steps to replace an optical drive are:
1. Release the drive tray slightly, then turn off the notebook, disconnect the power cord, and remove the battery.
2. On the bottom of the notebook, locate the screw that locks the drive in place, and remove it. 3. Gently pull on the drive tray to slide the drive out of its socket. 4. Insert the new drive, seating it firmly but not forcefully. 5. Replace the locking screw. 6. Power on the computer and verify the installation.
7.1.28 Keyboard The general steps to replace a notebook keyboard are as follows:
1. Remove any screws holding the bottom cover in place. 2. Remove the cover. 3. Disconnect the connectors that connect the keyboard cables to the system board. With a ZIF
connector, first pull up on the connector, then remove the cable. 4. The keyboard might be held in place by plastic snaps or by screws. 5. If held in by screws, remove the screws. If held in by plastic snaps, gently pry up the edge of
the keyboard using a flat-head screwdriver. 6. Gently lift the keyboard out. 7. Gently place the new keyboard in the place of the old one. 8. Connect the keyboard cables to the system board. 9. Replace the bottom cover and reinsert any screws. 10. Replace the battery and, if desired, reconnect the notebook to an external power source.
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7.1.29 LCD panel and video inverter card LCD PANELS ARE FRAGILE AND CAN BE EASILY DAMAGED BY MISHANDLING. If the LCD display is dim, you probably need to replace the video inverter card. The video inverter card is the interface between the LCD panel and the system board. If the LCD is entirely black, connect an external display to the notebook. If the external display works, but the LCD does not, you need to replace the LCD panel assembly. If the external display doesn't work either, you probably need to replace the video adapter card. Replacing a video adapter card or video inverter card is a much less expensive repair than replacing the LCD panel. In fact, sometimes the cost of a new LCD panel can exceed the price of a new notebook. For some models, you replace the entire assembly, which includes the LCD front bezel, hinges, LCD panel, video inverter card, interface cables, and rear cover. In other cases, you replace only the LCD panel and video inverter card. The general steps to disassemble the LCD panel assembly are:
1. Disconnect the notebook from any external power source and remove the battery. 2. If necessary for your notebook, remove the keyboard. 3. If necessary for your notebook, remove screws in the back of the notebook to release the
hinge assembly. 4. Remove the hinge covers. These are typically plastic, so be careful not to snap them. 5. Lift the cover off the notebook. As you do so, disconnect any wires or cables that connect
the LCD panel to the system board. 6. Be sure to note how these are connected, so you can reconnect them later! 7. Remove the screws that hold the LCD panel in the notebook's top cover. 8. Remove the front bezel and rear cover from the LCD panel. 9. Remove the video inverter card. 10. Reverse the steps to reassemble and reattach the top with a new LCD panel, video inverter
card, or both. 11. Replace the battery and, if desired, reconnect the notebook to an external power source.
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7.1.30 Other components Other components you might need to replace on a notebook computer include: • CPU • Heat sink • Fan • System board • CMOS battery • Touchpad or other pointing device • Speakers • Camera • DC jack • Plastic components, such as internal brackets, wire harnesses, memory covers, and support
assemblies Refer to the notebook's documentation to determine which parts can be replaced and how to access them. In general, to access these components, you need to disassemble the bottom of the case. Cameras, and sometimes speakers, are found in the top cover of the notebook and are accessed by disassembling a portion of the top cover. 220.127.116.11 CPU, heat sink, fan The general steps to replace the CPU, heat sink, or system fan are:
1. If the CPU is replaceable, update the BIOS. Manufacturers often update their firmware to support newer processors.
2. Disconnect the notebook from any external power source and remove the battery. 3. Follow the manufacturer's directions to remove the hinges, bottom cover plate, and
keyboard. 4. Detach the LCD assembly from the bottom. 5. Remove the plate or shell covering the internal components. This is also referred to as the
motherboard cover. In some notebook computers, you might need to remove another component, such as the graphics card assembly, to gain access to the processor underneath.
