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Columbia River Basin Trans-boundary issues in the Pacific Northwest
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Columbia River Basin

Feb 22, 2016

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Columbia River Basin. Trans-boundary issues in the Pacific Northwest. Geography. hundreds of tributaries Drains >260,000 mi^2 Flow= 78,500,000 acre-ft/yr 2 nations Canada (origin) US (85% area, 75% runoff) 7 states( WA, OR, MT, Id, UT, WY, NV). Hydroelectric Potential. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Columbia River Basin

Columbia River BasinTrans-boundary issues in the Pacific Northwest

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2Geographyhundreds of tributaries Drains >260,000 mi^2Flow= 78,500,000 acre-ft/yr2 nationsCanada (origin)US (85% area, 75% runoff) 7 states( WA, OR, MT, Id, UT, WY, NV)

3Hydroelectric PotentialElevation change = 2,650 ft14 hydroelectric dams on main stem: hundreds on tributariesIn the US Federal: 8,664 megawatts-enough for 8 cities the size of Seattle(40%) Non-federal: 5,368 megawatts, enough for 5 Seattles.In Canada: 2,572 megawattsMost consumed within the provinceSome sold to U.S. from B.C Hydro

4Political Issues1961 Columbia River Treaty with Canada

Tribal Concerns

Balancing Energy and the Environment

5Motivations for Treaty Insufficient Boundary Waters Treaty (1909)Dams in both countries provided power but did not control flowA lack of storage facilities allowed floodingGrowing Populations requires more energyVanport flood (1948) Second largest city200 ft Dike burstCity was Destroyed

6Negotiations1940s- studies for potential future joint development of dams in the Columbia River basin began1959-the governments issued a report that recommended an agreement1964- Treaty was ratified and came into effect

Diefenbaker and Eisenhower7Treaty ProvisionsUnited States Benefitsflood control: Canada required to provide 19.12km of usable reservoir storage behind three large damsIncrease in power generationCanadian BenefitsUpfront Payment of 50% of estimated prevented flood damage costs through 2024($64.4 Million)Canadian Entitlement- 50% of downstream power benefits(sold 1st 30 years (2003) for 254 million)

Bonneville Power Administration (US) and BC Hydro(Canada) created to implement treaty

8Future RelationsSeptember 2024: pre-determined flood control obligations expireSeptember 2014: First year either country can change the agreementTerminate the treatyNegotiate new flood control obligations and benefitsExtend the existing obligations and benefitsBoth governments are currently reviewing the treaty

9Tribal RelationsTreaty of Walla Walla (1855)- The exclusive right of taking fish in all the streams where running through or bordering said reservations, is further secured to said confederated tribes and bands of Indians, as also the right of taking fish at all usual and accustomed places

Both countries have pursued treaties with native populations to establish rights to land and resourcesWorster v. Georgia(1832) several Indian nations have legal status as political communities within which their authority is exclusive.

Isaac Ingalls Stevens10Population DepletionHistorically 15 million Salmon returned to the basin to spawn every yearDecreased as both nations began to build dams Physically Blocks PathIncreased TemperatureIncreased Nitrogen LevelsIn modern times; less than 2 million, mostly from hatcheriesMany species are endangeredTribal Nations feel their rights are ignored

11ResponseFish laddersBypass systems1970-flew to snake R. Water filled elevators

Lethal injection of sea Lions (2007)Studies on the impact of removing dams

12Energy & EnvironmentMarmot Dam-2007 Portland General Electric, OrSavage Rapids-2009 Bureau of Reclamation, OrCondit-2011 Pacific Corp, Wa

Other Tribal ConcernsThe Model Toxics Control Act (1996)establishes cleanup levels for surface waters assumed a fish consumption rate of 54.1 grams/day Tribes in the area eat about 389 grams/day.2008- Tribes campaign for their needs to be reflected in cleanup legislation2010175 grams/d Oregon Water quality standard583 grams/d consumption rate used for the Rayonier Cleanup

14Questions?

How do you think the US and Canada will handle the expiration of the C.R.T. in 2024?What, if any environmental issues should be considered in the revised Columbia River treaty? How well do you feel that Native American water issues have been managed in the Columbia River Basin? How do you think their needs should be addressed in the future?

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