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Computer Fundamental Lecture 5

Jan 17, 2018

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Computer System Overview Computer System = Hardware + Software The operating system (OS) is the software that controls functionality and provides lower-level routines for application programs. Most operating systems provide functions to read and write data to files.

Computer Fundamental Lecture 5
HKIVE(CW) / CIM Department Computer Fundamental Lecture 5 Computer System Hardware Components (I) Computer Case Motherboard CPU NA/SDA Computer System Overview
Computer System = Hardware + Software The operating system (OS) is the software that controls functionality and provides lower-level routines for application programs. Most operating systems provide functions to read and write data to files. An operating system translates requests for operations on files into operations that the disk controller can perform. The operating system helps the computer perform four basic operations Input / Ouptut Processing Storage Hardware Components (Personal Computer)
Power Supplies and Computer Cases / Chassis Motherboard CPU (Central Process Unit) / Processor Cache Memory Memory (RAM / DRAM) BIOS / Flash ROM Bus and expansion slots (expansion card e.g. sound card, SCSI card) Video/Graphics Cards and Monitors Different types of I/O Port (serial port, parallel port, USB port, Firewire) Storage Devices (Floppy, Hard Drive, CDROM, DVDROM, USB Flash) Modem and Network Interface Cards (NICs) Wireless Devices (Wireless LAN card, Bluetooth, IrDA) Mouse / Keyboard ATX Computer Cases Tower Computer Cases - Desktop
ATX Desktop model sits on a desk horizontally
Desktop model sits on a desk horizontally. The monitor can be set on top of the case. This choice can be a space-saver. Tower model Stands upright in a vertical position that allows easy placement on the floor. Mini-tower, mid-tower and full-tower cases are available. 1U = mm (1.75 in) Rack Mounted Server Computer Cases (cont.) Typical back panel layouts HKIVE(CW) / CIM Department
Types of Form Factors AT (Advanced Technology) form factor Specified motherboard dimensions of 12 x 13.8 Utilized by IBM AT PC in the 1980s Baby AT form factor Specified motherboard dimensions of 13 x 8.7 Industry standard form factor from 1993 to 1997 ATX form factor Specified motherboard dimensions of 12 x 9.6 Open specification that is most commonly used today Includes all AT voltages plus a +3.3-volt circuit A+ Guide to Hardware, 4e 13 NA/SDA 13 HKIVE(CW) / CIM Department
Types of Form Factors MicroATX form factor Reduces number of I/O slots on the motherboard BTX (Balanced Technology Extended) form factor Focuses on reducing heat and supporting motherboard LPX and Mini-LPX form factors Designed for low-end PC motherboards NLX form factor Developed to improve the LPX form factor Backplane Systems (Active and Passive) Use boards with slots, but little or no circuitry A+ Guide to Hardware, 4e 14 NA/SDA 14 Power Supply - Components
Case and cover Power cord Voltage selector (i.e. 110V or 230V) Power switch Power converter Motherboard power connector Disk drive power connectors Fan Fuse Motherboard Power Connector
Disk Drive Power Connector Factors to Consider When Selecting a Power Supply
Explanation Wattage In order to upgrade the PC with more equipment or faster processors, the power supply must provide enough power to the equipment without becoming overloaded. Form factor (E.g. ATX, MicroATX) Depending on the type of case and motherboard selected, the power supply must adhere to the same form factor requirement as these items in order to fit inside the case and correctly power the motherboard and other devices. Factors to Consider When Selecting a Power Supply
Rationale CPU type Different CPUs require different voltages. For example some AMD chips and motherboards require more power than certain Intel chips and vice versa. Expandability If the power supply only has enough power to supply the current CPU, motherboard, and devices, there might not be enough power to supply any upgrade to the system. Factors to Consider When Selecting a Power Supply
Rationale Energy efficiency If the power supply has an efficiency rating. The higher the rating, the lower the heat generated by the power supply when converting voltage. Fan type and Direction The power supply must have a high-quality fan, because the fan is the primary source of airflow inside the case. Some fans can change direction to allow air to be blown directly on the CPU and to regulate the quality of the air entering the case. Factors to Consider When Selecting a Power Supply
Rationale Control signals Modern power supplies can be regulated by the motherboard. The main board can regulate the speed of the fan, depending on the temperature inside the case. The board can also turn off the fan to save power, and some smart power supplies can turn off the computer in the event of a fan failure before the components overheat. Factors to Consider When Selecting a Power Supply
