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Computer fundamental introduction_and_types

Jul 16, 2015



  • Introduction to Computers


    Computer Types

    Md Fazlul Kader, Assistant Professor

    Dept. of APECE, Faculty of Engineering

    University of Chittagong

  • An Overview of the Computer System

    What is a Computer? A computer is an electronic device used to process


    A computer can convert data into information that is useful to people.

    A complete computer system includes four distinct parts:





  • 3A computer is an electronic machine that can be programmed to accept

    data (input), process it into useful information (output), and store it in a

    storage media for future use

    System Unit

    What is a Computer?

  • Block Diagram of Computer

  • Basic Terminology

    Input Whatever is put into a computer system.

    Data Refers to the symbols that represent facts, objects, or ideas.

    Information The results of the computer storing data as bits and bytes; the words,

    numbers, sounds, and graphics.

    Output Consists of the processing results produced by a computer.

    Processing Manipulation of the data in many ways.

    Memory Area of the computer that temporarily holds data waiting to be

    processed, stored, or output.

    Storage Area of the computer that holds data on a permanent basis when it is

    not immediately needed for processing.

  • An Overview of the Computer System

  • Hardware


    Includes the electronic and mechanical devices

    that process the data; refers to the computer as

    well as peripheral devices.

    A computer's hardware consists of electronic

    devices; the parts we can see and touch.

    The term "device" refers to any piece of

    hardware used by the computer, such as a

    keyboard, monitor, modem, mouse, etc.

  • Hardware

  • Software


    A computer program that tells the computer

    how to perform particular tasks.

    Software also called programs consists of organized sets of instructions for controlling the


    Some programs exist for the computer's use, to help it

    manage its own tasks and devices.

    Other programs exist for the user, and enable the

    computer to perform tasks for you, such as creating


  • Data

    Raw, unprocessed facts

    Processing creates information

    Stored electronically in files

    Document files

    Worksheet files

    Database files

    Presentation files





  • Users

    People are the computer's operators, or


    Some types of computers can operate without

    much intervention from people, but personal

    computers are designed specifically for use

    by people.

  • Types of Computers

  • Classification of computer depending on signal /

    nature of I/O

    Computers can also be divided into three

    categories depending upon their instruction

    and form of input data that they accept and

    process. These are:

    Analog Computers

    Digital Computers

    Hybrid Computers

  • Analog Computers

    The word Analog means continuously varying in quantity.

    The analog computers accept input data in

    continuous form and output is obtained in the

    form of graphs.

    These computers accept input and give

    output in the form of analog signals. The

    output is measured on a scale.

    These are used in industrial units to control

    various processes and also used in different

    fields of engineering

  • Analog Computers

  • Digital Computers

    The word Digital means discrete. It refers to binary system, which consists of only two digits, i.e. 0 and 1. Digital data consists of binary data represented by OFF (low) and ON (high) electrical pulses. These pulses are increased and decreased in discontinuous form rather than in continuous form.

    The main features of the computers are:

    Give accurate result.

    Having high speed of data processing.

    Can store large amount of data.

    Easy of program and are general purpose in use.

    Consume low energy.

  • Hybrid Computers

    The hybrid computers have best features of both analog and digital computers.

    These computers contain both the digital and analog components. In hybrid computers, the users can process both the continuous (analog) and discrete (digital) data.

    These are special purpose computers. These are very fast and accurate.

    These are used in scientific fields. In hospitals, these are used to watch patients health condition in ICU (Intensive Care Unit). These are also used in telemetry, spaceships, missiles etc.

  • Hybrid Computers

  • Differentiate between Analog and Digital Computers

  • Types of Computers on the basis of size and



    Mainframe Computers




    or Personal Computers

    Wearable computer

  • Supercomputers are the most

    powerful computers. They are

    used for problems requiring

    complex calculations.

    Because of their size and

    expense, supercomputers are

    relatively rare.

    Supercomputers are used by

    universities, government

    agencies, and large businesses

    Typical uses

    Breaking codes

    Modeling weather



  • "FLOPS" (FLoating Point Operations Per

    Second), commonly used with an SI prefix

    such as tera-, combined into the shorthand

    "TFLOPS" (1012 FLOPS, pronounced


    or peta-, combined into the shorthand

    "PFLOPS" (1015 FLOPS, pronounced


  • Mainframe Computers

    Occupies specially wired, air-conditioned rooms

    Capable of great processing speeds and data


    Not as powerful as supercomputers

    Page 11

  • Mainframe

    Large expensive computer capable of simultaneously processing data for hundreds or thousands of users.

    Used to store, manage, and process large amounts of data that need to be reliable, secure, and centralized.

    Usually housed in a closet sized cabinet.

  • Minicomputers

    Known as midrange computers

    Used by medium-size companies

    Used by departments of large companies

    Minicomputers are smaller than mainframes but larger than microcomputers.

    Minicomputers usually have multiple terminals.

    Minicomputers may be used as network servers and Internet servers.

    Page 11

  • Microcomputers

    Least powerful

    Widely used

    Page 11

  • Microcomputer

    A personal computer;

    designed to meet the

    computer needs of an


    Provides access to a

    wide variety of

    computing applications,

    such as word

    processing, photo

    editing, e-mail, and


  • Four Types of Microcomputers


    Notebook or laptop

    Tablet PC


    Desktop Notebook

    Tablet PCHandheld

    Page 11

  • 1.Desktop Microcomputer

    A microcomputer that fits on a desk and runs on power from an electrical wall outlet.

    The CPU can be housed in either a vertical or a horizontal case.

    Has separate components (keyboard, mouse, etc.) that are each plugged into the computer.

  • 2.Laptop Computer

    A portable, compact computer that can run on an electrical wall outlet or a battery unit.

    All components (keyboard, mouse, etc.) are in one compact unit.

    Usually more expensive than a comparable desktop.

    Sometimes called a Notebook.

  • 3.Tablet PC

    Is a type of notebook computer that

    accepts your handwriting. This input is

    digitized and converted to standard text

    that can be further processed by

    programs such as a word processor.

    Page 11

  • 4.Handheld

    Also called a PDA (Personal

    Digital Assistant).

    A computer that fits into a

    pocket, runs on batteries,

    and is used while holding the

    unit in your hand.

    Typically used as an

    appointment book, address

    book, calculator, and


    Can be synchronized with a

    personal microcomputer as a


  • Handheld

    Are the smallest and are also known as

    palm computers. These systems typically

    combine pen input, writing recognition,

    personal organizational tools, and

    communications capabilities.

    Page 11

  • Microcomputer Hardware

    System unit

    Input/output devices

    Secondary storage


    Page 11

  • Workstation

    Powerful desktop computer designed for specialized tasks.

    Can tackle tasks that require a lot of processing speed.

    Can also be an ordinary personal computer attached to a LAN (local area network).

    Workstations are powerful single-user computers.

    Workstations are used for tasks that require a great deal of number-crunching power, such as product design and computer animation.

    Workstations are often used as network and Internet servers.

  • Workstation

  • Wearable computer

    Wearable computers are computers that are worn on the body.

    This type of wearable technology has been used in behavioral modeling, health monitoring

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