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Feb 13, 2016
Sector Analysis Nov-Dec, 2011
Business Design, 2011-2013Welingkar Institute of Management and Research
What is Logistics ?Introduction to Cold Chain LogisticsHistory and BreakthroughsGlobal Scenario Indian Ice Age Value Parameters Users
Content of what all we are going to present3Logistics is the management of the flow of goods from origin to destination to meet customer requirementsRight Time, Right Place @ Minimum Cost
Started as a business concept in 1950sWhat is Logistics ?Military ScienceRoman, Greek and Byzantine Empire
Source: Global Agri System Pvt. Ltd. ReportWhat is logistics and then coming down to cold chain logistics.4What is Cold Chain Logistics?Major Sectors : Food and Beverages, Bio-Pharmaceutical
The Cold chain logistics infrastructure
Global Cold Chain Facts: Food SectorSource: China Cold Chain Industry Development Report, 2010 (www.researchinchina.com)In European and American developed countries, the rate of refrigerated transport is up to 80-90%, pre-cooling preservation is up to 80-100%, and the loss rate is below 5%.
25% of the total food production is processed foods. A booming industryCold chain in Food Sector
Industry Temperature StandardsBanana13CChill2CFrozen-18CDeep Frozen-29CTemperature andShelf LifeProductRefrigerated Shelf Life (Days)Optimum Temperature (Celcius)Apple90-2400Bananas7-2813.5Bell Peppers21-357Cabbage14-201Eggs1801.1Onions30-1801Lettuce12-140.6Fresh Meat (beef, lamb, pork, poultry)14-65-2Oranges21-907Pears120-180-0.6Potatoes30-5010Seafood (shrimp, lobster, crab)120-360-17.8Strawberries5-100.6Tomatoes7-1412Global Cold Chain Facts: Bio-PharmaceuticalSources: http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:http://www.fiercebiotech.com/press-releases/todays-global-biopharma-cold-chain-market-5-1-billion-growing-6-6-billion-2011 Cold Chain Biopharma Logistics Sourcebook 2010
source: www.coldchainpharm.com/Global Bio-Pharma Cold-chain market2010 : $5.1 billion 2011 : $6.6 billion 2014 : 7 of the top 10 global pharma products in will require cold-chain handlingVaccines growing on average 8% per year for the next five years
Source: www.fiercebiotech.com/press-releases/Cold chain in Pharmaceutical Sector
Global Cold Chain- Pharmaceutical SectorSources: http://www.aircargoinsights.com/news/cold-chain-pharmaceuticals-worth-billions/http://www.aircargoinsights.com/more-market/global-biopharma-demand-on-the-rise/
Bio-pharma logistics spending growth
Cold chain shipment growth by regionCold chain logistics spending expanded from $5.1 billion in 2008 to $6.6 billion in 2011HISTORY400 frozen carcases were shipped on a two month voyage from Australia to GB using a simple refrigeration plant. That marked the beginning of the modern agricultural trend.HISTORY & BREAKTHROUGHSBritish fishermen used natural ice to preserve their fish stock piles1797Movement of food from rural areas to urban consumption marketsLate 1820sMechanical refrigeration and Air-conditioning plant patented by Dr. John Gorrie1851sTrade of food between colonial powers and their coloniesFrance received mutton carcasses from South America Great Britain imported frozen beef from Australia, pork from New Zealand1870sThe refrigerated railroad car was patented by J.B. Sutherland of Detroit1867600,000 tons of frozen meat was being brought into Great Britain alone.
1910Source: http://people.hofstra.edu/geotrans/eng/ch5en/appl5en/ch5a5en.htmlGroup of CFCs - Freon used in refrigeration was developed.
