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CHAPTER 8 Note Taking Study Guide 8+Section... · PDF fileNote Taking Study Guide ... Note Taking Study Guide THE HOLY ROMAN EMPIRE AND THE CHURCH ... Seljuk Turks conquered Byzantine

Jun 15, 2018

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  • 72

    Focus Question: How did monarchs in England and France expand royalauthority and lay the foundations for united nation-states?

    A. As you read this section in your textbook, use the cause-effect chart to identify the causesfor changes in royal power.

    B. As you read this section in your textbook, use the Venn diagram to compare and contrastthe development of royal power in England and France.

    Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved.

    Name Class Date

    Note Taking Study GuideROYAL POWER GROWS

    CHAPTER

    8SECTION 1

    England France

    Royal Power Changes

    JohnHenry IIWilliam the Conqueror

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  • Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved.

    73

    Section SummaryROYAL POWER GROWS

    CHAPTER

    8SECTION 1

    READING CHECK

    How did the Estates General differ from Parliament?

    VOCABULARY STRATEGY

    What does the word domainmean in the underlined sen-tence? What context clues canyou find in the surroundingwords or phrases? Circle anywords or phrases in the sen-tence that help you figure outwhat domain means.

    READING SKILL

    Identify Main Ideas Find thesentence at the beginning of theSummary that states the mainidea of the whole summary.Write the sentence on the linesbelow.

    During the early Middle Ages, European monarchs had limitedpower. However, from 1000 to 1300, increases in royal power and con-trol gradually established the foundations of modern government.

    In 1066, William the Conqueror took over England. By 1086, hehad completed a census and property survey called the Domesday Book.It helped establish an effective taxation system and treasury. In 1154,Henry II ascended the English throne. He expanded the justice sys-tem. Royal court decisions became the foundation of English commonlaw, a system based on custom and prior rulings. Henry II also set upa jury system that was the forerunner of todays grand jury.

    Henrys son, King John, abused his power and was forced tosign the Magna Carta, or Great Charter. It required the king to obeythe laws. It also established two important principles: due process oflaw, or protection from arrest without proper legal procedures, andhabeas corpus, or protection from imprisonment without beingcharged with a crime. John also agreed not to raise taxes before con-sulting his Great Council of lords and clergy. Under later rulers, thiscouncil evolved into Parliament, Englands legislature. Parliamenteventually controlled the power of the purse, meaning it wouldnot approve new taxes unless the monarch met certain demands.

    Unlike the English, early French monarchs did not rule a unitedkingdom. Then in 987, Hugh Capet became king and began expand-ing royal power. The Capetians stabilized the kingdom over the next300 years. In 1179, Philip II took the throne. He gained control ofEnglish lands in Normandy and expanded territories in southernFrance, adding vast areas to his domain, and becoming Europesmost powerful ruler.

    Louis IX came to power in 1226. Although he persecuted hereticsand Jews and led crusades against Muslims, he also outlawed pri-vate wars, ended serfdom, and expanded royal courts. By the time ofhis death in 1270, France was a centralized monarchy ruling over aunified state. In 1302, the Estates General was set up, but this councilof clergy, nobility, and townspeople never gained the power of thepurse over French royalty.

    Review Questions1. What did the Domesday Book help establish in England?

    2. What important English document limited the absolute power ofthe king?

    Name Class Date

    072-081WH07SURNTSGCH08-133345-3.qxp 6/22/09 2:33 PM Page 73 PDF

  • 74

    Focus Question: How did explosive conflicts between monarchs andpopes affect the balance of power in Europe?

    As you read this section in your textbook, record the actions of emperors and popes and theeffects of their actions.

    Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved.

    Name Class Date

    Note Taking Study GuideTHE HOLY ROMAN EMPIRE AND THE CHURCH

    CHAPTER

    8SECTION 2

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    072-081WH07SURNTSGCH08-133345-3.qxp 6/22/09 2:33 PM Page 74 PDF

  • Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved.

    75

    Section SummaryTHE HOLY ROMAN EMPIRE AND THE CHURCH

    CHAPTER

    8SECTION 2

    READING CHECK

    What agreement ended powerstruggles between Holy Romanemperors and popes over layinvestiture?