6. Remove the heat sink. (Sometimes the fan and the heat sink are part of the same cooling assembly.)
7. Unplug and detach the fan. 8. Following the manufacturer's directions, remove the processor. 9. Some processors have a locking screw, some a locking bar. 10. Remove any thermal compound residue from the bottom of the heat sink and processor (if
not replacing the processor). 11. Apply a thin layer of thermal compound and insert the new processor. Follow the CPU
manufacturer's guidelines for the amount of thermal paste. 12. Reattach and plug in the original or a new system fan.
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13. Reattach the original or a new heat sink (if not part of the same cooling assembly as the fan.) 14. Reassemble the notebook reversing the steps you took to disassemble it to this point. 15. Replace the battery and, if desired, reconnect the notebook to an external power source.
18.104.22.168 System board In order to replace the system board, you must disconnect all components from it. The following are general steps to replacing a system board in a notebook:
1. Disconnect the notebook from any external power source and remove the battery. 2. Remove the hard drive, optical drive, and memory. 3. Follow the manufacturer's directions to remove the hinges, bottom cover plate, and
keyboard. 4. Detach the LCD display assembly from the bottom. 5. Remove the plate or shell covering the internal components. 6. Carefully remove the internal components attached to the system board. Components to
remove might include the heat sink, fan, wireless networking adapter, modem, touchpad or other pointing device, and processor.
7. Carefully remove the system board from the notebook. It might be held in place by plastic clips or screws.
8. Place the new system board into the computer, carefully lining up the cutouts for side ports, such as USB.
9. Replace the processor, remembering to remove any old thermal compound and to add new. 10. Replace the internal components that were attached to the system board. 11. Reassemble the notebook, reversing the steps you took to disassemble it to this point. 12. Replace the battery and, if desired, reconnect the notebook to an external power source. 13. Enter the BIOS settings. 14. Save settings and restart. 15. Check the manufacturer's web site for BIOS updates, and if so, update the BIOS.
22.214.171.124 CMOS battery The CMOS battery in notebook computers is typically located underneath the keyboard. The general steps to replace a notebook CMOS battery are as follows:
1. Disconnect the notebook from any external power source and remove the battery. 2. Follow the steps to remove the keyboard. 3. Remove the plate or shell covering the internal components. 4. Locate the CMOS battery on the system board. 5. Remove the battery. In some notebook computers, it is held in place with clips. In others,
the battery is encased in plastic, connected to wires and a connector, and then plugged into the motherboard. In the latter case, you would replace the entire battery assembly, notjust the battery itself.
6. Reassemble the notebook.
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7. Replace the battery and, if desired, reconnect the notebook to an external power source. 8. Turn on the computer and enter the CMOS utility. 9. Enter the BIOS settings. 10. Save settings and restart.
126.96.36.199 Touchpad Most notebook computers sold today use a touchpad. In general, the replacement steps to follow are:
1. Disconnect the notebook from any external power source and remove the battery. 2. Follow the steps to disassemble the bottom of the notebook where the system board is
located. 3. Disconnect the touchpad's cables. Make sure to label the cables, so you know where to
reattach cables for the right and left mouse buttons. 4. Carefully remove the old touchpad. 5. Insert a new touchpad in its place. 6. Reattach the cables. 7. Reassemble the notebook, reversing the steps you took to disassemble it to this point. 8. Replace the battery and, if desired, reconnect the notebook to an external power source.
188.8.131.52 Speakers What you must disassemble to replace the speakers depends on where they are mounted in your notebook computer. Most speakers are located on the inside bottom of the notebook, but some might be located in the frame around the LCD screen.
1. Disconnect the notebook from any external power source and remove the battery. 2. Follow the steps to disassemble either the top cover of the notebook, where the LCD screen
is located, or the bottom of the notebook, where the system board is located. 3. Locate the speakers (in newer laptops that play stereo sound, there is typically a right and a
left speaker) and gently lift them out, disconnecting the cables. 4. Connect the cables for the new speakers and place the speakers in their proper location. 5. Reassemble the notebook, reversing the steps you took to disassemble it to this point. 6. Replace the battery and, if desired, reconnect the notebook to an external power source.
184.108.40.206 Camera Cameras are typically mounted inside the display panel above the LCD screen. In order to replace the camera, you follow these general steps:
1. Disconnect the notebook from any external power source and remove the battery. 2. Remove the front bezel from the display panel. Refer to the manufacturer's documentation
for the exact steps to do this.
