University of Arts Belgrade Cultural Policy and Management Master studies
Crea%ve industries development and cultural policyCourse: Cultural policy and Cultural Rights Professor: Vesna uki, PhD Student: Goran Tomka Date: June, 2010
ContentsIntroducCon 3 CreaCve industries development as a policy goal 4 Cultural policy analysis 6United Kingdom 7 Holland 9 Serbia 10 Croa%a 11
Current issues and policy acCons 12United Kingdom 13 Holland 14 Serbia 15 Croa%a 16 Key dierences and gures 17
Cultural policy proposals 18EU countries 19 Non-EU countries 20
Conclusion 21 References 22
IntroducConCrea%ve industries is a concept that links crea%vity and cultural values with economic ra%onale. It is a quite late trend, origina%ng mainly in highly developed western world in the last decades of 20th century. It transcends the tradi%onal view of art and culture as something completely unmeasurable and economically irrelevant. Development of crea%ve industries is thus a very challenging goal for the cultural policymakers because it demands a close coopera%on with economic policy. The economic results of crea%ve industries are even more challenging and ever since economic and social values of crea%ve industries were recognized, there is a debate on the scope and type of government ac%on in the eld. Part of this debate will be presented in the paper. Goal of this paper is: to compare cultural policies related to development of crea%ve industries of two EU and two non EU countries - United Kingdom, Holland, Serbia and Croa%a respec%vely; to map and dene main players, issues, dilemmas and ac%vi%es in the eld; to oer solu%ons and recommenda%ons to cultural policymakers in these countries. Why these four countries? Well, the UK has the largest crea%ve sector in the European Union, and probably the largest in the world rela%ve to its size. When discussing crea%ve industries as a concept and as a policy ac%on, UK is inevitable since the concept is mainly rooted there. Although Holland is a much smaller country, cultural policies related to crea%ve industries and their results are just as remarkable. In many ways Holland can be a case to learn from, especially for smaller countries. Croa%a and Serbia are, on the other hand, countries in which crea%ve industry story has just begun. There are even many debates that ques%on if is it possible at all to develop crea%ve industries in transi%onal economies and South East European cultures. This paper wont be discussing these kinds of ques%ons, but rather nding good prac%ces in all four countries as well as problems and obstacles. With these goals in mind, paper is organized in the following way: the paper starts with an overview of recent debates and issues related to crea%ve industries and role of cultural policies in guiding / suppor%ng them on the global level; following part, Cultural policy analysis aims to present overall state of crea%ve industries and cultural policy goals in each of the countries; Current issues and policy ac%ons maps and denes main problems and area of ac%on of cultural policies with more detailed examples of programs, ac%ons and key players; the last part strives to give concrete solu%ons to previously ar%culated problems. The paper is based on the research of cultural policy and crea%ve industry theory and prac%ce. It is mainly internet based research with a focus on various documents - brochures, research papers, agendas, books, green papers, fact les and other - published by the key policymakers, ins%tu%ons and individuals in the area. Other important resources are cultural portals and networks (culturalpolicies.net, labforculture,org, culturelink.hr, etc), as well as home pages of important ins%tu%ons. One of the major challenges of the paper was to nd matching resources for EU countries and non-EU ones, in terms of type and amount of informa%on, because policymakers and research ins%tu%ons in UK and Holland have much more developed publishing and lobbying ac%vi%es which makes it ofen quite easy to nd good resources. On the other hand, crea%ve industries are a very broad subject with great number of ac%vi%es, organiza%ons, debates and issues, especially in UK and Holland, which makes it dicult to choose the most relevant ones. Lastly, the paper tried to stay neutral to the debate of weather crea%ve industries are good or bad in ar%s%c, social and economic sense as much as possible.
CreaCve industries development as a cultural policy goal.
It seems that in recent years crea%vity has become a buzz word almost everywhere: from primary educa%on and psychotherapy to economic development and high-tech industry; from developed North America to developing Central Asia. Its popularity is even more raised by vast number of researches showing a measurable and posi%ve impact of crea%vity on a range of issues: social cohesion, intercultural dialogue, poverty, regional development, educa%on and foreign trade. As crea%vity becomes increasingly valuable economical, social and cultural input, policy makers and academics all over the world are looking for ways to s%mulate its growth. One of the ways to do so was to recognize it in a more systema%c, ins%tu%onalized manner. The concept of crea%ve industries was born. As opposed to cultural industries, the term that bears ofen nega%ve meaning of mass commercializa%on of culture and art, crea%ve industries are dened (according to the most cited UKs Department for Culture, Media and Sport deni%on) as those industries which have their origin in individual crea%vity, skill and talent and which have a poten%al for wealth and job crea%on through the genera%on and exploita%on of intellectual property (DCMS, 2001). In this broad deni%on many industries nd their place: lm, architecture, television and radio, arts market, cultural tourism, publishing, adver%sing, computer games, design, crafs, fashion, etc. However, what is innova%ve about the concept is a no%on that crea%vity, economic growth, social welfare, cultural diversity and advance of new technology are linked and have a common ground. Crea%vity is no longer reserved for ar%s%c expression and distanced from the world of economic gures. Crea%vity, knowledge and access to informa%on are increasingly recognized as powerful engines driving economic growth and promo%ng development in a globalizing world. (UN, 2008). This new approach has also shown some evidence-based results. In most of the developed countries and in world as a whole, crea%ve industry is the fastest growing sector by several