CRADLE TO CRADLE (C2C)
INSPIRED MASTER THESES
ADDING PIECES TO THE PUZZLE
32Case Study Book Inspired by Cradle to Cradle Case Study Book Inspired by Cradle to Cradle
CRADLE TO CRADLE (C2C)
INSPIRED MASTER THESES
ADDING PIECES TO THE PUZZLE
With an introduction by prof. dr. Michael Braungart
v. 1.0, October 2015.
Texts and Images:
Introduction, Case reflections, Closing remarks by the project team.
Case descriptions by the students.
Marleen Lodder, Diana den Held and Michael Braungart.
With special thanks to:
Katja Hansen, Douglas Mulhall, Ljiljana Rodic, Marijn de Ruiter and Tanja Scheelhaase.
Management, organisation and production:
C2C Chair for Innovation and Quality, RSM, Erasmus University
Design and lay out:
v. 1.0, October 2015
C2C Chair. (2015). Cradle to Cradle inspired master theses: Adding pieces to the puzzle. Cradle to Cradle Chair for Innovation and Quality, Rotterdam School of Management, Rotterdam: Erasmus University Rotterdam.
Chapter 1 and 8 of Cradle to Cradle (C2C) inspired master theses: Adding pieces to the puzzle of the Cradle to Cradle Chair for Innovation and Quality is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial 4.0 International License.
Chapters 2 - 7 copyright: the authors.
We tried to trace the owners of copyright material reproduced in this publication and secure permissions to our best effort. We would like to apologise for any omissions and we will be pleased to incorporate missing acknowledgements.
Academic Chair Cradle to Cradle for Innovation and Quality
ROTTERDAM SCHOOL OF MANAGEMENT ERASMUS UNIVERSITY
Burgemeester Oudlaan 50 Mandeville Building (T-Building), Room 9-46 3062 PA Rotterdam, The Netherlands Tel: +31 10 408 2277 www.rsm.nl/c2c
Cradle to Cradle and C2C are registered trademarks held by McDonough Braungart Design Chemistry, LLC (MBDC).
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FOREWORDProf. Dr. Michael Braungart Academic Chair Cradle to Cradle for Innovation and Quality at Rotterdam School of Management (RSM), Erasmus University
Isnt it amazing how much innovation is possible when we take the traditional sustainability approach and move it further? We built on 40 years of blame and shame to generate business, products and processes which are really so much better than the things that are right now in place. Take a simple parking ticket, a euro coin or 3D printing material; nothing is designed for us, nothing is designed to be healthy and to go into biological and technical systems. Its only designed to be cheap.
Therefore, we need to reinvent all our businesses and products; not to minimize damage, but to be good. Instead of a triple bottom line, a triple top line approach. We can use 40 years of blame and shame now for innovation, quality and beauty. Sustainability was the beginning: to meet the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs (Brundtland Commission, 1987) was a good start, but we want to be good for the future generations and not just compromising the needs. Instead of climate neutral, we want to be as good as a tree: We want to be positive for the climate.
This is how we can build all this, where destructiveness, less bad, reduction, avoidance and minimization are paradigms of the past. It is nice to have RSM as a business school to demonstrate that this is for business and not a green challenge or a little eco niche, its about mainstream business for the future!
Rotterdam, 16 July 2015
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1. INTRODUCTION 8
2. ARCHITECTURE BUILDING & PLANNING 13Meeuwsen, 2009: CRADLE TO CRADLE IN REGIONAL DESIGN 14
Lam, 2008: REMAKING THE WAY WE MAKE CITIES 20
Gejer, 2011: DESIGNING THE CIRCULAR METABOLIC BUILDING 27
van Schaik, 2010: REVITALISEREN VAN DE GEBOUWDE OMGEVING VAN BEDRIJVENTERREINEN OP BASIS VAN CRADLE TO CRADLE 35
Kulik et al., 2009: BUILDING INTEGRATED GREENHOUSES 40
Smits, 2013: THE BREATHING GREEN PAVILION 47
Riga, 2012: CLOSING THE MATERIALS CYCLES 54
Vandenbroucke, 2011:CRADLE TO CRADLE IN REGIONAL DESIGN 61
de Groot, 2009: MATERIALIZING WITH CRADLE TO CRADLE 68
3. ARTS 75van Balgooi, 2009: ECO-EFFECTIVE FASHION DESIGN - A DIFFERENT MINDSET 76
4. ENGINEERING 83Jongeneel, 2009: C2C IN SUSTAINABLE SPATIAL DEVELOPMENT IN GREENPORT VENLO 84
Wiersma, 2009: EVALUATION OF CRADLE TO CRADLE DESIGN 92
Bjrn, 2013: CRADLE TO CRADLE AND ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY 97
Bailleul, 2013: AIRCRAFT DESIGN USING CRADLE TO CRADLE: REALITY OR UTOPIA? 102
