Aug 19, 2014
CHAPTER-2 REVIEW OF LITERATURE
Review of literature pertaining to Effect of integrated nutrient management on growth and yield of bottle gourd chapter. Organic farming plays a vital role to bring stability, sustainability to Agriculture and also avoid over dependence of chemical fertilizers and pesticides. According to APEDA, organically grown vegetables have better export potential. The health and nutrition consciousness coupled with buying capacity have created good market for organic foods. Nowadays, consumer preference is more for organically grown produce because they are free of toxic chemical residues and have concern for environment. Bottle gourd (Langaneria sciceraria L.) being a short duration cucurbitaceous crop, put forth continuous vegetative growth and the yield and quality are largely influenced by the application of nutrients. There is a need to maintain high nutrient status in soil for its satisfactory growth and yield. Many research workers have revealed the usefulness of the application of plant nutrients through organic sources like FYM, poultry manure, coir pith compost, vermiwash, and panchakavya. These nutrient sources increase the nutrient use are presented in this
efficiency of the soil and thus enhance the crop productivity as well as quality of the produce. Recently, the concept of integrated nutrient management (INM) towards better crop production has paved the way for sustainable horticulture. The basic principles lie in maintenance of soil fertility through judicious use of inorganic fertilizers and organic manures. Organic manures act potential sources of not only for macro nutrients but also micronutrients, but the quantity varies depending upon the nature, sources and extent of decomposition (Katyal, 1979). Very little research work has been attempted in this line on snake gourd. Hence, the available literatures on integrated nutrient management practices on certain major vegetable crops are reviewed hereunder. 2.1. Effect of FYM 2.1.1. Effect of FYM on physical and nutritional attributes Farmyard manure is one of the traditional organic manure and is most readily available to the farmers. On an average, well rotten FYM contains 0.5 percent N, 0.2 percent P2O5 and 0.5 percent K2O (Gaur et al., 1971). Farmyard manure seems to act directly in increasing crop yields by supplying nitrogen, phosphorus and sulphur in available forms to the plants through biological decomposition. Moreover, it improves physical properties of soil such as aggregation, aeration, permeability and water holding capacity.
Also it helps to increase the productivity of the soil by improving soil chemical properties viz., soil organic carbon content, increase the availability of both major and minor nutrients and availability of nutrients for longer period, biological properties increased decomposition rate. Whereas Sharma and Mitra (1989) reported that the FYM contains 26.1 % C, 1.71 % K on dry weight basis and C: N ratio of 15:1. The FYM used in the trail plots of Sriramachandarasekharan et al., (1996) had 1.2 % N, 0.21 % P, 1.96 % K, 26.90 % C and C: N ratio was 22.40. The enhanced yield of crops due to application of FYM might be due to rich nutrient content. 2.1.2. Effect FYM of on growth and yield of vegetables Bolotskikh and Levic (1987) conducted an experiment in cucumber and reported that the highest yield (28.2 t ha-1) and economic return were observed after applying 90:60:60 Kg NPK ha-1. Natarajan (1990) reported that application of FYM @ 25 ha-1 as basal along with N: P: K registered maximum plant height and dry yield of chilli. Muniz et al. (1992) reported cucumber supplied with FYM at 40 t ha-1 and NPK @ 240:960:480 kg ha-1 exhibited the maximum yield. Balashanmugam et al. (1988) found that application of FYM @ 25 t ha-1 increased the yield (32.37 kg ha-1) of fresh rhizome in turmeric. Meena Nair and Peter (1990) stated that application of FYM to chillies @ 30 t ha-1
enhanced the fresh fruit yield of 3.6 q ha -1. Damke et al (1988) observed
that highest plant height and yield of chilli was recorded with application of FYM @ 15 t ha-1 along with 50 kg each of N, P and K. Further, Srlekekov and
Rankov (1989) also reported that higher plant height, plant canopy and yield were recorded with the application of FYM @ 20 t ha-1 along with 100:80:100 kg NPK ha-1 in chillies. According to Natarajan (1990), application of FYM @ 25 t ha-1 as basal along with N, P and K registered maximum plant height (126.20 cm), highest number of branches (17.36) and highest dry yield of chilli (1.83 t h-1). Meera Nair and Peter (1990) revealed that application of higher rates of both organics (15 t FYM ha-1) and inorganic fertilizers (175:40:75 NPK ha-1) increased the fruit weight of chilli during all the three seasons as compared to inorganic or organic manures alone. Agarwal et al. (1995) found that organic amendments and nitrogen hastened the leaf appearance and found to increase the leaf area and leaf longevity. A study conducted by Renuka and Ravishankar (1998)
reported that application of FYM combined with biogas slurry were found to increase the number of primary branches, earliness in flowering, number of fruits per plant and superior quality of large size fruits in tomato. Nanthakumar and Veeraragavathatham (1998) observed that due to combined application of organic manure @ 12.5 t ha-1 of FYM and biofertilizers @ 2 kg ha-1 each of Azospirillum and Phosphobacteria along with 75 per cent of the recommended dose of inorganic N and P increased the yield (36.55 t ha -1) in brinjal var. Palur-1.