criteria. Interna%onal trade in crea%ve goods and services experienced average annual growth rate of 8.7 per cent, signicantly more than the growth of many tradi%onal sectors. Number of employees in the crea%ve industries is also rapidly rising from modest 2 percents in developing countries to more than 10 percent in some North European countries: Sweden and Denmark (UN, 2008). This is not solving only employment issues but since many jobs in crea%ve industries are more adequate and ajrac%ve to women it is also suppor%ng gender equality. Another very important characteris%cs of crea%ve industries is that using crea%vity as a primary resource eradicates the need for heavy exploita%on of scarce natural resources in achieving economic results. It can thus oer highly sustainable and eco-friendly growth. Very important for this paper is cultural and social impact of crea%ve industries. By delivering crea%ve products, services and events, they are also crea%ng new meanings and values which ofen serve as binding instruments fostering social cohesion, inclusion of marginal groups, conict solu%ons and sense of belonging to a par%cular culture. They are thus contribu%ng the process of personal, ethnic and na%onal iden%ty crea%on and oering access to highly crea%ve content to a broad public. Case studies have shown that crea%ve networks can be set up and oer good results on dierent plicy levels: from local level, in forms of crea%ve quarters, clusters and ci%es, to regional, na%onal and interna%onal (crea%ve networks and so called crea%ve na%ons: Crea%ve Britain or Australias Crea%ve Na%on). However, in terms of semng cultural policy goals, crea%ve industries are quite a challenge because their scope is dispersed in many areas, policy levels and industries. That means that op%mal policy making approach has to be mul%disciplinary and inter-ministerial (UN, 2008). It has to bring together many stakeholders diverse in nature: civil and non-prot sector, art professionals, audiences, cultural entrepreneurs, business leaders, nancial ins%tu%ons, research centers and policymakers. Nevertheless, it is clear that development of crea%ve industries has to be supported by the state in a well structured and coordinated fashion: development of crea%ve industries is not a result of coincidental market processes, but of an ac%ve role of state in crea%ng spaces and opportuni%es in which cultural and human values can become visible and dis%nct and can serve to the bejerment of the society (Miki, 2008).
Cultural policy analysis.
United KingdomUnited Kingdom is one of the birth places of crea%ve industries concept and policies related to it. In the nine%es, policymakers saw crea%ve industries as a magic wand for reviving the country in recession due to its high poten%al for fast and steady growth. Following such a stand, great number of ac%ons, programs, projects, planing groups and networks were started. Although the ini%a%ve quite naturally came from Department for Culture, Media and Sports, support for crea%ve industries soon became a much wider ac%on: In 1997, immediately following the general elec%on, the Prime Minister asked the SoS (Secretary of State) for Culture to establish and Chair the Crea%ve Industries Task Force. The Task Force, for the rst %me, brought together Ministers from across Government to look at what we needed to do to support sustainable growth in the crea%ve industries. The Ministerial Crea%ve Industries Strategy Group (MCISG) was put in place to help ensure a co-ordinated response to the needs of the industry. (DCMS 2005) Important thing about the UK approach to the crea%ve industries is that its signicance and poten%al benet was recognized not only on %me but on a high na%onal level. Secretary of State for Culture, Media and Sport, Chris Smith, stated early in his ministry that: It is incumbent on the government, in partnership with industry, to take ac%ve steps to promote economic growth in the crea%ve and cultural sector. If we do not do so, then others will reap the economic reward (Roodhouse 2008). So even though crea%vity and innova%on very ofen coincide with grass-root ac%vi%es, role of Bri%sh state was central from the start. That ensured a good star%ng point for a fast and sustainable development of crea%ve industries. In 2008 Crea%ve industries employed 1,165,500 people with a steady growth of up to 6% per year in some areas from 1997 (DCMS 2009). They grew by an average of 5% per annum between 1997 and 2004, compared to an average of 3% for the economy as a whole. Crea%ve industrys products and services are also becoming important export power with 4,3% of total UK export in 2004. Some are predic%ng that in two decades from 2005, crea%ve industries could grow by 46% in employment and 136% in output (Holden 2007). Another important point is that UK policy makers have understood diversied and crosscumng nature of crea%ve industries. They have created a taylor made approach which is inter-ministerial and mul%disciplinary. Development of crea%ve industries has thus become a goal to both tradi%onally inuen%al departments and ministries: departments of trade, foreign policy, business and social aairs and those crea%vity related ones: departments of culture, innova%on and educa%on. Designed strategy was to form a Crea%ve Industry Task Force whose aim was to establish a number of poli%cal bodies, boards, groups, clusters and networks. These ac%ons contributed greatly to development of crea%ve industries by: mapping all relevant stakeholders; establishing measurement and assessment methods for crea%ve industries; crea%ng export strategies and partnerships; lobbing for nancial resources and crea%ng more fundraising opportuni%es; designing educa%onal programs for developing skills for cultural entrepreneurship. establishing networks and partnerships that are vital for good communica%on between industry, government, audiences and foreign markets and partners; promo%ng crea%vity as a na%onwide issue. Today, on a state level, crea%ve industries are an important issue for two Departments: Department for Business, Innova%ons and Skills and Department for Culture, Media and Sports - they share a joint Ministry for Culture, Communica%ons and Crea%ve Industries. Local municipali%es are also iden%fying crea%ve industries as an essen%al vehicle for building community networks and ac%vely work on fostering crea%vity
on a local level ofen in a form of crea%ve ci%es and crea%ve quarters (such as world famous Sheeld Cultural Industry Quarter).
