Apr 04, 2018

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Cryptography and Network Security (IT62)

Noorul Islam College of Engineering

Kumaracoil

Class : S6 IT

Subject Name : Cryptography and Network Security

Subject Code : IT62

Prepared by : S.Maria Celestin Vigila

Assistant Professor/IT

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Cryptography and Network Security (IT62)

UNIT I

1. Specify the four categories of security threads?

Interruption Interception

Modification

Fabrication

2. Explain active and passive attack with example?

Passive attack:

Monitoring the message during transmission.Eg: Interception

Active attack:

It involves the modification of data stream or creation of false data stream.

E.g.: Fabrication, Modification, and Interruption

3. Define integrity and nonrepudiation?

Integrity:Service that ensures that only authorized person able to modify the message.

Nonrepudiation:

This service helps to prove that the person who denies the transaction istrue or false.

4. Differentiate symmetric and asymmetric encryption?

Symmetric Asymmetric

It is a form of cryptosystem in whichencryption and decryption performed using

the same key.

It is a form of cryptosystem in whichencryption and decryption

Performed using two keys.

Eg: DES, AES Eg: RSA, ECC

5. Define cryptanalysis?

It is a process of attempting to discover the key or plaintext or both.

6. Compare stream cipher with block cipher with example.

Stream cipher:

Processes the input stream continuously and producing one element at a time.Example: caeser cipher.

Block cipher:

Processes the input one block of elements at a time producing an output block foreach input block.

Example: DES.

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7. Define security mechanism

It is process that is designed to detect prevent, recover from a security attack.Example: Encryption algorithm, Digital signature, Authentication protocols.

8. Differentiate unconditionally secured and computationally secured

An Encryption algorithm is unconditionally secured means, the condition is if thecipher text generated by the encryption scheme doesnt contain enough information to

determine corresponding plaintext.

Encryption is computationally secured means,1. The cost of breaking the cipher exceed the value of enough information.

2. Time required to break the cipher exceed the useful lifetime of information.

9. Define steganographyHiding the message into some cover media. It conceals the existence of a

message.

10. Why network need security?When systems are connected through the network, attacks are possible during

transmission time.

11. Define EncryptionThe process of converting from plaintext to cipher text.

12. Specify the components of encryption algorithm.1. Plaintext

2. Encryption algorithm

3. secret key4. ciphertext

5. Decryption algorithm

13. Define confidentiality and authentication

Confidentiality:

It means how to maintain the secrecy of message. It ensures that the information

in a computer system and transmitted information are accessible only for reading byautherised person.

Authentication:

It helps to prove that the source entity only has involved the transaction.

14. Define cryptography.

It is a science of writing Secret code using mathematical techniques. The many

schemes used for enciphering constitute the area of study known as cryptography.

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15. Compare Substitution and Transposition techniques.

SUBSTITUTION TRANSPOSITION

*A substitution techniques is one in which

the letters of plaintext are replaced by other

letter or by number or symbols.

*Eg: Caeser cipher.

* It means,different kind of mapping is

achieved by performing some sort of

permutation on the plaintext letters.

*Eg: DES, AES.

16. Define Congruences?

Let a,b,n be integers with n!=0. We say that a is congruent to bmodn if a-b is a

multiple of n.

ie) a bmodn if n (a-b)

17. Prove that a b mod n implies b a mod nProof:a bmodn

a-b=k.n

b-a= (-k).n

From theseb=a+ (-k).n

b amodn

18. Prove that a bmodn & b cmodn implies a cmodnProof:

a bmodnie) a=b+k.nb cmodn

ie) b=c+l.n

add both

a+b = b+c+ (k+l).na-c = (k+l).n

a cmodn

19. Find 511

mod13 using modular exponentiationSoln:

511

=515

25

45

4

52 25mod13 12

54 (52)2 144mod13 1

511

mod13 (5525

45

4) mod13

(51211) mod13 60mod13

511mod13= 8

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20. Find gcd(1570,1066) using Euclids algorithm?

