Top Banner
Cognitive Impairments (Mental Retardation) By: Courtney Lowell

Cognitive Impairments (Mental Retardation)

Feb 22, 2016




Cognitive Impairments (Mental Retardation). By: Courtney Lowell. Mental Retardation. Mental retardation is a term used when a person has certain limitations in mental functioning and in skills such as communicating, taking care of him or herself, and social skills.(Mental Retardation, 2002). - PowerPoint PPT Presentation
Welcome message from author
This document is posted to help you gain knowledge. Please leave a comment to let me know what you think about it! Share it to your friends and learn new things together.
Page 1: Cognitive Impairments (Mental Retardation)

Cognitive Impairments(Mental Retardation)

By: Courtney Lowell

Page 2: Cognitive Impairments (Mental Retardation)

Mental Retardation Mental retardation is a term used

when a person has certain limitations in mental functioning and in skills such as communicating, taking care of him or herself, and social skills.(Mental Retardation, 2002)

Page 3: Cognitive Impairments (Mental Retardation)

What Causes Mental Retardation?

Genetic conditions- abnormal genes inherited from parents.

Problems during pregnancy: Mental retardation can result when the baby does not develop inside the mother properly.

Problems at birth: not getting enough oxygen could cause mental retardation.

Health problems: Diseases like whooping cough, measles, or meningitis can also cause mental retardation. Malnutrition can also be a cause.

Page 4: Cognitive Impairments (Mental Retardation)

Mental Retardation IS NOT a Disease

You cannot catch mental retardation from anyone.

It is not a type of mental illness.

There is no cure for mental retardation.

Most children with mental retardation can learn to do many things, it just takes them more time and effort than other children.

Page 5: Cognitive Impairments (Mental Retardation)

Are There Signs of Mental Retardation?

Some signs of children with mental retardation may include the following:

Sit up, crawl, or walk later than other children. Learn to talk later, or have trouble speaking. Find it hard to remember things. Having trouble understanding social rules. Have trouble seeing consequences of their

own actions. Have trouble thinking logically.

Page 6: Cognitive Impairments (Mental Retardation)

Is Mental Retardation Common?

As many as 3 out of every 100 people in the country have mental retardation.

Over 614,000 children ages 6-21 have some level of mental retardation and need special education in school.

1 out of every 10 children who need special education have some form of mental retardation.

(Mental Retardation, 2002)

Page 7: Cognitive Impairments (Mental Retardation)

Specific Types of Cognitive Impairments

Down syndrome

Phenylketonuria (PKU)

Fragile X syndrome

Page 8: Cognitive Impairments (Mental Retardation)

Down Syndrome

Down syndrome is a genetic condition when an individual has 47 chromosomes instead of the normal 26.

Page 9: Cognitive Impairments (Mental Retardation)

Characteristics of Down Syndrome

Mental retardation, usually the moderate range

Short stature Flat, broad face with small ears and nose Hyperflexibility of joints Small skull with flattened back of the

head and soft spots Upward slanting of with folds of skin Premature aging

Page 10: Cognitive Impairments (Mental Retardation)

Prevalence of Down Syndrome

Occurs once in every 1,500-2,00 births when the mother’s age is below 25.

Occurs once in every 400 births when the mother’s age is over 35.

Occurs once in every 40 births when the mother’s age is over 45.

When a mother with a child who has Down Syndrome, the child has a 1in25 chance of having Down Syndrome.

Down Syndrome accounts for approximately 10% of the mentally retarded individuals with moderate and severe forms of mental retardation.

Page 11: Cognitive Impairments (Mental Retardation)
Page 12: Cognitive Impairments (Mental Retardation)

Phenylketonuria (PKU) PKU is an inherited condition which prevents the

affected individual from normally metabolizing one of the essential amino acids found in all protein foods.

People suffering from PKU lack an enzyme that is essential to break down an amino acid known as phenylalanine which is generally found in protein foods.

The excessive amount of phenylalanine in the blood causes irreparable damage to the brain if left undetected.