Showcase 1: CreaCve Britain Campaign
Britain is known for its crea%ve talent. Our writers and ar%sts, directors and designers, musicians, comedians and crafspeople light up the lives of people around the world. So now is the %me to recognize the growing success story that is Britains crea%ve economy and build on it. The crea%ve industries must move from the margins to the mainstream of economic and policy thinking, as we look to create the jobs of the future. Andy Burnham, Secretary of State for Culture, Media and Sport In 2008 Bri%sh Government lead by Department for Culture, Media and Sport launched a long term campaign for nurturing crea%vity in many areas of life: from childhood days through elementary school curriculums to professional life through research opportuni%es, employment support and export strategies. This campaign aims to coordinate and promote vast number of ins%tu%ons, networks, programs and projects that support and develop crea%ve industries and crea%ve ac%vi%es outside of them. Highlighted areas of the campaign are: (1) Crea%ve educa%on (Find your talent program aimed at s%mula%ng crea%ve expression of youngest popula%on through ve hours of culture per week for every child),
(2) Employment in crea%ve sector (partnerships between employers and skills providers, crea%on of innova%ve university curriculums and career centers for helping with the employment); (3) Suppor%ng research and innova%on (funds for innova%on and researches of crea%ve industry economic and social impact); (4) Helping crea%ve businesses grow (business networks and new funding opportuni%es) (5) Protec%ng intellectual property; (6) Suppor%ng crea%ve clusters like Watershed Media Center in Bristol or Media City in Salford; (7) Promo%ng Britain as a crea%ve hub (export marke%ng strategies for crea%ve industries, cultural diplomacy together with Bri%sh Council and interna%onal networking through World Crea%ve Business Conference in London 2008). This campaign is an extraordinary example of state support to crea%ve industries in terms of scale, diversity and complexity. The holis%c approach to the crea%ve industries issue means that the campaign will include all levels of policymaking from municipal to state level, all kinds of stakeholders and a whole range of crea%ve industries from design, lm and new media to music, performances and architecture.
Apart from that, many other organiza%ons, poli%cal bodies and municipali%es take crea%ve industries development as a priority. They support, give commissions and grants and launch ac%ons at arms length from the state. One of such organiza%ons is world-famous Art Council England. It is ac%vely working on development of crea%ve industries through grants, trainings, nancial programs, lobbying and publica%ons. Another inuen%al organiza%on is NESTA - Na%onal Endowment for Science, Technology and the Arts - which is very ac%ve in all innova%on related areas and has been a constant promoter of crea%ve industrys interests.
The NetherlandsDespite the rela%vely small size of Hollands economy compared to countries like US, India, China and UK, Holland is in the top 12 exporters of crea%ve products in the World. All the other numbers of Dutch crea%ve industries are also remarkable. They employ around 261.000 people (more than 3% of total workforce with a growth rate of 6%) and directly contribute 3% to the Dutch GDP, not to men%on all the spill-over impact on economy as a whole (UN 2008). However, these results havent arrived from out of nowhere. Crea%ve industries are very well supported by the state through cultural and economic policies. Similar to the UK case, crea%ve industries are being developed through a na%onwide program encompassing two strong ministries - Ministry of Economic Aairs and Ministry of Educa%on, Culture and Science - and a whole network of industry professionals, organiza%ons and ins%tu%ons. However, as Mar%jn Arnoldus states, this hasnt been the case forever: In the Netherlands the shif towards looking at the economic contribu%on of the arts as a jus%ca%on for assis%ng them is a recent one. For decades the Dutch system for subsidizing ar%s%c ac%vity was based on the idea that arts and economy are in completely dierent domains. (Arnoldus 2005). The shif came when it became clear that ar%s%c crea%vity can be not only beau%ful, but valuable in economic and social terms. Nowadays Government is taking crea%ve industries very seriously. This can be very well seen in an introductory words as part of the 2009 Culture and Economy Policy Paper (OCW 2009): Crea%vity, innova%on and entrepreneurship are the key factors that will determine the future of our country. The Dutch crea%ve industries sector ... can be a major contributor to this future. It can have a posi%ve impact on our economy, cultural climate and, in broader terms, Dutch society. But this wont just happen by itself. It will take eort to maximize the crea%ve industries value. And thats something that the crea%ve industries and government need to work on together. However there are more than words to support Government ac%ons in the eld. Through Policy Programme for the Crea%ve Industries 2005-2008, which served just as an incen%ve, 15 million was invested. This money raised addi%onal support on municipal and regional level which contributed to a total of 100 million un%l 2009. Programme for 2009 - 2013 has even higher goals. The crea%ve industries will get direct support of more than 70 million in order to tackle key issues trough large number of programs concerning intellectual property rights, entrepreneurial skills, innova%on and design incubators, expor%ng crea%ve goods, tourism growth, research, interna%onal coopera%on and many more. Crea%ve industries in Holland are also seen as an important partner in solving countries key issues. Crea%ve individuals are taking central roles in social development through programs of cultural leadership, branding of ci%es, regions and country as a whole, making it nicer (Beau%ful Holland programme - Mooi Nederland), restructuring industrial heritage, reviving deprived areas (Kijk mijn Wijk - Meet My Street youth programme), educa%ng children, fostering intercultural learning and coopera%on, etc. As development of crea%ve industries is a challenging process, the balance between quality of the content and economic growth must be constantly pursued. In this sense, there are two well connected elements in crea%ve industry policy. One is cultural policy and other is economic. Cultural policy focuses primarily on the quality, diversity, content, independence and accessibility of cultural supply (whereas) industry policy focuses on sustainable economic growth, produc%vity, entrepreneurship, innova%on, export and employment. (OCW 2009).
