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    Outline and Study Guide 1. Remarkable interpretations2. Japan after 1870: a general examination.

    Sino-Japanese War, 1894-95 3. Causes of the Sino-Japanese War4. Result and Significance of the Sino-Japanese War.5. To what extent were economic factors responsible for the outbreak of the firstSino-Japanese War?

    6. The Sino-Japanese War of 1894-5 resulted from a clash of interests betweenChina and Japan over the issue of Korea. Examine this statement.

    Russo-Japanese War, 1904-05 7. Russo-Japanese War 1904-05: Causes and Significance.8. Account for the signing of the Anglo-Japanese Alliance 1902 and discuss itshistorical significance.9. Russo-Japanese War was an inevitable result of the Anglo-Japanese Alliance of 1902. Do you agree?

    Overall examination of Japans imperialism in the Meiji period 10. Trace and explain the overseas expansion of Japan in the Meiji era.11. Account for Japans imperialistic activities in the late 19th century.12. Was Meiji Japans imperialistic expansion largely unplanned or part of apre-ordained design?13. Why was treaty revision so important to the Meiji Government?

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    Remarkable Interpretations

    A.E. Tiedemannin the 1880s the competition with the influx of foreign goods led to the search for

    economic autonomy and self-sufficient, which finally contributed to the annexation of Taiwan and Korea.

    A.M. Harringtonthe intention to secure Japans trade in Korea was one of the important factors for theoutbreak of the Sino-Japanese War.

    Marlene Mayo:If there were no fixed ideologies, no master plans, or well-considered policies, thencertainly principles of some sort, broad purposes, ambitions, or attitudes must haveguided Japans actions in times of crisis.

    Bonnie B. Oheach foreign policy crisis was absorbed into the wider goal of strengthening thecountry.The Sino-Japanese War of 1894-5 was fought mainly for the long-range of securingKorean independence.For Japan, imperialism was a means of attaining equality with the Western powers,which was one of the primary goals of Meiji Japan. There were an abundance of expansionists such as ultra-nationalist societies, the advance guards of Japaneseimperialism, as well as military leaders. All of them contributed to the outbreak of

    the Sino-Japanese War and the Russo-Japanese War.

    Hilary Conroy:Mostly ad hoc.

    Fukuzawa Yukichi:the Sino-Japanese War was one between a country which is trying to developcivilization and a country which disturbs the civilization. After the victory, Japancould no longer regard China as a teacher and benefactor, or speak of a commonculture, or repay an obligation stretching back over a thousand years.

    Richard Storry:The 1902 Anglo-Japanese Alliance was valuable to Britain as a counterweight toRussian power.

    Chitoshi Yanaga:Without the help of the Alliance (1902), Japan could not have possibly achieved theinternational position that she enjoyed for the next 45 years.

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    Japan after 1870: a brief description

    Part I. Territorial ExpansionA. 1874: Invasion of Formosa (Taiwan) and Ryukyu Islands

    There was the uncertain position of the Ryukyu Islands. Ryukyu Islandswere Chinas traditional vassal states. However, Japan also had contacts with theRyukyu Islands during the Tokugawa period. In the late 1871, some Ryukyus werekilled by a few natives of Formosa. Japan immediately seized the chances bysupporting the Ryukyus and holding China responsible for the incident. Chinareplied that the murder was no business of Japan, and though Formosa was a Chinesevassal, its internal affairs were not under Chinas direct control.

    Japan took this reply as Chinas abandonment of national right over the twovassals. With misunderstanding that Taiwan was not part of China, Japan in 1874with helps of certain Americans invaded Taiwan.

    Soon the US withdrew and Japan was opposed by Us and Britain on the otherhand Japanese troops suffered from epidemics. Consequently, a peace treaty wasconcluded. China agreed to pay an indemnity of 500,000 taels.

    Reasons for Japans expansion in Taiwan and Ryukyu Islands 1. to acquire two places for national safety, since they commanded the southern seasof Japan;2. to imitate Western imperialism and to win international respectability;3. to give an outlet for the discontented samurai;4. to turn the attention of discontent politicians from power struggle at home toadventures.