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3. Carefully remove the camera, disconnecting its cable. 4. Insert a new camera and connect its cable. 5. Replace the front bezel. 6. Replace the battery and, if desired, reconnect the notebook to an external power source.
220.127.116.11 DC jack and plastic components In general, replacing the DC jack, and plastic components such as hinges and brackets. This calls for expert-level knowledge as well as model-specific replacements. As always, you should refer to your notebook's documentation for information as to whether these are replaceable or not. 7.2 Topic B: Notebook displays Objective 3.2 Compare and contrast the components within the display of a laptop. • Types
o LCD o LED o OLED o Plasma
• Wi-Fi antenna connector/placement • Inverter and its function • Backlight
7.2.1 Notebook monitors The monitor is an integrated element of the notebook design, and resides within the hinged cover. Modern notebook monitors are active-matrix monitors that use thin film transistors (TFT) technology to provide the highest resolution available. The TFT layer of the active-matrix monitor stores the electrical state of each pixel as all of the pixels are updated. This technology provides an exceptionally clear display. 18.104.22.168 Native resolutions The native resolution is the number of individually addressable pixels in the screen matrix. The common conventional 4:3 resolutions found in notebook monitors include: • XGA - 1024x768 pixels; 12.1" to 15" viewable area • SXGA - 1280x1024 pixels; 14.1" viewable area • SXGA+ - 1400x1050 pixels; 12.1" to 15" viewable area • UXGA - 1600x1200 pixels; 15" viewable area
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Widescreen 16:10 resolutions found in newer notebook monitors include: • WXGA - 1280 x 800 pixels; 12.1 " to 17" widescreen viewable area • WXGA+ - 1440 x 900 pixels; 14.1" to 17" widescreen viewable area • WSXGA+ - 1680 x 1050 pixels; 15.4" to 20.1" widescreen viewable area • WUXGA - 1920x1200 pixels; 15.4" to 17" widescreen viewable area
Netbooks have smaller screens than notebook computers. Netbooks with a larger screen size of approximately 10 inches, tend to use the WS VGA widescreen resolution of 1024x6OO pixels. Those with the smaller 7" screen use a VGA resolution of 8OOx480 pixels. LCD monitors produce the clearest picture when all pixels are used. Although you can usually configure an LCD monitor for a lower resolution than the native resolution, the image will be somewhat blurry because not all pixels will be illuminated. On a few LCD monitors, you can set a higher resolution than the native resolution, but again, the image might not be as clear as the image at the native resolution. 22.214.171.124 Contrast ratio The contrast ratio of a monitor is the ratio between its brightest white and darkest black. A minimum ratio for comfortable viewing is in the range of 400:1 to 600:1. Higher-end, large notebook monitors can have contrast ratios of 80,000:1 to 100,000:1. 126.96.36.199 Display types Notebooks can utilize different types of display technologies. Currently, however, the most common notebook display type is the LCD (Liquid Crystal Display). Other types can include: • LED • OLED • Plasma
All of these types can also be used for desktop displays. 188.8.131.52 LCD technologies There are three types of LCD technologies used in notebooks: Transmissive - Illuminated by fluorescent backlighting; renders the greatest color depth, sharpest text, and highest resolutions of the three LCD technologies. However, it uses the most power from your notebook's battery, and the screen image can be overpowered by external bright lighting.