SerbiaInterest in crea%ve industries in Serbia is rela%vely late trend. Un%l year 2000 there was almost no wri%ngs, research and Government ac%ons in the eld. Crea%ve industries themselves were unaware of networking poten%als and benets that could be produced with a unied development approach. In a way, crea%ve industries were segmented in two large pieces. First was state supported eld of art and cultural heritage with main issues of maintaining buildings and heritage and giving minimum wages to employees. Other was more industry oriented elds of architecture, design, fashion and cultural tourism almost unrecognized by the state at all. Year 2002 marked the beginning of state interest in crea%ve industries with semng up of a Working group on crea%ve industries by the Ministry of Culture. The role of the Working group was to examine current state, oer recommenda%on for the future development and lobby for the posi%on and recogni%on of crea%ve industries in Serbia. Although the Group had some results, there was no plan or strategy as well as adequate inter-ministerial coopera%on in reaching the goals. For example, crea%ve industries have not been included in a 2002 strategic document by the Serbian Ministry of Science, Technology and Economic Development for the period up to 2010 (Compendium, 2009). The whole sector is also facing many other obstacles that are the consequence of a posi%on and stage of development of Serbia as a country. One of those is issue of priva%za%on. Un%l 80s all the major players in the economy in general and crea%ve industries in par%cular were state owned ins%tu%ons. Afer a downfall of Serbias economy in the 90s, all these companies failed to maintain quality of their services and products, not to men%on the growth needed to keep the pace with fast developing world around. This was very obvious in areas of lm and publishing which saw some controversial priva%za%on processes lately. Second issue is legisla%on. At the beginning of 21st century legisla%ve system was very old and inadequate for the new global trends and rela%ons. At the end, overall economic results and export on which crea%ve industries are very dependent were very bad as well. When we speak about the state role in suppor%ng crea%ve industries, it is s%ll very weak and impulsive. Crea%ve industry as a concept hasnt been fully appreciated which puts it to a low-priority with no clear development policy. The Crea%ve industries are a jurisdic%on of Ministry of Culture which has established a division for Crea%vity, crea%ve industries and cultural rela%ons (Sektor za savremeno stvaralatvo, kulturnu industriju i kulturne odnose). Main ac%vi%es of the division are oriented towards support for ar%sts and ar%st organiza%ons. Very lijle or nothing is done to support development of crea%ve industries as a whole in terms of researches, clustering, educa%onal programs, interna%onal networking projects, etc. Some ini%a%ves were started by the Ministry of Economic Development and their program for export incen%ves (SIEPA 2006). Important contribu%on to the area of crea%ve industries is given by foreign embassies and representa%ves. In 2006, with support from the Bri%sh Council, a research study "Crea%ve industries in Serbia-basic facts and recommenda%ons" was published which marked a pioneering research on the topic. Similar researches were supported by the Swiss Coopera%on Programme in Serbia, USAID and UNDP. These researches have shown that despite the incoherent and weakly supported development of crea%ve industries, their economic and social impact is s%ll visible. Crea%ve industries employed 1,88% of workforce and 2242 companies in 2005. When we add number of employees in other crea%ve sector we reach a 2,7%. A higher growth rate of the sector compared to the economy as a whole gives a good star%ng point for an argument that crea%ve industries in Serbia can develop much faster and become an important driving force for Serbias economic and social development. But this scenario would have to see state taking a much more ac%ve role in crea%ng modern cultural and economic policies, suppor%ng networking, export and educa%on and oering nancial support to the eld.
CroaCaCroa%an academic circles has been aware of crea%ve industries inven%on from early on. But just like Serbia, serious work on development of crea%ve industries never reached a high priority status. Crea%ve industries are s%ll not treated as a coherent sector and crea%vity and culture are not seen as an important economic input, nor is economic ra%onale seen as an important mindset for culture. The link between cultural values and economic prosperity on the state level is weak. S%ll, there are many ac%vi%es that promote such a connec%on. Development of cultural/crea%ve industries is well posi%oned in overall culture development goals and plans (Croa%an Ministry of Culture, 2003). S%ll, it remains mainly a responsibility of Ministry of culture. It didnt reach a wider governmental consensus like in some EU countries analyzed here. Crea%ve industries themselves are also nding great obstacles in coopera%on, funding, export, educa%on, etc. State support to crea%ve industries is usually given through tradi%onal support for various art branches (music, theatre, lm, literature, etc). Development programs on the level of crea%ve industry as a whole are very rare if any, they remain a poli%cal promise rather than a work in progress. Main drivers of Croa%an crea%ve industries are pro-european poli%cal and academic elite and cultural tourism eorts. There is a very good internet resource for almost a whole sector called Culturelink (www.culturelink.hr) with a good database, research, publishing and conference ac%vi%es. In 2003, there was a large and well developed ini%a%ve of Ministry of culture to develop a broad range strategic plan for development of cultural sector. In that plan (Croa%an Ministry of Culture, 2003), crea%ve industry development is one of the main goals / direc%ons. It is seen as a driving force for various social and economic benets (Croa%an Ministry of Culture, 2003): crea%ng employment possibili%es, shaping iden%ty of ci%es, regions and a whole country, s%mula%ng crea%vity and innova%on, crea%ng authen%c Product of Croa%a, making art and heritage more accessible, crea%ng addi%onal means of nancing cultural ac%vi%es, etc. Other important impetus for the crea%ve industries in Croa%a is cultural tourism which is largely driven by the overall success of tourism industry and possible opportuni%es of its culture and crea%vity oriented branch. Broadening interna%onal compe%%on in tourism is also forcing Croa%a to come up with truly authen%c programs and products and these are usually found within crea%ve and culture tourism. It probably wont be enough to imprint cultural and historic elements, persons and events to croa%an products to dieren%ate Croa%a from Slovenia, Hungary, Bosnia or Serbia in the eyes of foreign tourists and companies (Croa%an Ministry of Culture, 2003). There is a need to create a new and original iden%ty of Croa%a in order to reach an interna%onal recogni%on. Partnership between crea%ve sector and tourism industry is highlighted in both cultural policy and tourism development goals. For the culture, coopera%on could mean addi%onal sources of income for culture, establishing interna%onal links, reviving the collec%ve memory and heritage and crea%ng new meanings.
