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Chapter 5, Chapter Opener, Page 134 The Cultural Landscape: An Introduction to Human Geography, 10e — Rubenstein, © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
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Page 1: Chapter 5, Chapter Opener, Page 134 - PC\|MACimages.pcmac.org/SiSFiles/Schools/NJ/OceanCity/OceanCity...Chapter 5, Figure 5-3 Invasions of England. 0 0 50 100 KILOMETERS 50 100 MILES

Chapter 5, Chapter Opener, Page 134

The Cultural Landscape: An Introduction to Human Geography, 10e — Rubenstein, © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

Page 2: Chapter 5, Chapter Opener, Page 134 - PC\|MACimages.pcmac.org/SiSFiles/Schools/NJ/OceanCity/OceanCity...Chapter 5, Figure 5-3 Invasions of England. 0 0 50 100 KILOMETERS 50 100 MILES

The Cultural Landscape: An Introduction to Human Geography, 10e — Rubenstein, © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

Chapter 5, Figure 5-1Teaching English.

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The Cultural Landscape: An Introduction to Human Geography, 10e — Rubenstein, © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

Chapter 5, Figure 5-2English-speaking countries.

Tropic of Capricorn

Tropic ofCancer

Tropic of Cancer

Equator

Arctic Circle

50°

40°

30°

20°

10°

10°

30°

40°

50°

60°

70°

80°

60°

50°

40°

30°

20°

30°

40°

50° 50°

40°

30°

20°

10°

30°

40°

50°

50° 60° 70° 80° 90°

20°

30°

40°

50°

10°

20°

30°

40°

50°

20°

30°

40°

30°

40°

180°150°140°130°120°110°

120° 150° 160° 170° 180°

20°

160° 170° 160° 150°

160°140°

10°

150°

90°100°110°120°130°

ARCTIC OCEAN

PACIFIC

OCEAN

ATLANTICOCEAN

INDIAN OCEAN

PACIFIC

OCEAN

PACIFIC

OCEAN

ARCTIC OCEAN

ARABIANSEA BAY OF

BENGAL

CORALSEA

UNITED STATES

CANADA

BELIZEJAMAICA

TRINIDAD & TOBAGO

BAHAMASANTIGUA &BARBUDA

BARBADOSST. KITTS & NEVIS

GRENADA

ST. LUCIADOMINICA

ST. VINCENT &THE GRENADINES

GUYANA

AUSTRALIA

NEWZEALAND

PHILIPPINES

UNITEDKINGDOM

INDIA

SINGAPORE

BRUNEI

PAPUANEW

GUINEA

PAKISTAN

RWANDA

MALTAISRAEL

KENYAUGANDA

ETHIOPIA

SUDAN

SEYCHELLES

MAURITIUS

MADAGASCAR

TANZANIA

ZAMBIA

CAMEROON

NIGERIAGHANA

LIBERIA

SIERRALEONE

GAMBIA

ZIMBABWE

BOTSWANA

LESOTHO

SWAZILAND

NAMIBIA

SOUTHAFRICA

IRELAND

FIJI

KIRIBATI

NAURU

TUVALUSOLOMON IS.

PALAU

MARSHALL IS.

MICRONESIA

VANUATU

TONGA

SAMOAMALAWI

English officialor predominant

0

1,000 3,000 KILOMETERS0

1,000 3,000 MILES

2,000

2,000

MODIFIED GOODE'S HOMOLOSINE EQUAL-AREA PROJECTION

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The Cultural Landscape: An Introduction to Human Geography, 10e — Rubenstein, © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

Chapter 5, Figure 5-3Invasions of England.

0

50 100 KILOMETERS0

50 100 MILES

NorthSea

Irish Sea

English Channel

TheWash

Hum

ber

Thames

R.

R.