    B. 1876: Expansion to Korea (The Treaty of Kanghwa)After the Meiji Restoration of 1868, three missions had been sent by the new

    government to revise relations with Korea. However, Korea rejected the order, outof a dislike for Japans imitation of the West. In revenge for this insult, a few Meijileaders such as Saigo proposed sending a military expedition to attack Korea. Yetthe plan was called off by some cautious Meiji leaders who realized the backwarddomestic conditions of Japan and feared the foreign intervention. Nonetheless, asurveying team was sent to force the opening of some Korean ports. The result of

    the signing of Treaty of Kanghwa.Korea was then recognized as a self-governing nation enjoying the right of equality with Japan; ambassadors were exchanged and three Korean ports wereopened.

    Reasons for Japans expansion in Korea 1. Strategically, the Korean peninsula seemed to be a dagger at Japans heart.Control of Korea would make Japan safe from Western imperialism, especially fromthe threats of the Russians, who were advancing into East Asia, and also from those of the British, who were advancing westward from Canada.2. Politically, Japans international reputation would be raised if she succeeded inturning Korea into a colony or protectorate. Also, internal demands for a strongerforeign policy in Japan would be satisfied.

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    3. Economically, Korea could be made to supply Japan with raw materials forindustrialization, investment opportunities for Japanese capital, and a big market forJapanese-made goods.

    C. 1879 Annexation of the Ryukyu IslandsJapan finally annexed these islands.

    D. The riot of 1882 and the Treaty of Chemulpo

    E. The riot staged by Kim Ok-kyun in 1884 and the Li-Ito Convention1885

    F. 1894-5 Sino-Japanese War, Treaty of Shimonoseki and annexation ofFormosa, Pescadores and the opening of Chongqing, Suzhou,Hangzhou and Shashi as treaty ports.

    Despite the friendly Sino-Japanese Agreement in 1871, Japans invasion of Formosa in 1874 and expansion in Korea after 1876 badly affected Sino-Japaneserelations. With the Tonghak Rebellion as the immediate cause, the Sino-JapaneseWar broke out and the Treaty of Shimonoseki was signed.

    Why? Well, see the notes in the later part.

    G. 1898: Sphere of influence in FujianIt was adjacent to Formosa, a Japanese colony since 1895.

    H. 1905: the outbreak of Russo-Japanese War (1904-5) and the signingof the Treaty of PortsmouthAfter the War, Korea became Japans protectorate and the southern half of Sakhalin asher colony. Japan also got the control of the Liaodong leasehold, the SouthernManchurian Railway, and some coal mines operated by the Russians in SouthernManchuria.

    Reasons for the War: 1. Strategically, the reign was important for Japans national safety.2. Politically, Japans international reputation would be raised if she were to turn thereign into a colony. Also, a stronger foreign policy might have the function of diverting the attention of those Japanese people who were dissatisfied with thegovernments internal policies. She also wanted to establish a protectorate in Korea,which was regarded as a dagger pointing at the heart of Japan, or at least, to keep off Russian influence there. To become a world power was one of the aims of the MeijiRestoration. Russia however seemed to be an obstacle to Japans dream of hegemony.3. Economically, the Northeast Asian region could be made to supply Japan withraw materials for industrialization, investment opportunities for economic growth, anda big market for Japanese-made goods.

    I. 1910: Treaty of Annexation: Korea was regarded as colony to Japan.

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    Part II: Rise of international status

    A. 1895 Sino-Japanese War, emerged as an Asian power and replaced China as the leading

    state in East Asia. Nonetheless, as H. Borton points out, Japan was still consideredby the Western powers as a backward,, semifeudal, inferior country.

    B. 1897&1898 Scramble for concession: ranked equally with powers in China. In Beasleys words,Japan then, as the western powers had done since the mid-19th century, imposed theTreaty port system to China to show her superiority.

    C. 1889&1900 i. Japan joined with the Western powers to attack China due to the Boxer Uprising,which implied the equal status of Japan with the European Powers.ii. Japan supported the Open Door Policy proposed by the US, which recognized theestablished status quo and opportunity of the powers in China.

    D. 1902Anglo-Japanese Alliance: an

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