Current issues and policy acCons.
United KingdomThese are some of the issues of the current and recent cultural policy in UK related to crea%ve industries development: Employment & EducaCon. Although crea%ve industries have seen a high employment growth rate, the growth is not equal in all arias (fashion, printed publishing, crafs and an%ques are even marking some nega%ve trends) (DCMS, 2009). Possible reasons are the lack of managerial skills and training in crea%ve businesses and slow adap%on of new technologies of communica%on, networking and promo%on which are crucial in crea%ve sector where SMEs and entrepreneurs are dominant forms of organiza%on - in nearly 90 per cent of crea%ve businesses, for example, fewer than one-half of all senior managers have received any training in business strategy (NESTA, 2008). Finance and Start-up. Many talented crea%ve individuals are nding it increasingly hard to turn their talents to jobs. The nance is usually the biggest issue. This is why all the relevant poli%cal bodies and independent funds are nding the way to support crea%ve individuals wan%ng to start their business. These are some of the ac%vi%es that have been done recently: boos%ng spending of crea%ve good and services (Own Art project of Art Council England), oering free working spaces for limited %me (Watershed Media Center Bristol), giving low interest start-up loans, crea%ng databases, web-sites and printed publica%ons which map possible local, na%onal and European funds and guide applicants (How to apply for funds - ACE), etc. CreaCve industries or creaCve economy? Apart from these issues, success of the crea%ve industry and new measurement and assessment methodology have caused a new dilemma concerning the very essence of the crea%ve industries concept. Since the adop%on of crea%ve industries as a concept in poli%cal circles, it has been dened as a group of industries that use crea%vity as a primary resource. That meant that state support was directed to the 13 industries that were mapped as crea%ve ones. However, according to new ndings, there are more crea%ve individuals on crea%ve posts in the UK working outside the recognized crea%ve industries than inside of them: 645,067 to 552,170 (NESTA 2008). That means that now tradi%onal crea%ve industries concept might not suite future needs and some voices are calling for crea%ve economy approach: The crea%ve industries must move from the margins to the mainstream of economic and policy thinking. The bedrock on which the strategy is built is the Governments fundamental belief in the role of public funding to s%mulate crea%vity and sharpen Britains crea%ve edge. The UK is moving from having a strong crea%ve sector to becoming a crea%ve economy. A broader approach to development of crea%vity through out the economy could in return have a boos%ng impact in a whole range of sectors and industries thus reec%ng society in a broader way.
Showcase 2: ArCsts taking the lead The role of arts in UK is maybe best portrayed by the Ar%sts taking the lead project. It started in 2009 and it is the most ambi%ous and wide ranging art commission in the UK and is being developed by Arts Council England, in partnership with London 2012 and other UK arts councils. Twelve commissions of up to 500,000 are being awarded to create 12 new works of art across the UK: We challenged ar%sts to tell us their big ideas for these commissions when the project launched in March 2009. Over 2,000 ar%sts rose to the challenge, and panels of ar%sts and producers across the country selected a shortlist of 59 projects. 12 winning projects range from moving mul%media installa%ons to ar%cial islands, oversized animals and garbage hills. The idea is to make spectacular interac%ve art pieces to drive the need for arts and celebrate crea%vity and imagina%on.
HollandCooperaCon and organizaCon. According to Government policy paper on the topic, one of the basic obstacles in development of crea%ve industries in Holland is its inability to self-reect as a unifying force, rather than scajered pieces of organiza%ons, networks and individuals. The lack of self-organisa%on in the crea%ve industries forms an obstacle to further growth and development of the crea%ve industries. It should be noted that it is not self-organisa%on at sub-sector level that is been described here: at this level, self-organisa%on is generally sa%sfactory. At cross-sectoral level however, there is much work s%ll to be done. (OCW 2009) Addi%onal challenge to this is the very structure of the crea%ve industry in Netherlands. It has large number of very small organiza%ons and individuals and a few very large ones which makes coordina%on very hard. This is why Government has called upon industry professionals to come up with their own strategic plan. Funds for construc%ng it are provided through Economic Structure Reinforcement Fund and it is expected to give raise in number of researches, collabora%ons, networks and clusters. EducaCon and knowledge management. Coordina%on and self-organiza%on problems are also related to the other important issue, present in all the four countries analyzed in this paper, and that is the lack of entrepreneurial and organiza%onal skills inside the crea%ve industry. The more the crea%ve industry is looking for expor%ng opportuni%es and gaining considerable economic benets, the more an economic ra%onale and entrepreneurial amtude are needed among the leaders and managers of industry members. Number of grants and programs are designed to make this happen with a total budget of more than 50 million to 2013: Culture leadership 2.1 m, The Knowledge Exploita%on Grants Scheme 2.3 m, Master courses for professionals 30 m, Cultural prot programme 10m, etc. (one of such programs is the Kunstenaars & CO presented in the box below). Showcase 3: Kunstenaars & CO
A good example of ar%s%c training in entrepreneurship is Ar%sts&Cultural Entrepreneurship program provided by the Kunstenaars&CO. The overall goal of the program is to: encourage and support ar%sts, crea%ves and cultural organisa%ons in their professionalizing and their development towards economic independence. In order to earn money and make a living, ar%sts must have more going for them than talent and crafsmanship alone. Perhaps just as important are the abili%es to communicate professionally, to build and maintain a network, to develop plans, to make budgets and to nego%ate eec%vely. Kunstenaars&CO is here to help them.
