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Chapter 5 The Shaping of a New Nation. The Articles of Confederation

Jan 14, 2016

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  • Chapter 5The Shaping of a New Nation

  • The Articles of Confederation

  • Weakness of the Articles17811st US government was a confederationGoverning document was the Articles of Confederation

  • Weakness of the ArticlesThe Founders deliberately chose a government with stronger state governments because they feared giving the national government too much power

  • Weakness of the ArticlesSeveral weaknesses were found with the Articles: 1Lacked national unityStates were only concerned about themselves, not the nation as a whole

  • Weakness of the Articles2Did not recognize population differencesGeorgia had a population of 25,000, while Massachusetts had 270,000Both had only 1 vote in Congress

  • Weakness of the Articles3Few changes could be madeAll states had to approve amendments to the Articles9 of 13 states had to approve new laws

  • Weakness of the Articles4Federal government had no taxing powerHad $160 million debt after the revolution and no way to pay for it

  • Weakness of the Articles5Had no Judicial BranchNo court to settle legal disputes6Had no Executive BranchNo president to enforce laws of Congress

  • Weakness of the Articles7Congress could not regulate foreign or interstate tradeCould not control imports or exports, and could not tax them

  • Shays Rebellion1786Daniel Shays led a rebellion of farmers who were in debt and in danger of losing their farmsThey blamed high state taxes for their debts

  • Shays RebellionThe government was able to put down the rebellion, but they realized something was wrong with the government if the farmers were rebellingFarmers made up the majority of the population

  • The Constitution

  • The Constitutional Convention1787delegates met in Philadelphia to discuss problems with the government All but Rhode Island sent representation (they opposed increasing federal power)

  • The Constitutional ConventionGeorge Washington was chosen to lead the convention

  • The Constitutional ConventionFederalists:Supported the ConstitutionWanted a balance between state and national governmentsGeorge Washington, James Madison, Alexander Hamilton, and John Jay

  • The Constitutional ConventionFederalists preferred a Republican form of government Republic: people elect representatives who make the decisions of government for them

  • The Constitutional ConventionAnti-Federalists:Opposed the ConstitutionWanted the state governments to have more powerPatrick Henry, Samuel Adams, and Richard Henry Lee

  • The Constitutional Convention9 of the 13 states had to approve (ratify) the Constitution for it to take effectBoth sides tried to gain support by appealing to the public

  • The Constitutional ConventionThe Federalist Papers:Written by Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, and John JayExplained the Constitution in clear, everyday languageHelped the people understand and gained support for the Constitution

  • The Constitutional ConventionThe Federalist Papers:Alexander HamiltonWrote the majority of the essaysBelieved the new government needed a strong executive to ensure necessary decisions could be made quickly

  • The Constitutional ConventionHamilton said checks and balances would prevent abuse of powerEach branch has power over the other branches of government

  • The Constitutional ConventionThe Federalist Papers:James MadisonWrote the most popular of the essays: No. 10 and No. 51Discussed the dangers of factionsSpecial interest groups and political parties

  • The Constitutional ConventionThe Federalist Papers:Anti-federalists argued that factions protected the rights of the minorityMadison said factions would divide the nation and ignore the rights of the majority and the interests of the nation as a wholeProperty of Janet Brooks

  • The Constitutional ConventionLetters from the Federal Farmer:Written by Richard Henry LeeListed the rights that were not protected by the Constitution

  • The Constitutional ConventionLetters from the Federal Farmer:Federalists agreed to add the Bill of Rights to the Constitution to gain ratificationWritten by James MadisonNicknamed The Father of the Constitution

  • Key Features of the ConstitutionFederalismPowers are divided between the state and national governments

  • Key Features of the ConstitutionSeparation of PowersPower is divided among 3 branches to prevent abuse of powerLegislative, Executive, and JudicialThis idea was advocated by Montesquieu

  • Key Features of the ConstitutionLimited GovernmentThe power of the government is limited, not absoluteThe people are the ultimate source of power

  • Key Features of the ConstitutionThe Great CompromiseProposed by Roger Sherman2-house (bicameral) legislature1-House of Representatives (based on population)2-Senate (equal representation)

  • Key Features of the ConstitutionThe Three-Fifths CompromiseSouthern states wanted to count their slaves toward population (to gain more representation in the House)3/5 Compromise3/5 of slaves would count toward population

  • Key Features of the ConstitutionThe Three-Fifths CompromiseThe legality of slavery was ignored so that the southern states would ratify the ConstitutionConsidered too controversial to address whether slavery was constitutional

  • The Bill of RightsThe federalists agreed to add 10 amendments to the Constitution to ensure ratification Known as the Bill of Rights

  • The Bill of RightsProtect the rights of individuals from the power of the federal government #1-9 address individual rights, and #10 addresses states rights

  • The Bill of Rights1freedom of religion, speech, press, and assembly

  • The Bill of Rights2right to possess firearms

  • The Bill of Rights3government cannot require people to house soldiers during peacetime

  • The Bill of Rights4no illegal searches or seizures

  • The Bill of Rights5lists rights of accused persons, including due process

  • The Bill of Rights6right to a speedy, public trial in criminal cases

  • The Bill of Rights7right to a trial by jury in civil cases

  • The Bill of Rights8limits on fines and punishments (no cruel or unusual punishments)

  • The Bill of Rights9rights of the people are not limited to those listed in the Constitution

  • The Bill of Rights10all powers not specifically listed in the Constitution belong to the states

  • RatificationDecember 1787Delaware became the 1st state to ratify the ConstitutionGeorge ReadRichard Bassett

  • Famous Signers

  • Famous SignersSigners From GeorgiaAbraham BaldwinWilliam Few

  • Famous SignersGeorge WashingtonVirginiaJames MadisonVirginia

  • Famous SignersBenjamin FranklinPennsylvaniaRobert MorrisPennsylvania

  • Famous SignersAlexander HamiltonNew YorkRoger ShermanConnecticut

  • The Northwest OrdinanceDivided townships into 36 sectionsSet aside the 16th section for educationMoney from the sale of that parcel went to support educationLand Ordinance of 1785

  • The Northwest OrdinanceThe Northwest Ordinance of 1787Established the procedures for dividing western lands into territoriesAlso set the requirements for the admission of new states

  • The Northwest OrdinanceImportance of the Northwest Ordinance:Influence on Westward MigrationThe creation of new territories opened up new lands for settlement

  • The Northwest OrdinanceInfluence on SlaveryBanned slavery in the Northwest TerritoryEstablished the Ohio River as the boundary between free and slave states

  • The Northwest OrdinanceInfluence on Public Education:Set aside parcels of land for schools1st example of federal higher education policy

  • Property of Janet E. Brooks

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