Euclids algorithm is gcd(a,b) = gcd(b, a mod b)Gcd(1570,1066) a = 1570 , b = 1066

gcd(1570,1066) = gcd(1066,1570 mod 1066)

= gcd(1066,504)

= gcd(1066,1066 mod 504)= gcd(504,58)

= gcd(58,504 mod 58)

= gcd(58,40)= gcd(40,58 mod 40)

= gcd(40,18)

= gcd(18,40 mod 18)

= gcd(18,4)= gcd(4,18 mod 4)

= gcd(4,2)

= gcd(2,4 mod 2)

= gcd(2,0)= 2

21. Define the meaning of relatively prime (or) co-prime?

Two integer a and b are relatively prime if gcd(a,b) = 1Eg: gcd(20,7) = gcd(7,20 mod 7)

= gcd(7,6)

= gcd(6,7 mod 6)= gcd(1,6 mod 1)

= gcd(1,0)

= 1

22. Define prime number and Divisibility?Prime Number:

An integer p>1 is a prime number if and only if its divisor are 1 & p

Eg: p= 13 then divisors are 1 and 3Any integer a>1 can be factored in a way as a = p1

a1,p2a2, . pt

at where p1 0 . p represents set of prime numbers.

23. Using fermat theorem find 514

mod13?fermats theorem is a

p-1 1modp

a=5, p=13

513

-1 1mod135 12 1mod13=1

5 14=5 12.5 2

52

25mod13=12mod13=12

5 14mod13=(5 12.5 2)mod13

=(1.12)mod13

=12mod13=12

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Cryptography and Network Security (IT62)

24. Find 27-1

mod41 using fermet theorem?

fermet theorem ap-1

1modpmultiplicative inverse is a -1modp=a p-2modp

gn)27-1

mod41

a=27,p=41

p-2=41-2=3927 -1mod41=27 39mod41(multiple inverse)

2739

=27*27 2*27 4*27 32

272=729mod41=32

27 4=(32) 2mod41

=1024mod41

=40

2732

=(274)8

=(20) 8mod41

=37mod41

=37

27

39

mod41=(27*32*20*37)mod41=38

25. Define Eulers theorem

Eulers theorem states that for every a and n that are relatively prime:a (n) 1 mod n

26. Define Eulers totient functionThe Eulers totient function states that, it should be clear for a prime number p,

(p)= p-1

27. Determine (27) using Eulers totient function? (p e)=p e-p e-1

(3 3)=3 3- 3 2

=27-9=18

(27)=18

28. Define Fermat Theorem?Fermat Theorem states the following: If p is prime and a is a positive integer

not divisible by p, then

Ap-1

1 mod p

29. Find gcd (1970, 1066) using Euclids algorithm?

gcd (1970,1066) = gcd(1066,1970 mod 1066)

= gcd(1066,904)= 2

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Cryptography and Network Security (IT62)

UNIT II

30. Differentiate public key and conventional encryption?

Conventional Encryption Public key Encryption

1. The same algorithm with the same 1.One algorithm is used for encryption

Key is used for encryption and decryption and decryption with a pair of keys,one for encryption and another for

decryption

2. The sender and receiver must share 2.The sender and receiver

The algorithm and the key must each have one of the

Matched pair of keys

3. The key must be secret 3.One of two keys must be keptSecret

4. It must be impossible or atleast impractial 4. It must be impossible or to

decipher a message if no other information at least impractical to decipher a

is available message if no other informationis available

5. Knowledge of the algorithm plus samples 5. Knowledge of the algorithm

of cipher text must insufficient to determine plus one of key plus samples ofthe key ciphertext must be insufficient

to determine the other key.

31. What are the principle elements of a public key cryptosystem?The principle elements of a cryptosystem are:

1.plain text

2.Encryption algoritm3.Public and private key

4.Cipher text

5.Decryption algorithm

32. What are roles of public and private key?

The two keys used for public-key encryption are referred to as

the public key and the private key. Invariably, the private key is kept secret and thepublic key is known publicly. Usually the public key is used for encryption purpose

and the private key is used in the decryption side.

33. Specify the applications of the public key cryptosystem?The applications of the public-key cryptosystem can classified as follows

1. Encryption/Decryption: The sender encrypts a message with the recipients public

key.2. Digital signature: The sender signs a message with its private key. Signing is

achieved by a cryptographic algorithm applied to a message or to a small block of

data that is a function of the message.

3. Key Exchange: Two sides cooperate to exchange a session key. Several differentapproaches are possible, involving the private key(s) of o

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