Kunstenaars&CO is helping ar%st and cultural entrepreneurs in various ways: through trainings and seminars for ar%sts and managers, organizing networking events and mee%ngs, oering business assistance and income schemes for start up of ar%s%c and crea%ve businesses. Between 2002 and 2007, 12,000 ar%sts completed either a training programme or a course (during and afer their voca%onal art training) in the eld of entrepreneurship. 500 ar%sts followed the BIK training (Professional Ar%sts in the Classroom) and approximately 5 000 ar%sts received coaching or career management advice. Source: www.kunstenaarsenco.nl
Other important issues and goals of Dutch crea%ve industries are: Improving knowledge about and exploita%on of intellectual property rights; Expanding interna%onal orienta%on and improving of access to, and posi%oning in, foreign markets; Improving access to capital; Strengthening the digital and physical infrastructure.
SerbiaThese are some of the most discussed issues and needed areas of ac%ons in crea%ve industries in Serbia: IniCal research. Academic circles in Serbia are more aware of the poten%al and need for crea%ve industry development. Several researches, papers and publica%ons have been published, promoted and publicly discussed in recent years (most of them are covered in the reference list at the end of this paper). Those were mainly funded by foreign embassies, funds and cultural coopera%on schemes. This is another sign of states inability to see the poten%al benet of the crea%vity in the country. Researches oered ini%al mapping of the industry prac%%oners, current issues and recommenda%ons and opened up a debate on them. Much of the work remains to be done in crea%ng evidence-based arguments for crea%ve industries. Networking and presentaCon. An important element in crea%ve industries development is its ability to interconnect on the sub-sectorial level in order to perform and lobby for support as a unied force. Although networking takes %me to show real results, there has been some very good examples of such coopera%on. Some very popular fes%vals are emerging on the forefront of promo%on of crea%ve industries as Mikser and Belgrade Design Week in Belgrade and Exit in Novi Sad. Internet is naturally a good ground for establishing coopera%ons and several portals, forums and on-line magazines are ahead of the game (SEEcult, Link, Dizajn zona, Krea%vna Srbija, Kvart, Dizajn Srbija, etc.). Couple of venues are also focusing on a broad range of crea%ve industry topics with concerts, design and art exhibi%ons, shopping and lectures (KC Grad and Supermarket in Belgrade). The support of the state in these eorts is ques%onable. In the range of clustering there is only one cluster in the area, Serbian Sofware Cluster, and the usage of clusters will have to become more spread. EducaCon of crea%ve industry professionals aimed at gaining managerial and entrepreneurial skills is very weak in Serbia. University educa%on in art, design, fashion, media and architecture seldom takes into account knowledges and experiences needed to survive on the interna%onal market such as marke%ng, networking, administra%on, fundraising, lobbying, project development and management, etc. There are s%ll some programs outside the formal educa%on system that cover these issues mainly in areas of design, media, cultural tourism and museum management. Non-budgetary funding. Since the state support to crea%ve industry is nancially very limited, there were recently number of ac%vi%es aimed at developing new non-budgetary support for the sector. Many foreign companies with developed corporate responsibility programs are guiding the way (Erste Bank, Telenor, Philip Morris, Becks and other). Already men%oned foreign embassies and founda%ons are also very ac%ve ofen semng up special programs for the region (Balkan Community Ini%a%ves Fund, Open Society Ins%tute). Some domes%c companies are also making ini%al steps in reviving rich tradi%on of patronage in 19th century Serbia. Showcase 4 : Mikser FesCval, Belgrade
Mikser is a regional fes%val of crea%vity and innova%on. It is organized for the second %me in may 2010. It aims to promote local and regional crea%ve industry professionals from diverse areas of design, architecture, fashion, arts and design educa%on, music, lm, visual arts and culture management. In the spirit of contemporary art venues, it was organized on the industrial site near the river Danube not far from Belgrade center. Factory for wheat produc%on was closed for several days and storage facili%es and 3 silos were turned to showrooms and galleries. Programme included
workshops, lectures, concerts, par%es, exhibi%ons, movie projec%ons and more. Despite the economic crisis, fes%val managed to raise great number of sponsorships, dona%ons and government support. It was also very visible with a high media coverage, both on-line and tradi%onal. This shows that crea%ve industries are gaining strength and popularity in Serbia and more than anywhere else Belgrade. Mikser is a good example of culture entrepreneurship and networking. Source: www.mikser.rs 15
CroaCaAmong many problems regarding crea%ve industries in rise in Croa%a, these are some of the most frequent and visible problems: Financing. Financing crea%ve businesses is a common issue of all the countries analyzed. Croa%a is, as expected, far behind Holland and UK with a very low percentage of self nanced businesses and very short range of possible sources of funding. According to development strategy (Croa%an Ministry of Culture, 2003) goal is to (1) diversify possible income sources, (2) support and encourage private investments in culture, (3) establish bejer coopera%on with other ministries (e.g. Ministry of tourism, social care, economy...), (4) use networks and educa%onal programs to help entrepreneurs and managers nd other interna%onal sources and models of nancing. Cultural tourism. As opposed to the tradi%onal sun, sea and send tourism oer, cultural and crea%ve tourism is not developed in Croa%a. Many voices are raised that without cultural tourism image of Croa%a as a des%na%on will become 3rd graded nice but cheap coastline. Cultural tourism is