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Reflective - Uses a mirror to reflect ambient light and illuminate the display. This technology uses the least amount of power from your notebook's battery. Reflective technology screens are ideal for use in bright sunlight, but are dim when you view them indoors. Transflective - A hybrid between transmissive and reflective screen technologies. When you use them indoors, transflective screens use backlighting to render images. When you use them outdoors, transflective screens absorb the sun's rays to produce a brighter image. In this mode, they can save the battery power that would otherwise be used by the backlighting. This technology is more expensive and is typically reserved for specialty portable devices or laptops for specialty markets, such as law enforcement. Because liquid crystal materials don't emit their own light, they must rely on backlighting to produce brightness. The typical notebook uses CCFL backlighting, which is described a little later. 184.108.40.206.1 LED The light-emitting diode (LED) type of notebook display is really an LCD screen, but with LED backlighting. LED-backlit notebooks produce a brighter display, and allow for a thinner, lighter notebook design. In addition, they consume up 25% (or more) less power than CCFLs, and therefore, help extend battery life. Notebooks with LED-backlit screens are more expensive than those with conventional LCD screens, although the cost is dropping as the technology becomes more popular. 220.127.116.11 OLED OLED (Organic light-emitting diode) technology uses organic compounds that produce light in response to an electric current. OLED displays need no backlight to display images; this makes them thinner, lighter, and less power-hungry than LCDs. However, the current production process is still quite expensive, making this type of display uncommon for notebooks. OLED displays can be found in smaller mobile devices, and some TVs. 18.104.22.168 Plasma Plasma technology uses a plasma gas and electrically charged ionized particles to produce an image. Plasma displays are commonly found in larger (32" or more) TVs. This is due to the plasma's larger pixel pitch -- the distance between the center of each pixel on the screen. A larger pixel pitch will have a low resolution on smaller screens. Plasma displays are brighter and have a better contrast ratio than LCD displays, and they have a wider viewing angle. However, plasma displays consume much more power and are susceptible to burn-in, a permanent discoloration of the display by long-term exposure to a static image.
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While newer plasma display technologies help reduce burn-in, they don't eliminate it entirely, especially when you use a plasma display with a computer. 7.2.2 Components within the notebook display 22.214.171.124 Backlighting In LCD monitors, manufacturers use backlights to illuminate the LCD from the side or back and to increase visibility in low-light situations. Backlight sources can be a cold cathode fluorescent lamp (CCFL), an incandescent light bulb, one or more light emitting diodes (LEDs), or an electroluminescent panel (ELP). • CCFL backlighting is the most common type of backlighting in LCD screens. It uses a tiny
fluorescent tube (in some cases, more than one) mounted along the edge of the LCD and connected to an inverter, which provides power to the lamp. While inexpensive, this type of illumination takes up more space in the display component of the notebook, because it must contain both the lamps and a reflector. CCFL lighting spans the entire width of the screen, which means you have less precision control over the contrast ratio.
• Incandescent backlighting might be used in notebook computers for which high screen brightness is needed. However, incandescent bulbs have a limited lifespan. They also generate a large amount of heat, which requires the bulbs to be mounted a certain distance from the screen.
• LED backlighting is a newer technology and uses an LED strip rather than a fluorescent tube. Most LED based backlights do not need inverters. The LED advantage in terms of size and power consumption has begun to popularize its use in notebook screens, and as prices come down, it's expected that LED backlighting will overtake CCFLs.
• ELP backlighting is used in larger notebook displays. An inverter provides the ELP with the relatively high-voltage AC it needs to function.
126.96.36.199 Inverters CCFL and ELP backlighting use inverters to provide power to the lamp. Inverters are small circuit boards that take the DC power coming into the notebook and invert it to higher-voltage AC power. They are usually located within the display panel casing, near the LCD itself. If your notebook monitor appears dimmed, you may need to replace the inverter.
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188.8.131.52 Wi-Fi antenna With the popularity of Wi-Fi networking, it's a rare laptop that doesn't come with a wireless card installed. It's important to understand that, in notebooks equipped with internal Wi-Fi capability, the Wi-Fi antenna is located in the LCD panel casing. When the case is open, the antenna is vertical, which improves reception. The antenna wiring will connect to the wireless card. There's no indication in the display itself that this wiring exists -- you can't see it on the screen. Just be aware of its placement, should you need to replace the LCD screen, or the wiring itself. 7.3 Topic C: Laptop features Objective 3.3 Compare and contrast laptop features. • Special function keys • Dual displays • Screen brightness • Wireless (on/off) • Bluetooth (on/off) • Volume settings • Keyboard backlight • Docking station vs. port replicator • Physical laptop lock and cable lock • Keyboards
A notebook's smaller form factor means that space is at a premium. Consider the keyboard: because a notebook keyboard must be compact, it can't hold the same number of keys as a standard desktop keyboard. For example, you typically won't find a numeric keypad on a notebook keyboard. This doesn't mean, however, that you have to sacrifice functionality when using the notebook. The solution to fewer keys is to make the keys that are there more useful, often in combination. Enter the function key. 7.3.1 Function keys Function keys are command keys. For some functions, you need to press a combination of keys to execute the desired command, usually the "Fn" key and one or more others.