5. INDUSTRIAL DESIGN 109Mesch et al., 2013: APPLICATION OF C2C DESIGN IN A CANTEEN ENVIRONMENT 110
van Putten, 2009: DESIGN OF A BIO-BASED CONSUMER PRODUCT FROM SUSTAINABLE RENEWABLE BIOMASS SOURCES AND IDENTIFICATION OF THE BUSINESS OPPORTUNITY 117
Herrera Jaramillo, 2013: DEVELOPMENT OF A DECISION SUPPORT MODEL FOR BUILDING DESIGN 121
6. MANAGEMENT STUDIES 129Koster, 2010: CRADLE TO CRADLE, A GAIN FOR CONSTRUCTION COMPANIES? 130
Zwaans, 2009: HOW DOES THE CRADLE TO CRADLE METHODOLOGY CONTRIBUTE TO THE COMPANYS FOR-PROFIT GOALS? 137
Babre, 2013: POTENTIAL CONSUMERS OF CRADLE TO CRADLE PRODUCTS 141
Redolfi, 2013: CRADLE TO CRADLE: DRIVING CHANGE IN THE BRAZILIAN GYPSUM INDUSTRY 146
Iosif-Lazar, 2012: THE EVOLUTION OF THE CRADLE TO CRADLE MODEL IMPLEMENTATION WITHIN ORGANIZATIONS 152
Cassel, 2010: ADDRESSING RISK GOVERNANCE DEFICITS THROUGH SCENARIO MODELING PRACTICES 158
nal, 2013: CRADLE TO CRADLE FOR INNOVATION AND QUALITY 164
7. SOCIAL SCIENCES 171Zanzanaini, 2011: EXPLORING THE DYNAMICS OF CRADLE TO CRADLE 172
Vaane, 2009: CRADLE TO CRADLE IN THE NORTH-LIMBURG REGION 176
8. CLOSING REMARKS 182
9. REFERENCES 184
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1. INTRODUCTIONWHAT IS CRADLE TO CRADLE?
Cradle to Cradle (C2C) is a whole-systems approach to material goods the things we use each day that challenges society to rethink the way we design, manufacture, use, enjoy, reclaim and re-use these goods (or their components). First introduced in the book Cradle to Cradle: Remaking the way we make things (McDonough & Braungart, 2002b), and further elaborated in The upcycle: Beyond sustainability--designing for abundance (McDonough & Braungart, 2013) the C2C approach starts from the point of view that there is no need for waste. The unique feature of the Triple Top Line (McDonough & Braungart, 2002a), distinguishes the C2C approach from traditional sustainability: C2C is focused on the positive impact humans can have on the Earth while living abundant big footprint lives, actively challenging the current environmental view that aims to restrict materials use and minimize our negative impact.
In C2C as in nature materials can be seen as nutrients: used in a range of products, retrievable from these products, and reused to create new products, akin to a natural, ecological metabolism. When placed in the modern world C2C offers a holistic economic, environmental and social framework, providing a key to creating systems which generate a positive contribution to the world. This model is not limited solely to product design; it is used in the urban environment, economics, logistics, the construction and manufacturing industries.
Positive Contribution: Three Key Concepts
The goal of C2C is to move beyond the idea of reducing the negative impacts of human activity by providing an engaging vision of a positively-conceived footprint on the planet - environmentally, socially and economically (Hansen, Braungart, & Mulhall, 2012). This goal challenges designers to rethink how to design for a healthy present, and how to return common property (for example organic and inorganic
compounds of products such as packaging, furniture, clothes, etc.) with even more quality in the future (McDonough & Braungart, 2013). C2C focuses on improving quality to enable the generation of values for society through the following three concepts: 1) Intelligent Materials Pooling, 2) Eco-effectiveness, and 3) the Triple Top Line.
Intelligent Materials Pooling
The C2C design approach began with a focus on materials in products, when Braungart et al. noticed that there were key elements missing in the publications on sustainable development. This was outlined in the Intelligent Product System framework (Braungart & Engelfried, 1992; Braungart, Engelfried, & Mulhall, 1993) for creating materials and goods that flow safely and productively within closed-loop systems. This was furthered by the by the concept of Intelligent Materials Pooling, which aims to design products in which every ingredient can be safely, beneficially returned to natural systems, or can be reused to provide high-quality resources for the next generation of products (Braungart, 2002). The Intelligent Materials Pooling concept was incorporated in the C2C principle waste equals food or everything is a nutrient for something else when the C2C design approach was introduced by McDonough & Braungart in 2002.
Eco-effectiveness over Eco-Efficiency
Most sustainable design approaches entail Eco-