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Course Material Critical Thinking SAH 103 · PDF file 2018. 10. 2. · 1 Al Ghurair University Department of Foundation and General Studies Reasoning and Critical Thinking SAH 103

Nov 15, 2020

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    Al Ghurair University 

     

    Department of Foundation and General Studies

    Reasoning and Critical Thinking

    SAH 103

    ---------------------------------------------------------------------

    Dr. Kamel Mahmoud Office:DFGS, 11

    Phone: 04-4200223, Ext.: 430

    Course Web: sah103.weebly.com

    E-mail: [email protected]

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    Table of Contents  

    Chapter 1: Introduction .................................................................................... 3

    Chapter 2: Useful critical thinking skills ......................................................... 8

    Chapter 3: Gathering Skills 11

    1. Observing ................................................................................................. 12

    2. Questioning .............................................................................................. 15

    Chapter 4: Organizing Skills 19

    1. Comparing and Contrasting ..................................................................... 20

    2. Classifying and Sequencing ..................................................................... 22

    3. Identifying Cause and Effect .................................................................... 24

    Chapter 5: Generating Skills 26

    1. Inferring .................................................................................................... 27

    2. Summarizing ............................................................................................ 29

    3. Synthesizing ............................................................................................. 31

    4. Generating Ideas ....................................................................................... 32

    Chapter 6: Recognizing Skills 35

    1. Recognizing Fact and Opinion ................................................................. 36

    2. Recognizing Tone .................................................................................... 39

    3. Recognizing Bias....................................................................................... 40

    4. Recognizing Underlying Assumptions .................................................... 43

    Chapter 7: Analyzing Skills 45

    1. Evaluating ................................................................................................. 46

    2. Inducing .................................................................................................... 48

    3. Deducing .................................................................................................. 52

    Chapter 8: Studying and Thinking Critically ................................................. 54

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    CHAPTER 1

    INTRODUCTION

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    Definition:

    What is Critical Thinking? Critical thinking is thinking that is clear, precise, accurate, relevant, consistent &

    fair.

    The process of using reasoning to discern what is true, and what is false, in the phrases and "sound bytes" we hear everyday.

    Careful and deliberate determinations of whether to accept, reject, or suspend judgment.

    Deciding rationally what to or what not to believe.

    "The examination and testing of suggested solutions to see whether they will work."

    A disciplined manner of thought that a person uses to assess the validity of something: a statement, news story, argument, research, etc.

    Critical thinking is the art of analyzing and evaluating thinking with a view to improving it.

    The use of cognitive skills or strategies that increase the probability of a desirable outcome.

    The best way to get to the truth.

    What Critical Thinking is NOT? Thinking critically is not thinking negatively with a predisposition to find fault or

    flaws. It is a neutral and unbiased process for evaluating claims or opinions, either someone else’s or our own.

    It does not mean being argumentative or being critical of others. Although critical thinking skills can be used in exposing fallacies and bad reasoning, they can also be used to support other viewpoints, and to cooperate with others in solving problems and acquiring knowledge.

    In fact, a more accurate term would be evaluative thinking. The result of evaluation can range from positive to negative, from acceptance to rejection or anything in-between.

    Critical thinking is not intended to make people think alike. For one reason, critical thinking is distinct from one’s values or principles, which explains why two people who are equally adept at critical thinking, but have different values or principles, can reach entirely different conclusions. Additionally, there will always

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    be differences in perception and basic emotional needs which prevent us from thinking the same way.

    Critical thinking does not threaten one’s individuality or personality. It may increase your objectivity, but it will not change who you are.

    It is not a belief. Critical thinking can evaluate the validity of beliefs, but it is not a belief by itself – it is a process.

    Critical thinking does not discourage or replace feelings or emotional thinking. Emotions give our lives meaning, pleasure, and a sense of purpose. Critical thinking cannot possibly fulfill this role. Still, emotional decisions that are also critical decisions (such as deciding to get married or have children) should embody critical thinking.

    Critical thinking does not blindly support everything based on science. For example, our culture is full of false scientific claims that are used to market everything.

    It is also important to understand that arguments based on critical thinking are not necessarily the most persuasive. Perhaps more often than not, the most persuasive arguments are those designed to appeal to our basic human/emotional needs rather than to our sense of objectivity. For that reason, it is common for highly persuasive arguments by politicians, and sales people, among others, to intentionally lack critical thinking.

    Scope of Critical Thinking: Critical thinking is a general thinking skill that is useful for all sorts of careers and

    professions. Clear and systematic thinking can improve the comprehension and expression of ideas, so good critical thinking can also enhance language and presentation skills.

    Critical thinking is for everyone; it is a way to approach problems and make decisions. If you study and practice critical thinking, your concept of it will continue to develop.

    Critical Thinking and Creativity: It is sometimes suggested that critical thinking is incompatible with creativity. Discuss…

    This is a misconception, as creativity is not just a matter of coming up with new ideas. A creative person is someone who can generate new ideas that are useful and relevant to the task at hand.

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    Critical thinking plays a crucial role in evaluating the usefulness of new ideas, selecting the best ones and modifying them if necessary.

    Benefits of critical thinking: Self-confidence and a sense of control over one’s life are the two main personal

    benefits of being a critical thinker.

    Ability to listen with an open mind, even to a conflicting point of view.

    Guarantee, as far as possible, that one’s beliefs and actions are justifiable and can withstand the test of rational analysis.

    Improvement in one’s studying and course work. Significant correlation between Critical Thinking scores and college GPA.

    Ability to solve problems in a manner which allows you to have a reflective overview of what you have done.

    It gives one the chance to think, to consider the data before making a decision that could be critical to his livelihood.

    Being more honest with ourselves and to admit what we don't know. We would be less afraid to say "I was wrong" and be able to learn from our mistakes. Our beliefs would really be our own, not simply passed on to us by others.

    Developing the ability to imagine putting ourselves in the place of others and understand the viewpoints of others.

    Being patient to think before acting.

    Ability to distinguish between fact and opinion; ask questions; make detailed observations; uncover assumptions and define their terms; and make assertions based on sound logic and solid evidence.

    Attributes of a Critical Thinker: Asks pertinent (Relevant) questions.

    Assesses statements and arguments.

    Is able to admit a lack of understanding or information.

    Has a sense of curiosity.

    Is interested in finding new solutions.

    Is able to clearly define a set of criteria for analyzing ideas.

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    Is willing to examine beliefs, assumptions, and opinions and weigh them against facts.

    Listens carefully to others and is able to give feedback.

    Sees that critical thinking is a lifelong process of self-assessment.

    Suspends judgment until all facts have been gathered and considered.

    Looks for evidence to support assumption and beliefs.

    Is able to adjust opinions when new facts are found.

    Examines problems closely.

    Is able to reject information that is incorrect or irrelevant.

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