1920s1882SS Dunedin, the first ship to complete transportation of frozen meat.History from consumers point of view. How were fruits, veggies meats and drugs transported in the past maintaining the constant temperature.Along with breakthroughs.121857The first shipment of refrigerated beef was made from the Chicago stockyards to the East in an ordinary box car packed with ice.1866Parker Earle of Illinois shipped strawberries in iced boxes by rail from southern Illinois to Chicago.1867The first patent for a specialized refrigerator car (US Patent #71,423) was issued to JB Sutherland of Detroit, Michigan.1868William Davis of Detroit developed a refrigerator car cooled by a frozen ice-salt mixture, and patented it in the USA. The patent was sold to George Hammond, a local meat packer who went on to amass a fortune in refrigerated shipping.1869Henry Peyton Howard (1829-1913) of the United States transported a shipload of beef frozen in a salt-ice mixture from Indianola, Texas, to New Orleans and served it in hospitals, hotels and restaurants.1873Timothy C. Eastman exported chilled beef by ship from America to London, and shortly thereafter built up his trade to an annual tonnage of around 10,000 t. The insulated cargo space was cooled by ice, which was loaded on departure. The success of this method was limited by distance and climate.1876-1877French engineer Charles Tellier and the steamship Frigorifique achieved the first overseas shipment of meat under artificial refrigeration. Three methyl-ether refrigerating machines kept the cargo in a chilled state during the 12,000 km voyage from France to Argentina and the return trip. The preservation of the meat was less than perfect; full success would have to wait until the voyage of the Paraguay.HISTORY & BREAKTHROUGHSSource: http://www33.brinkster.com/iiiii/inventions/reftranstimeline.asp1877-1878The French vessel Paraguay, equipped with refrigeration machinery by Ferdinand Carr, traveled from France to Buenos Aires and back. 150 t of meat, kept at -27 to -30 deg C, arrived in Argentina in excellent condition after 50 days.1878Gustavus F. Swift (1839-1903) of the United States put into operation a refrigerator car to ship fresh meats. The car body was well insulated and the interior cooled by ice. Fifteen years later the operation had expanded to 97 thousand units.1879Henry Bell (1848-1931) and John Bell (1850-1929) of Scotland and Joseph James Coleman (1838-1888) of England completed the Bell-Coleman dense-air machine on the Anchor liner Circassia, which successfully brought a cargo of chilled beef from the USA to London.1879-1880The Strathleven, equipped with a Bell-Coleman air machine and loaded with beef, mutton, butter and kegs, sailed from Melbourne to London and arrived with the frozen cargo in good condition after a 9-week voyage of about 24,000 km.1880The first patent for a mechanically refrigerated railcar was issued in the USA (#230615, to Charles William Cooper).1881Alfred Seale Haslam (1844-1927) of England equipped the liner Orient with Haslam refrigeration compressors. He bought the Bell-Coleman dense-air patents in 1878 and eventually equipped four hundred plants and ships with Bell-Coleman machines.HISTORY & BREAKTHROUGHSSource: http://www33.brinkster.com/iiiii/inventions/reftranstimeline.asp1885Berries from the Norfolk (Virginia) area were shipped by refrigerator car to New York.1887Parker Earle joined F.A. Thomas of Chicago in the fruit shipping business. The company owned 60 ice-cooled railcars by 1888, and 600 by 1891.1888An experimental Chicago-to-Florida shipment of beef from Armour and Company was made in a car cooled by ethyl chloride compression machinery.1888Florida oranges reached New York under refrigeration for the first time.1889The first cooled shipment of deciduous fruit from California entered the New York market.1890In London, first mechanically refrigerated barge introduced.1890After acquiring the patent rights of Franz Windhausen's CO2-compression refrigeration system, J. & E. Hall installed the first marine CO2 machine on the Highland Chief.1898Russia put its first refrigerator cars into service. Russia had 1900 such cars by 1908, 3000 by 1910, 5900 by 1916. The cars were employed mainly for transport of Siberian butter. The journey from Siberia to Baltic ports lasted about 12 days. Reicing stations were set up each 2000 km.Source: http://www33.brinkster.com/iiiii/inventions/reftranstimeline.aspHISTORY & BREAKTHROUGHS1899Refrigerated fruit traffic within the USA reached 90,000 t per year. Transport from California to NY averaged 12 days in 1900.1900A worldwide survey found 356 refrigerated ships, 37% of which had air machines, 37% ammonia compressors and 25% CO2 compressors.1900Refrigerator cars in the USA numbered about 50,000.1900During the year, Great Britain imported 360,000 metric tons of refrigerated meat: 220,000 t from Argentina, 95,000 t from New Zealand, and 45,000 t from Australia.1901The first refrigerated banana ship, the Port Morant, was equipped with a CO2 machine and carried 23,000 stems at controlled temperature from Jamaica to England.1901Carl von Linde equipped a Russian train with a mobile mechanical refrigeration plant to distribute cooling to the cars carrying the goods. Similar systems continued to be used in Russia through at least 1975.1902According to a study of Lloyd's Register, 460 ships had refrigerating plants in 1902. The marine refrigeration industry at this time was dominated by the British.1904US pomologist G. Harold Powell introduced the technique of precooling, or removing field heat from the crop as rapidly as possible before transport.Source: http://www33.brinkster.com/iiiii/inventions/reftranstimeline.aspHISTORY & BREAKTHROUGHS1906Pacific Fruit Express began operations with more than 6,000 refrigerated cars, transporting fruit and vegetables across the United States from Western producers to Eastern consumers.1907US traffic in refrigerated fruit reached a yearly total of 600,000 t, up from 430,000 t in 1905.1910Great Britain refrigerated meat imports rose to 760,000 t/year.1910By this time British company J. & E. Hall had installed 18