In brinjal, Subbarao et al. (1998) reported that application of organic manure (FYM + vermicompost), recorded the highest leaf area, number of leaves, dry matter production and maximum number of fruits per plant. Soil treated with different combinations of the organic amendments and three chemicals significantly increased the plant height, girth, leaves per plant, branches per plant and spread of tomatoes in cv. Punjab Chohara (Amrendra Kumar Prasad et al., 1997). Chavan et al. (1997) recorded the highest ascorbic acid content of 241.2 mg 100g-1 in green chilli at second picking when FYM was applied @ 25 t h -1. Application of FYM @ 20 t ha-1 along with 100 kg phosphorus increased the yield of French bean (76.5 q ha-1) over control (31.3 q ha-1) (Jastoria et al., 1998). Reddy (1999) reported that application of 20 t compost ha-1
sufficient to realize the high TSS (Brix), acidity (0.84 %) and ascorbic acid (14.3 mg 100 g-1 juice) in tomato. The highest fruit yield (15.0 t ha -1) was reported with the 30 t compost ha -1. The highest application rate of FYM (30 t h-1) along with bio fertilizers, Azospirillum, Phosphobacteria and VAM) to cucumbers resulted in highest vine length (330 cm) and fruit yield per vine (2053 g) (Nirmala and Vadivel, 1999). In potato, Sharma and Pushpendra Singh (1998) reported that application of FYM @ 30 t ha -1 increased the number of tubers by 17 % and weight of tubers by 59 % over control. Similar reports were also given by Thind and Dan (2002).
2.2. Effect of Poultry manures 2.2.1. Nutritive importance of poultry manure Poultry manure contains all the essential plant nutrients such as N, P, K, Mg, S, B, Zn, cu, Mn, Fe, etc. which is necessary for increasing the yield and quality of field crops. Hence poultry manure has been considered as a concentrated source of N and P (Sims and Wolf, 1994). It contains N (304 to 4.3 %), P (1.9 to 2.2 %), K (2.0 to 2.4 %), Ca (2.3 to 8.0 %), S (0.5 to 1.0 %), uric acid (0.9 to 2.6 %) and NH4-N (0. to 1.5 %). Poultry manure is alkaline in nature (pH 7.5 to 8.5 %) and immediately raised the pH of loams from 6.5 to 7.5 on application. Excess poultry manure causes toxicity which results in stunted root growth and burnt leaf tissue margin. Toxicity was due to excess soluble salts especially potassium, NO2-N and NH3. 2.2.2. Effect of poultry manures on growth and yield of vegetables Application of 80 kg nitrogen through poultry manure along with 80 kg nitrogen through ammonium sulphate to potato resulted in maximum plant height (33.15 cm), number of shoots per plant (4.66), number of leaves per plant (48.40), fresh weight of tubers (131.83g), dry matter of tuber (Singh et al., 1973). Poultry manure and FYM applied plots showed higher amount of oleoresin compared with other synthetic fertilizer, whereas the crude protein was highest with the application of poultry manure and pig manure (Aoi et al., 1988). Oikeh and Asieghu (1993) conducted an experiment with different rates
of poultry manure to tomato and found that application of 10 t ha-1 was superior, which recorded a fruit yield of 47 t ha-1. The application of chicken manure at two tonnes per hectare and chemical fertilizers resulted in maximum yield of french bean (24.9t ha-1) (Guu jimwen et al., 1994) Cling Fang et al. (1994) reported that the plant height, fruit number and fruit yield were significantly higher with the organic manure applied plot than chemical fertilizers. Tomato yield was enhanced by addition of broiler litter at 20.1 and 40 m t ha-1. Broiler litter treatments resulted to increase tomato yield to about 20 % and fruits were matured earlier than those produced using increased commercial fertilizer (Brown et al., 1995). Guu Jimwen et al. (1997) found that application of chicken manure 2 t ha-1 and chemical fertilizers resulted in maximum yield of french bean (24.9 t ha-1). There was significant effect of organic manure on the uptake of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium by the leaves. In brinjal, highest plant height (75.15cm), number of fruits (13.07), weight of fruit per plant (1224.95 g) and yield (51.03 t ha-1) were recorded in the plants receiving 50 kg nitrogen as urea and poultry manure when compared to urea alone (Jo