also known to Ministry of Tourism and Ministry of Culture have worked together to construct a Strategy for Cultural Tourism development which stresses coopera%on of cultural and tourism sector as one of the main obstacles together with bad educa%on in the eld and undeveloped cultural habits and visits in domes%c popula%on (Cultural tourism Strategy, 2004). Design and visual idenCty of country. As many other developing countries, Croa%a is facing serious barriers when trying to posi%on itself on the interna%onal market and to export goods and services. One of the important issues is branding and image of its products. For example, tex%le companies like X-na%on, Magma, Skandal and Wulf sport found good ways to produce abroad (China and other low-priced labor asian countries) to lower expenses, but in order to sell, they need a strong iden%ty. Design industry is thus seen as a very important contribu%on to the process of strengthening Croa%an posi%on in interna%onal markets. There are many good individuals and design companies from Croa%a that lately received interna%onal ajen%on like Laboratorium or Bruketa & ini. But as designer community gets stronger with growing networking ac%vi%es (Hrvatski Dizajn Centar, Dizajn.hr, etc.) it raises ques%ons about recogni%on of design and designers from the state and industry. Employment. The employment is another poten%al of crea%ve industries. However, there are many problems to be solved that aect crea%ve workers and ar%sts. Some of these are: bad educa%on in cultural entrepreneurship, low knowledge on copyright issues, nance and fundraising, non-exis%ng or badly func%oning associa%ons and unions, low recogni%on of state and hard start-up processes without a needed help from the state, etc. (Primorac, 2005).
Showcase 5: Culture link Culturelink, the Network of Networks for Research and Coopera%on in Cultural Development, was established by UNESCO and the Council of Europe in 1989. It is since developed and organized around Croa%an Ins%tute for Interna%onal Coopera%on. It is one of the biggest resources of culture related researches, especially in South-eastern Europe. The scope of their work is organizing seminars, conferences and events and publishing papers and books with a range of interna%onal researchers. Another important work is done on mapping and presen%ng large number of networks, ins%tu%ons, organiza%ons and individual researchers of cultural development and all the related topics. Culturelink has received many awards for their work. Source: Culturelink.hr
Key dierences and guresThere are some key dierences in 4 countries focused in this paper. Main dierences are when comparing EU and non-EU countries. Much earlier and much faster development of crea%ve industries together with a push from the export have led UK and Holland to make a rst very important major step: to form a mul%disciplinary working bodies which coordinate, research, advocate and support crea%ve industries. These countries are already now dealing with some more advanced issues such as export and high quality educa%on. Croa%a and Serbia havent s%ll realized the rst step. Note: all the gures are an es%mates for the 2005 and their accuracy and comparability is ques%onable due to dierences in sta%s%cal methodology, sources and contexts from which they are taken.
Table 1: Comparing the countries UK Creative goods export (million USd) % of total country employment % contribution to country GDP Year of the rst mapping document Governmental body responsible Holland Croatia Serbia
19.030 4 7,3 2001Department of Culture, Media and Sport and Department of Business, Innovation and Skills share a joint secretary for Creative industries Education Entrepreneurship Measurement and assessment Productivity & Export Creative economy
7.250 3,7 2,7 2005The Ministry of Economic Affairs and The Ministry of Education, Culture and Science coordinate jointly projects
397 na na Ministry of Culture, no special department for creative industries
111 1,88 3 2006Ministry of Culture, division
for Crea%vity, crea%ve industries and cultural rela%ons
Education Sub-sectorial cooperation Improving management Export
Decentralization Networking Start-up nancing International cooperation Cultural tourism
Networking Research Financing Education International cooperation
Cultural policy proposals.
EU countriesInside EU there are large dierences in the way the crea%ve industries are being developed. Without any doubt, like previously presented, UK and Holland are on the forefront of development process. S%ll, many challenges lay beyond. Those are mainly related to extending crea%ve approach to a broader range of industries and reaching bejer economic results without loosing the ar%s%c edge. United Kingdom Recommenda/ons for policymakers: 1) Linking crea%vity and business skills in educa%onal programs (programs for entrepreneurs in crea%ve industries) in order to equip crea%ve businesses with skills and knowledge to solve mul%disciplinary tasks in turbulent markets; 2) Increasing domes%c need for crea%ve and high quality goods and services by suppor%ng local fairs and events and gran%ng nancial help to buyers; 3) Making bejer use of exis%ng EU and interna%onal programs, networks and projects for crea%ve and cultural sector by suppor%ng and encouraging networks, informa%on pla|orms, gatherings, european and other press and media; 4) Oering support for crea%ve professionals outside crea%ve industries in order to move towards promo%ng culture and crea%vity as the most valuable social and economic asset. The Netherlands Recommenda/ons for policymakers: 1) Encourage larger number of crea%ve individuals to open up crea%ve businesses through entrepreneurial educa%onal programs, start-up nancial support and help centers; 2) Create bejer expor%ng possibili%es through interna%onal coopera%on and partnerships throughout the world but especially in Europe; 3) Develop measurement and assessment methodology in order to promote the growth and investment in the eld; 4) Raise visibility and recogni%on of Dutch crea%ve products and art through branding strategies in order to overcome the agricultural and tradi%onal image of Holland in the world.