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A single function key may have more than one purpose. These are usually functions that, for a desktop computer, would have separate physical buttons on the monitor or the computer case. Functions include adjusting the volume, switching between the built-in monitor and an external monitor, changing the display's brightness, and using Num Lock. As shown in Exhibit 7-15, the alternate functions are usually indicated by a symbol on the key. Refer to your documentation for additional information on other alternate functions that might be included on your keyboard.
Function ("F") keys
Exhibit 7-15: Notebook keyboards combine functions on keys Function key commands vary depending on the notebook, the OS, and the particular application you're using. However, there are some that are standard for functions pertaining to the notebook's behavior itself. The following table shows function key combinations for a Dell Inspiron. Function Key combination Switch between dual displays Fn + F8 Enable/disable wireless Fn + F2 Increase volume Fn + Page Up Decrease volume Fn + Page Down Mutes/enables volume Fn + End Increase brightness Fn + up arrow key Decrease brightness Fn + down arrow key Enable/disable Bluetooth Fn + F2 Keyboard backlight Fn + right arrow key 7.3.2 Desktop features for notebooks Notebook computers are convenient for people whose jobs require them to travel often. However, if you're using a notebook full time, it can be a strain on your hands, arms, and eyes always to have to use the built-in peripherals. Also, you might enjoy being able to use a full-size keyboard, a separate mouse or other pointing device, and a larger screen. Notebook manufacturers offer a solution to enable you to enjoy these desktop peripherals. For one thing, there's usually at least a monitor port on the notebook so that you can connect it to a desktop monitor or a display projector. USB or PS/2 ports enable you to connect keyboards or pointing
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devices. However, if you use the ports on the notebook, then each time you want to become mobile again, you'll have to disconnect each of the peripherals. An easier solution is to use a port replicator or a docking station. 184.108.40.206 Port replicators Each notebook has a specific solution for leaving desktop peripherals connected to a device and then connecting the notebook to the device. Some of these devices are just ports to which you connect the peripherals and the notebook. These are known as port replicators because they simply replicate the ports. Exhibit 7-16 shows the front and rear views of a port replicator. The top picture shows the proprietary connection on the front that connects with the notebook. The bottom picture shows the ports on the back of the port replicator. The peripherals can stay connected to the port replicator, and you can undock the notebook from the connection when you want to use the notebook elsewhere.
Exhibit 7-16: A port replicator
220.127.116.11 Docking stations A more robust solution, known as a docking station, provides the same ports that a repticator does. In addition, it has slots for full-size desktop PCI cards and might have additional media/accessory bays, CD drives, and other expansion slots. It can also act as a platform stand for a desktop monitor. You slide the notebook into the docking station, or the notebook might be automatically pulled in and connected when you place it in the guides.
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7.3.3 Physical security for notebooks Manufacturers create notebooks that are as small, lightweight, and portable as possible -- after all, portability is the main utility of a notebook. That very portability, however, makes notebooks much more prone to theft. For this reason, physical security is imperative. 18.104.22.168 Locks Some laptops have a security locking slot is included somewhere on the outside of the case. This slot will typically have the symbol of a padlock next to it. You can use this to attach a cable lock to the notebook. These locks can use either a combination or a key. Typically, this cannot be removed without breaking the case. The steel cable itself is looped around a fixed, sturdy object, and then the locking mechanism at the end of the cable is inserted into the opening on the notebook. 7.4 Unit summary: Notebooks 7.4.1 Topic A In this topic, you learned about the various hardware components of a notebook computer. You learned about expansion options for notebooks, including expansion cards and memory. Finally, you learned to replace specific notebook components. 7.4.2 Topic B In this topic, you learned about the different types of notebook displays. You also learned about components that may reside in the monitor casing, such as inverters and wireless antennas. 7.4.3 Topic C In this topic, you learned about some of the features of notebooks. You learned about function keys, and about port replicators, docking stations, and physical security for notebooks.