Page 13: Cognitive Impairments (Mental Retardation)

Characteristics of PKU IQ may be somewhat lower than expected Have difficulties with tasks involving

organization and planning Musty body odor Small head and prominent cheek and

upper jaw bones Widely spaced teeth Seizures Skin rashes

Page 14: Cognitive Impairments (Mental Retardation)

Fragile X Syndrome Is a well-recognized cause of

intellectual disability and developmental delays in males and females

It is a genetic condition involving changes in part of the X chromosome

It is caused by a change in the FMR1 gene

Page 15: Cognitive Impairments (Mental Retardation)

Characteristics of Fragile X Syndrome

Moderate to sever mental retardation Behavioral problems Hyperactivity Gaze aversion Flat feet Long face

Page 16: Cognitive Impairments (Mental Retardation)

Strategies in the Classroom Learn as much as you can about mental retardation Find out what the student’s strengths and interests

are, and emphasize on them If not part of an IEP team, as for a copy of his or her

IEP Demonstrate what you mean rather than just

giving verbal directions Break longer, new tasks into small steps. Have the

students do the steps, one at a time and provide assistance when necessary.

Page 17: Cognitive Impairments (Mental Retardation)

Strategies Continued… Give the student immediate feedback

Teach the student life skills such as daily living, social skills, as appropriate.

Try to involve the student in group activities or clubs

Work together with the student’s parents and other school personnel to create and implement an educational plan based on meeting the student’s needs.

Page 18: Cognitive Impairments (Mental Retardation)

Using Differentiated Instruction

Differentiated instruction is defined as the planning of curriculum and instruction using strategies that address student strengths, interests, skills, and readiness in flexible learning environments. ( Gartin, Murdick, Imbeau, Perner, 2002)

Page 19: Cognitive Impairments (Mental Retardation)

High Quality Differentiated Instruction


Is engaging to the student

Joyful or satisfying

Provides choices

Connects with the student’s lives and world

Is fresh and surprising

Allows meaningful collaboration

Seems real or is real to the student

Has clear expectations

Page 20: Cognitive Impairments (Mental Retardation)

Differentiated Instruction for the Cognitively Impaired

Seating: Quiet places Flexible seating-study carrels, loner

seats, reading corners, headphone area arrangements and grouping

Multiple use areas- tutorial stations and group work area.

Page 21: Cognitive Impairments (Mental Retardation)

Classroom Organization Well established daily routines Multiple signals and cues to prepare

students for changes in activity Student assignments given orally,

posted on the board and written in assignment workbooks

Manipulatives and materials stored for easy access

Page 22: Cognitive Impairments (Mental Retardation)

Instructional Adaptations Chunk content into small segments Provide student with outlines or lecture notes

beforehand Have material read aloud Accompany lectured with visual materials such

as overheads, graphic organizers, and maps Hands on activities Highlight essential ideas and facts in the text

or handouts Include demonstrations

Page 23: Cognitive Impairments (Mental Retardation)

Universal Design of LearningWays teachers can integrate the principles of

universal design in lesson planning: Consider multiple learning styles when presenting

information Promote engagement by giving students choices

of content, assignments, responses, and materials Allow students to respond to assignments in

multiple ways Teach to multiple levels of ability

Use curriculum overlapping Use ongoing assessment

Page 25: Cognitive Impairments (Mental Retardation)

Bibliography Mental retardation (2002) National Information Center

for Children and Youth with Disabilities, 3-5.

Dianne, Ferrara. (1984) What is down syndrome? ERIC Clearinghouse on Handicapped and Gifted Children. (2).

Dennis, Lockyer, Lazenby, Donnelly, Wilkinson, Schoonhey. (1999) Intelligence patterns among children with high- functioning autism, phenylketonuria, and childhood head injury. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, (8).

Page 26: Cognitive Impairments (Mental Retardation)

Bibliography Continued… Lombroso, Paul, Ogren, Marilee. (2008) Fragile x

syndrome: keys to the molecular genetics of synaptic placticity. Clinical Implications of Basic Research, (736).

Gartin, Murdick, Imbeau, Perner. (2002) How to use differentiated instruction with students with developmental disabilities in the general education classroom. Council for Exception Children, 12, 18, 30.

Lynch, Sharon, Warner, Laverne, (2008) Creating lesson plans for all learners. Kappa Delta Pi Record, (12).