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Working Principles and Comparisons of WiFi, LiFi & GiFi Technologies By: SHAHNEEL SIDDIQUI L1600319
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Comparison of Wifi, Lifi and Gifi

Apr 21, 2017

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Working Principles and Comparisons of WiFi, LiFi & GiFi TechnologiesBy:SHAHNEEL SIDDIQUIL1600319

Presentation OutlineWiFi TechnologyIntroduction on WiFiVarious Standards of WiFiWorking Principle of WiFiAdvantages & Disadvantages of WiFiGiFi TechnologyIntroduction of GiFiGiFi ArchitectureWorking of GiFiFrequency Division Duplexing in GiFi60 GHz Band AllocationUse of 60 GHz Band in GiFiAdvantages of GiFi technology

LiFi TechnologyIntroduction on LiFiWorking Principle of LiFiFeatures of LiFiDrawbacks of LiFiComparisonsOperationData RateRangeFrequencyComparison TableFuture ProposalsSHAHNEEL SIDDIQUI - L16003192/29

WI-FIWIRELESS FIDELITY

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Introduction on WiFiWiFi or Wireless Fidelity is a wireless technology that uses radio frequency to transmit data through the air.IEEE established the 802.11 Group in 1990Initial speeds were 1 and 2 MbpsIEEE modified the standard in 1999 to include:802.11b802.11a802.11g was added in 2003.

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Various Standards of WiFi802.11aIt uses 5GHz frequency to transmit the data over the networkIt makes the use of Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM)It can transfer the data for up to 54 Mbps. 802.11bIt uses the frequency of 2.4 GHz to transmit the data over the networkIt can transfer the data for up to 11 Mbps802.11g802.11g also uses the frequency of 2.4 GHz to transmit the data over the networkIt uses the OFDM & DSSSit can also achieve the data rate of up to 54 Mbps.

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Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum(DSSS)5

Working Principle of WiFiA Wifi network is created by establishing hotspotsThe hotspot device that is connected to the computer or any other device translates the data to be sent into the radio signalsThe radio signals are then transmitted into the air through an antennaOn the receiving side, the decoder translates the radio signals back to the data, and thus the information is receivedWifi uses the band of 2.4 GHz to 5.0 GHz for the transmission of the radio wavesAll the Wifi standards use the bandwidth of 22MHz

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Working Principle of WiFi

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Advantages & Disadvantages of WiFiAdvantagesWireless laptop can be moved from one place to another placeWi-Fi network communication devices without wire can reduce the cost of wires.Wi-Fi setup and configuration is easy than cabling processIt is completely safe and it will not interfere with any networkDisadvantagesWi-Fi generates radiations which can harm the human healthThere are some limits to transfer the data, we cant able to transfer the data for long distanceWi-Fi implementation is very expensive when compared to the wired connection

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GI-FIGIGABIT WIRELESS

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Introduction of GiFiGi-Fi or gigabit wireless is the worlds first transceiver integrated on a single chip that operates at 60GHz on the CMOS Gi-Fi is ten times faster than Wi-Fi and allows the wireless transfer of audio and video data up to 5 gigabits per second at low power consumption within range of 10 meters Developed by NICTA (National Information & Communication Technology Research Center), Melbourne, AustraliaThis technology provides a high broadband access, high speed transfer of data within seconds and a low cost one It uses the frequency range of 57-64 GHz of unsilenced frequency band

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GiFi ArchitectureThe main and important component of a Gi-Fi system is its subscriber station which is available to several access points It supports standard of IEEE 802.15.3C which uses small antenna at the subscriber station For the communication among different computer devices, which includes telephones and PDA, it supports millimeter-wave wireless PAN network. In this network, the antenna is mounted on the roof and it supports Line Of Sight (LOS) operation

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Working of GiFiThere is use of time division duplex for both transmission and receiving. Data files are up converted from IF range to RF 60Ghz range by using 2 mixers The output will fed be into to a power amplifier, which feeds millimeter wave antenna The incoming RF signal is first down converted to an IF signal centered at 5 GHz and then to normal data ranges Due to availability of 7GHz spectrum, the total data will be transferred within seconds

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Frequency Division Duplexing in GiFiFDD requires two separate wireless communications channels on separate frequencies, one for transmit and the other for received data.A sufficient amount of guard band separates the two bands so the transmitter and receiver dont interfere with one anotherUsing FDD, it is possible to transmit and receive signals simultaneously as the receiver is not tuned to the same frequency as the transmitter