Non-EU countriesCrea%ve industry in transi%onal economies like Serbia and Croa%a can be a signicant motor for overall development. The main issues are common for both countries: lack of capital, lack of entrepreneurial skills and lack of infrastructure and ins%tu%ons (Crea%ve Economy Report, 2008), centraliza%on and low recogni%on and priority of crea%ve industries development. The solu%on is to posi%on crea%vity and culture in the center of a whole economy. The star%ng point is to reinforce the nexus between crea%vity, investment, technology, entrepreneurship and trade (C-ITEC model). Serbia Recommenda/ons for policymakers: 5) Form an inter-ministerial body which will foster development of crea%vity from its roots in primary educa%on to development of enterprises including ministries of trade, tourism, economy, educa%on, social aairs and culture with a goal to develop a specialized strategy for crea%vity development in all relevant areas similar to Crea%ve Britain and Crea%ve value ac%on; 6) Support and promote educa%onal programs for entrepreneurship in culture and crea%ve sector; 7) Ini%ate a business incubator dedicated fully to development of ideas and business models for crea%ve industries which will map, promote and celebrate good prac%ces in the eld; 8) Support networking and cluster crea%on in the eld in order to boost coopera%on and forma%on of strong intra-sectorial partnerships; 9) Work on the process of decentraliza%on of crea%ve industry and support crea%vity based businesses in deprived areas since crea%ve industry can make a solid growth and ajract visitors and other businesses; 10) Provide guidance and support for interna%onal and non-budgetary fundraising by issuing publica%ons, organizing lectures and consultancy centers; 11) Create start-up nancing programs for cultural entrepreneurs to boost employment in the eld. Recommenda/ons for industry professionals: 1) Establish coopera%ons and partnerships on various levels and in many forms in order to promote crea%vity as an important factor in economic and social development and increasing quality of life; 2) Use alterna%ve ways of fundraising including interna%onal funds, consumers and partners and not wait for the state to give all the needed support; 3) Lobby for crea%vity, arts and culture to be included in na%onal strategies and infrastructural programs; 4) Acquire both ar%s%c / crea%ve skills and entrepreneurial and managerial and create mixed working teams with an aim to balance produc%vity and quality of work done. CroaCa Recommenda/ons for policymakers: 1) Form a specialized inter-ministerial body (same as Serbia 1.); 2) Commission researches of economic, poli%cal and social impact of crea%ve industries to create evidence- based development strategies and lobby for state support; 3) Foster cultural diversity of Croa%as regions and decentralize crea%ve work; 4) Create links between culture and tourism in order to develop high quality cultural tourism oer; 5) Support establishment of crea%ve networks and clusters; 6) Encourage local businesses and successful Croa%an enterprises to use crea%ve poten%al of Croa%an ar%sts and crea%ve workers in order to produce interna%onally recognizable products. Recommenda/ons for industry professionals: 1) Extensively use interna%onal sources of funding especially those oered by EU based programs and funds; 2) Form networks, partnerships and collabora%ons with local, na%onal and interna%onal crea%ve businesses, organiza%ons and individuals.20
ConclusionAim of this paper was to recommend cultural policy ac%ons in the eld of crea%ve industries based on the current situa%on, issues and possibili%es in four countries: United Kingdom, The Netherlands, Serbia and Croa%a. We have seen that crea%ve industries are becoming increasingly popular topic in academic circles and among poli%cians and cultural prac%%oners in all countries analyzed. The work done and results are, however, very dierent in each of the country. UK and Holland have seen their governments take very ac%ve role in development of crea%ve industries in areas of research, educa%on, strategic planning, giving nancial support and enhancing export. Some of the ac%ons are already giving results in growing produc%vity, export and employment. S%ll, this process is only las%ng for bit more than a decade and many issues and problems are s%ll there to solve. Croa%a and Serbia are in a dierent posi%on. Development of crea%ve industries is a low priority ac%on in both business and cultural circles. Many of the basic ac%ons need to be undertaken including research, strategic planning, long term networking and iden%ca%on of clear goals and responsibili%es. In any case, crea%ve industries development is becoming an area with increasing poten%al for employment, economic growth and export, but also an area in which culture and crea%vity can become a driving force for overall social change. This includes bejer life-meaning educa%on, higher quality leisure %me and entertainment, more intensive interna%onal coopera%on and image of the country. If states and businesses grasp such an opportunity cultural and economic spheres could nally nd a good way to cooperate.
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Serbian Ministry of Culture: www.kultura.gov.rs Department for Culture, Media and Sport: hjp:// www.culture.gov.uk Arts Council England: hjp:// www.artscouncil.org.uk Network of Networks for Research and Coopera%on in Cultural Development: www.culturelink.hr Crea%ve fes%val Mikser, Belgrade: hjp:// www.mikser.rs
Web-sites The networking pla|orm for informa%on on European arts and culture: www.lab4culture.net Compendium on Cultural Policies and Trends in Europe: www.culturalpolicies.net Crea%ve Economy Network: hjp:// www.crea%veclusters.com European Forum on Cultural Industries / hjp:// www.eu2010feic.org/ Dutch Centre for interna%onal cultural ac%vi%es hjp://www.sica.nl/en Dutch Ministry for Culture, Educa%on and Science, english site: hjp://english.minocw.nl/ Poli%cal pla|orm for culture and art hjp:// www.cultureac%oneurope.org Na%onal Endowment for Science, Technology and Arts, UK: www.nesta.org.uk Serbian Crea%ve Poten%al: www.madmarx.net Croa%an Center for Design: www.hdc.com.hr Croa%an Ministry of Culture: www.min-kulture.hr23