Rationale Fault tolerance If you have a PC that needs to be on at all times, consider using a dual power supply. If one unit fails, the other one takes over. Some design enable a power supply to be replaced while the computer is still powered. Line conditioning One way to ensure that the DC voltages supplied to the PC are kept at normal levels when spikes or brownouts occur is to install a power supply that has built-in conditioning. These units ensure that the DC voltages supplied to the system remain stable, even when the incoming AC current is not. Cooling Systems The power supply fan helps prevent the computer components from overheating by maintaining airflow in the case. A heat sink is made of a material that absorbs generated heat. It is designed to disperse the heat away from the CPU Computer cases made of aluminum create a much cooler environment for the installed components. Liquid cooled cases - They introduce water as a cooling agent. Liquid cooling units fit most cases that have a place to mount a back exhaust fan. Motherboard The motherboard is also called the system board or the main board. Everything else in the system plugs into, is controlled by, or depends on the motherboard to communicate with other devices on the system. The system board is the largest of the printed circuit boards. Every system has one. The system board generally houses the following components: The CPU The controller circuitry The Bus The RAM The expansion slots for additional boards The ports for external devices The Complementary Metal-Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) The other Read Only memory (ROM) The BIOS chips The support chips providing varied functionality I/O Ports What kinds of device can be connected to the USB ports? I/O Ports Motherboard Components
Description Chipset (North Bridge + South Bridge) A chip set is a set of chips on the motherboard that collectively controls the memory cache, external bus, and some peripherals. CPU interface The socket or slot that the CPU connects to on the motherboard. Expansion slots Receptacles [] on the motherboard that accept printed circuit boards. All computers have expansion slots that allow additional devices to be added. Dip switches/jumpers Used to change various aspects of how the motherboard is configured. Motherboard Components (Cont)
Description I/O Ports Connectors for input and output devices controlled by the main board. Internal buses Channels for data to move between the devices attached to the system, and to the CPU and its components. Power supply socket The connection for the power supply that provides power to the motherboard. BIOS chip Provides the computer with the basic instructions to start up and check the hardware fro errors Battery Keeps system time and provides a way for the BIOS to remember certain settings. RAM sockets Connectors for inserting memory chips The Chipset A chipset is a set of chips on the motherboard that collectively controls the memory cache, external bus, and some peripherals. e.g. Intel P35 Intel P43/P45 CPU North Bridge South ISA Slot PCI PCI BUS RAM VideoRAM AMR IDE USB Chip Set Major Chipset Manufacturers: Intel, SiS, nVidia, ATI and ALi North Bridge and South Bridge
The north bridge is the chipset on your motherboard used to control data communication and control signals to and from the CPU, Memory, Onboard Graphics / AGP Slot. These are the most important components of your computer . The south bridge incorporates a number of different controller functions. It looks after the transfer of data to and from the hard disk and all the other I/O devices, and passes this data into the link channel which connects to the north bridge. With the new motherboards it should also handle PCI express slots. Also it manages USB and RAID controllers on the board. North Bridge North Bridge The north bridge chip, also called MCH (Memory Controller Hub) / GMCH (Graphics and Memory Controller Hub) in Intel is connect directly to the CPU and has basically the following functions: Memory controller (*) AGP bus controller (if available) PCI Express x16 controller (if available) Interface for data transfer with south bridge South Bridge South Bridge The south bridge chip, also called ICH (I/O Controller Hub) is connected to the north bridge and is in charge basically of controlling I/O devices and on-board devices, e.g. Hard disk drive ports (Parallel and Serial ATA ports) USB ports On-board audio (*) On-board LAN (**) PCI bus PCI Express lanes (if available) Real time clock (RTC) CMOS memory Legacy devices like interrupt controller and DMA controller ROM BIOS BIOS manages the startup process (startup BIOS) and many basic I/O functions of the system (system BIOS). BIOS manufacturer American Megatrends Inc. (AMI) Phoenix Technologies IBM Different Types of ROM EPROM ROM chips that can be erased and reprogrammed. Erasable programmable read-only memory (EPROM) is a special types of programmable read-only memory that can be erased by shining ultraviolet light through a clear windows on the top of chip. EEPROM Electrically erasable programmable read-only memory (EEPROM) chips are erased using a higher-than-normal electric voltage instead of ultraviolet light. (When the system BIOS or firmware is c

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