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Cluster Computers
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Cluster Computers. Introduction Cluster computing –Standard PCs or workstations connected by a fast network –Good price/performance ratio –Exploit existing.

Dec 24, 2015

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  • Slide 1
  • Cluster Computers
  • Slide 2
  • Introduction Cluster computing Standard PCs or workstations connected by a fast network Good price/performance ratio Exploit existing (idle) machines or use (new) dedicated machines Cluster computers versus supercomputers Processing power is similar: based on microprocessors Communication performance was the key difference Modern networks (Myrinet, Infiniband) have bridged this gap
  • Slide 3
  • Overview Cluster computers at our department DAS-1: 128-node Pentium-Pro / Myrinet cluster (gone) DAS-2: 72-node dual-Pentium-III / Myrinet-2000 cluster DAS-3: 85-node dual-core dual Opteron / Myrinet-10G cluster Part of a wide-area system: Distributed ASCI Supercomputer Network interface protocols for Myrinet Low-level systems software Partly runs on the network interface card (firmware)
  • Slide 4
  • Distributed ASCI Supercomputer (1997-2001)
  • Slide 5
  • Node configuration 200 MHz Pentium Pro 128 MB memory 2.5 GB disk Fast Ethernet 100 Mbit/s Myrinet 1.28 Gbit/s (full duplex) Operating system: Red Hat Linux
  • Slide 6
  • DAS-2 Cluster (2002-2006) 72 nodes, each with 2 CPUs (144 CPUs in total) 1 GHz Pentium-III 1 GB memory per node 20 GB disk Fast Ethernet 100 Mbit/s Myrinet-2000 2 Gbit/s (crossbar) Operating system: Red Hat Linux Part of wide-area DAS-2 system (5 clusters with 200 nodes in total) Myrinet switch Ethernet switch
  • Slide 7
  • DAS-3 Cluster (Sept. 2006) 85 nodes, each with 2 dual-core CPUs (340 cores in total) 2.4 GHz AMD Opterons (64 bit) 4 GB memory per node 250 GB disk Gigabit Ethernet Myrinet-10G 10 Gb/s (crossbar) Operating system: Scientific Linux Part of wide-area DAS-3 system (5 clusters with 263 nodes in total), using SURFnet-6 optical network with 40-80 Gb/s wide-area links
  • Slide 8
  • Nortel 5530 + 3 * 5510 ethernet switch 85 compute nodes 85 * 1 Gb/s ethernet Myri-10G switch 85 * 10 Gb/s Myrinet 10 Gb/s ethernet blade 8 * 10 Gb/s eth (fiber) Nortel OME 6500 with DWDM blade 80 Gb/s DWDM SURFnet6 1 or 10 Gb/s Campus uplink Headnode (10 TB mass storage) 10 Gb/s Myrinet 10 Gb/s ethernet Myrinet Nortel DAS-3 Networks
  • Slide 9
  • DAS-1 Myrinet Components: 8-port switches Network interface card for each node (on PCI bus) Electrical cables: reliable links Myrinet switches: 8 x 8 crossbar switch Each port connects to a node (network interface) or another switch Source-based, cut-through routing Less than 1 microsecond switching delay
  • Slide 10
  • 24-node DAS-1 cluster
  • Slide 11
  • 128-node DAS-1 cluster Ring topology would have: 22 switches Poor diameter: 11 Poor bisection width: 2
  • Slide 12
  • Topology 128-node cluster PC 4 x 8 grid with wrap-around Each switch is connected to 4 other switches and 4 PCs 32 switches (128/4) Diameter: 6 Bisection width: 8
  • Slide 13
  • Performance DAS-2: 9.6 sec 1-way null-latency 168 MB/sec throughput DAS-3: 2.6 sec 1-way null-latency 950 MB/sec throughput
  • Slide 14
  • MareNostrum: largest Myrinet cluster in the world IBM system at Barcelona Supercomputer Center 4812 PowerPC 970 processors, 9.6 TB memory