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60 GHz Band Allocation

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Use of 60 GHz Band in GiFiAdvantages:Can transmit 7 Gbps only in 1 second for 1 b/Hz (BPSK ok). Complex modulation schemes not neededOnly 1.25 mm Antenna separation space required (/4=1.25 mm)Very Low Interference, does not cross wallsDisadvantages:High attenuation, (Attenuation frequency2)Short Distance 10mRTS/CTS does not workCan be easily blocked by any object

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LI-FILIGHT FIDELITY

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Introduction to LiFiLiFi is a wireless technology that uses optics for the Data transmissionIt makes the use of Light Emitting Diodes to send the data over a distanceThis technology has vast applications where the use of Wi-Fi is limited or bannedIt takes out the adverse health effects of using electromagnetic wavesUnless light is seen, data cant be hacked and so data transmission is secureData transmission is typically in terms of Giga bytes per second

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Working Principle of LiFiAn LED lightbulb light source which can be dipped and dimmed up and down at extremely high speeds, without being visible to the human eyeThe working of LiFi accommodates a photo-detector to receive light signals and a signal processing element to convert the data into 'stream-able' content Data is fed into an LED light bulb (with signal processing technology), it then sends data (embedded in its beam) at rapid speeds to the photo-detector (photodiode).The tiny changes in the rapid dimming of LED bulbs is then converted by the 'receiver' into electrical signalThe signal is then converted back into a binary data stream that we would recognize as web

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Working Principle of LiFi

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Features of LiFiLi-Fi technology provides 1000 times with greater data density compared to that of Wi-FiThe system would be of low cost as it requires less number of componentsNo additional power input is required for this technology and moreover LED illumination is already efficient.It eliminates any health hazards caused by RF wavesUse of light cannot interfere with any electronic circuitry and hence the technology is safe and non-hazardousData theft or hacking is negligible compared to Wi-Fi since the range of data transmission is confined to a certain area

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Drawbacks of LiFiLiFi has a very short range up to the illumination of LED bulbsInterference from external light sources can interrupt the communicationDifficult to communicate in outdoor scenarios during day timeLiFi has no standard yet, so equipment from one vendor won't work with another

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COMPARISONS

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ComparisonsOperationWifi technology is operated by transmission and reception of radio signalsLiFi is operated by frequently flickering LED bulbs for the data transmissionGiFi technology uses millimetre waves to transmit data over the air

Data RateWifi is only able to provide the data rate speed of 150 MbpsLiFi technology aims to provide the speed of up to 1 GbpsGiFi technology can provide the speed of up to 5 Gbps, and even more.

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ComparisonsRangeWiFi systems has the largest range as compared to LiFi and GiFi, providing range of up to 300 metersLiFi system can maximum be of 100 meters depending upon the light intensity and range of that LEDThe range of GiFi is noted to be very small of up to 10 meters

FrequencyWifi works on the frequency of unlicensed band of 2.4 GHz and 5 GHzLiFi systems can achieve the frequency of up to 50 THz (1000 times greater than that of WiFi)The GiFi chip works on the frequency of around 60 GHz.

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Comparison TableParametersWiFiLiFiGiFiSpeed150 Mbps1 Gbps5 GbpsData DensityVery LowHighVery HighSecurityLess SecureVery SecureLess SecureRangeVarying100 Meters10 MetersCostHighLowVery Low up to 10$Frequency2.4 GHz & 5 GHzUp to 50 THz57-64 GHzOperationData transmission by radio wavesData transmission bylight of LED bulbsData Transmission by 5mm chip

The comparisons between the three technologies are summarized in the table belowSHAHNEEL SIDDIQUI - L160031925/29

FUTURE PROPOSALSSHAHNEEL SIDDIQUI - L160031926/29

Future ProposalsLiFi and GiFi technology have some limitationsThough they provide greater speeds, they fall behind in rangesThe technologies are not yet developed that they can be easily deployed very soon and take over WiFiLiFi and GiFi may not be able to replace WiFi completely, but the following solutions can help the technologies to work simultaneously

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Future ProposalsSolutionAs Li-Fi uses only LED to transmit the data, and GiFi uses just a small 5mm2 chipIt can be managed to inbuilt a LED bulb and GiFi chip in the Wi-Fi routersIn this case, all the three technologies can be used with each otherAdvantageA user, sitting in a room under a LED bulb, or within the range of GiFi can enjoy more speed of LiFi and GiFi.If the user needs to move, or if LED needs to be switched off, then the users network can be switched back to WiFi.SHAHNEEL SIDDIQUI - L160031928/29

Thank you

Questions & Suggestions are very much welcomed !SHAHNEEL SIDDIQUI - L160031929/29