    VOCABULARY STRATEGY

    What does the word confrontedmean in the underlined sen-tence? Confronted is made fromthree word parts: the prefix con-means together; front meansthe part of something that isfacing forward; -ed is a suffixthat indicates past tense. Usethese word-part clues to helpyou figure out the meaning ofconfronted.

    READING SKILL

    Understand Effects Was theConcordat of Worms a cause oreffect of the power strugglesbetween popes and rulers?

    During the Middle Ages, popes and the Church spread their influ-ence across Europe. European rulers, too, grew more powerful.However, this increase in power often resulted in conflict.

    Rulers of the Holy Roman Empire, which extended from Germany to Italy, often confronted the pope over the appointment ofChurch officials. Pope Gregory VII wanted the Church free from lay(non-church) control. To do this he banned lay investiture, in whichthe emperor rather than the pope named and installed bishops. However, Holy Roman Emperor Henry IV said that bishops heldroyal lands under his control, so he had the right to appoint them. In1076 the pope excommunicated him and threatened to crown a newemperor. Henry was forced to humble himself to the pope as a sin-ner, and Gregory forgave him. Later, Henry led an army to Rome,sending Gregory into exile. Fifty years later, the Concordat of Wormswas accepted, giving popes sole power to invest bishops with reli-gious authority and emperors the right to invest them with lands.

    Power struggles over land also occurred during the 1100s and1200s. Holy Roman Emperor Frederick I, called Frederick Barbarossaor Red Beard, fought but failed to capture wealthy northern Italiancities. Instead, he arranged for his son to marry the heiress to Sicilyand southern Italy, expanding his control there. His grandson, Frederick II, also sought but failed to control northern Italy. Ulti-mately, the Holy Roman Empire broke up into separate feudalstates, while southern Italy went through centuries of chaos.

    By the 1200s, the Church reached its peak of power. In 1198, PopeInnocent III took office and claimed supremacy over all other rulers.He excommunicated the English and French kings, and placed theirkingdoms under interdict, barring people from religious sacraments.He also launched a holy war against heretics in southern France,killing tens of thousands. After Innocents death, popes continued toclaim supremacy, but they were challenged by the monarchs growingpower. In the late 1200s, Frances Philip IV successfully challenged thepope on the issue of taxing the clergy. Philip then went on to engineerthe election of a French pope.

    Review Questions1. What did Pope Gregory VII want?

    2. What did Innocent III claim?

    Name Class Date

    072-081WH07SURNTSGCH08-133345-3.qxp 6/22/09 2:33 PM Page 75 PDF

  • 76

    Focus Question: How did the Crusades change life in Europe and beyond?

    As you read this section in your textbook, complete the concept web below showing the causesof the Crusades in the top ovals and the effects of the Crusades in the lower ovals.

    Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved.

    Name Class Date

    Note Taking Study GuideTHE CRUSADES AND THE WIDER WORLD

    CHAPTER

    8SECTION 3

    Th

    eC

    rusa

    des

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  • Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved.

    77

    Section SummaryTHE CRUSADES AND THE WIDER WORLD

    CHAPTER

    8SECTION 3

    READING CHECK

    Which Crusade was the only oneto achieve real success?

    VOCABULARY STRATEGY

    What does diverse mean in theunderlined sentence? Anantonym for diverse is similar.Use the antonym to help you fig-ure out the meaning of diverse.

    READING SKILL

    Identify Causes and Effects Listone cause and one effect of theInquisition.

    The Crusades were a series of wars in which Christians fought Muslims for control of Middle Eastern lands. The Crusades weredestructive, but ultimately opened a wider world to Europeans andincreased the pace of change.

    In 1071, Seljuk Turks conquered Byzantine lands in Asia Minorand then moved into the Holy Land. The Byzantine emperor askedPope Urban II for help, and Urban launched the Crusades to free theHoly Land. Only the First Crusade was a success for Christians, whocaptured Jerusalem in 1099. In the Second Crusade, Jerusalem fell tothe great Muslim leader Saladin. He agreed to reopen the city toChristian pilgrims after crusaders failed to take Jerusalem in theThird Crusade. By the Fourth Crusade in 1202, knights were fightingother Christians to help Venice against its Byzantine trade rivals.Crusaders captured and looted the Byzantine capital, Constantinople.

    The Crusades left a legacy of hatred in the Middle East andEurope. They

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