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Confederation to Constitution

Feb 23, 2016

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Confederation to Constitution. Chapter 8. Articles of Confederation. The Confederation created a loose association of 13 independent states, NOT 13 United States. Articles of Confederation Strengths. Governed the nation during the American Revolution - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Confederation to Constitution

Confederation to ConstitutionChapter 8The Confederation created a loose association of 13 independent states, NOT 13 United StatesArticles of ConfederationGoverned the nation during the American Revolution

Created Treaty of Paris 1783 at the end of the war

Created Northwest Ordinance 1787Articles of ConfederationStrengths

NO power to enforce laws

NO power to tax, regulate trade, or settle disputed of land. (Only states has these powers.)

BOTH national government AND each state was allowed to coin (make) its own type money.That is 14 different currencies!Articles of ConfederationWeaknesses

NO national court system

NO chief executive (president)

NO national army or navy

One State = One Vote in Congress

Required ALL 13 to pass amendmentsArticles of ConfederationWeaknesses (contd.)

In the text box, answer the following question.Q: What do you think was the greatest strength and weakness of the Articles of Confederation? Why?

Articles of ConfederationA:

Remember the Proclamation of 1763? After the first Treaty of Paris (1763), the Proclamation of 1763 stated that Colonists could not settle west of the Appalachian Mountains because it was too expensive to continue fighting with the Natives. Then

The Treaty of Paris 1783 gave all land east of the Mississippi River to the United States

Now the Confederation is faced with what to do with the Western lands it now controls.How will it be divided? Who will govern it?What to do? What to do?Created rules for the new territory to become future states.

Each had to have 60,000 free citizens to become a state

Outlined settlers rightsNorthwest Ordinance (1787)

A group of about 1,500 farmers led by Daniel Shays rebelled against the government because of high debt and high state taxes. They marched on a federal arsenal being defended by 900 state militia soldiers. The farmers were quickly defeated BUT they won the sympathy of many.Americas leaders realized that an armed uprising of common farmers spelled DANGER for the nation. (Remember, there is NO national govt or army under the Articles of Confederation.)This forced those in charge to look at our system of government.

FYI:Shay and his followers were captured.A dozen (or so) were sentenced to death.Two of the rebels were hung for looting, but all the others, including Shay, were pardoned.

Oh! Oh! Its magicMagic Date: 1787CONSTITUTION WAS WRITTENMay 25, 1787 Constitution was written; James Madison Father of the ConstitutionCaused by Shays RebellionThis is where our Founding Fathers got together to discuss problems with the government established after we won the American Revolution.Instead of revising the AOC, they ended up writing a totally NEW system of governmentwhich we still use today.Constitutional Convention 1787How do we create a new government?Should we create a STRONG or a WEAK Federal Government? (We saw how no central govt didnt work with the AOC)Will the new govt continue to be: 1 state = 1 vote? Or will it be based on population?We know we need a central govt with more power and we need 3 (mostly) equal branches.The states will still want to keep their power for themselvesWhat will we do about the slavery issue?Issues to Debate

3 Branches of Government

Legislative Branch would have 2 Houses

Houses based upon population

BIG states want to be represented based on population.Virginia PlanAKA: BIG State PlanLegislative Branch would have ONE house

House will have:1 State = 1 Vote

Supported by SMALL states (Ex. Delaware and Maryland) because they want every state to have EQUAL representation.New Jersey PlanAKA: Small State Plan3 Branches of Government

(Bicameral) 2 Houses in Legislative Branch

Senate will be based upon equality: 2 Senators per state

House of Representative will be based upon PopulationGreat Compromise

Q: WellWhat about slaves?Slaves should count for taxationSlaves = Property

Slaves should NOT count as citizens for RepresentationNorth (Idea)How will slaves affect taxes and population?Slaves should NOT count for taxation

Slaves SHOULD count for the populationSouth (Idea)How will slaves affect taxes and population?Because the issue of slavery was preventing the ratification (approval) of the Constitution, the delegates came up with yet another compromise.

In the 3/5ths Compromise, slaves will count as 3/5ths of a person when setting taxes and representation

5 slaves = 3 free people

Although a compromise is reached, the North and South still do not agree on the issue of slavery.3/5ths Compromise

Federalists Debated for ratificationThey wanted:Strong Central GovernmentPowerful Executive BranchTo ratify the document (Constitution) AS WRITTENSupporters include:James MadisonAlexander HamiltonJohn Jay

They wrote and published essays called the Federalist Papers to help support ratification.

Federalist vs. Antifederalist

Anti - Federalists Against ratificationThey wanted:Wanted stronger states (states rights)More peoples rightsDemanded Bill of Rights be added to protect the people from the Government

Supporters include:Patrick HenryGeorge Mason

They thought that the constitution didnt do enough to ensure the peoples rights.

Federalist vs. AntifederalistWith your shoulder partner, each of you needs to choose a point of view (Federalists or Anti Federalists). Using the information in your chart above and your prior knowledge, come up with an argument as to why your point of view is the better opinion. Use the space provided on your notes to write your side to the story. Each partner will have 60 seconds to argue their point.

Quick ActivityAnti Federalists DEMANDED the addition of these in order to protect the American people from the government and would not ratify the Constitution until it was finished.

10 Amendments were added to the constitution

These amendments gave certain rights specifically to the people of the US and to the states.Bill of Rights1st: Freedom of speech, press, religion, assembly, and petition.2nd: Right to bear arms3rd: No quartering of troops!4th: Protects from unreasonable searches and seizures5th: Right to due process of law and freedom from double jeopardy and self incrimination.Bill of Rights6th: Right to a speedy trial7th: Right to a trial by jury in all civil cases8th: No excessive bail and no cruel or unusual punishment.9th: People have unnamed rights like the right to privacy.10th: Individual states and the people are given powers not granted to the federal government. (SETS UP FEDERALISM)

Bill of Rights (contd)How the grievances in the DOI were addressed in the new governmentGrievanceConstitutionBill of RightsTaxation w/out representationBoth Houses of Congress must pass taxes. (Article 1)Quartering of troops3rd AmendmentKing James refused to have a judicial branchEstablished an independent judicial branch (Article 3)Denied Trial by Jury7th AmendmentThe states each hold conventions to vote on whether or not to ratify the Constitution. The first states ratify (approve) it in December 1787.The last state doesnt ratify the constitution until 1790!

Now, the British Colonies are officiallyThe UNITED States of America!Ratifying the Constitution