JUTES

ANGLES

SAXONS

JUTES

SOUTHSAXONS

Isle ofWight

WESTSAXONS EAST

SAXONS

EASTANGLES

MIDDLEANGLES

ANGLES

LIMIT OF ANGLO-SAXONSETTLEMENT TO A.D. 626

NORWAY

GERMANY

Normandy

Brittany

Cornwall

Wales

Scotland

DENMARK

1066

9th

Centur

y

5th C

entu

ry

5° 0 5°

50°

INVASION ANDMIGRATION ROUTES

Germans

Normans

Vikings

Celts

Page 5: Chapter 5, Chapter Opener, Page 134 - PC\|MACimages.pcmac.org/SiSFiles/Schools/NJ/OceanCity/OceanCity...Chapter 5, Figure 5-3 Invasions of England. 0 0 50 100 KILOMETERS 50 100 MILES

Ch

apter 5, F

igu

re 5-4M

y Fair Lady.

The C

ultural Landscape: An Introduction to H

uman G

eography, 10e — R

ubenstein, © 2011 P

earson Education, Inc.

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The Cultural Landscape: An Introduction to Human Geography, 10e — Rubenstein, © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

Edinburgh

York

Peterborough

Chester

LondonOxford

Cambridge

Winchester

Canterbury

NorthSea

Irish Sea

50°

55°

WESTSAXON

WESTWALES

NORTHWALES

MERCIAN

NORTHUMBRIAN

KENTISH

STRATHCLYDE HADRIAN'SWALL

Old English

Edinburgh

York

Peterborough

Chester

London

Winchester

Canterbury

NorthSea

Irish Sea

55°

SOUTH–WESTERN

CORNISH

WELSH

NORTHERN

EASTMIDLAND

WESTMIDLAND

SOUTH–EASTERN

LOWLANDSCOTTISH

HADRIAN'SWALL

50°

Oxford

Cambridge

Middle English

English

Celtic MERCIAN

Dialect boundary

Dialect

0

75 150 KILOMETERS0

75 150 MILES

Chapter 5, Figure 5-5(Left) Old English dialects, before the Norman invasion of 1066. (Right) Middle English dialects (1150–1500).

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The Cultural Landscape: An Introduction to Human Geography, 10e — Rubenstein, © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

Chapter 5, Figure 5-6Differences between British and American.

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Ch

apter 5, F

igu

re 5-7D

ialects in eastern United S

tates.

The C

ultural Landscape: An Introduction to H

uman G

eography, 10e — R

ubenstein, © 2011 P

earson Education, Inc.

AT

LA

NT

IC

OC

EA

N Delm

arva

Dela

ware

Valle

y

North

easte

rnN

ew

Engla

nd

Susq

uehanna

Valle

y

South

easte

rnN

ew

Engla

nd

Virg

inia

Pie

dm

ont

Upper P

oto

mac

and S

henandoah V

alle

y

South

weste

rnN

ew

Engla

nd

North

easte

rn N

orth

Caro

lina

Upper

Ohio

Valle

y(P

ittsburg

h A

rea)

Upsta

te N

ew

York

and W

este

rn V

erm

ont

Cape F

ear

and P

eedee V

alle

ys

Hudso

nV

alle

y

North

ern

West

Virg

inia

South

Caro

lina

South

ern

West

Virg

inia

Weste

rnN

orth

and S

outh

Caro

lina

Metro

polita

n N

ew

York

PA

WV

MD

VA

NY

CT

DE

NC

SC

RI

MA

NH

ME

VT

NJ

35°

40°

80°75°

0

10

02

00

KIL

OM

ET

ER

S0

10

02

00

MIL

ES

No

rthe

rn

Mid

lands

South

ern

EA

ST

ER

N U

.S.

SP

EE

CH

AR

EA

S

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The Cultural Landscape: An Introduction to Human Geography, 10e — Rubenstein, © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

Chapter 5, Figure 5-8Soft-drink dialects.

ATLANTICOCEAN

PACIFICOCEAN

Gulf of Mexico

C A N A D A

MEXICO

CANADA

RUSSIAPop

Soda

No data

Other

Coke

GENERICNAMES

FOR SOFTDRINKS

Page 10: Chapter 5, Chapter Opener, Page 134 - PC\|MACimages.pcmac.org/SiSFiles/Schools/NJ/OceanCity/OceanCity...Chapter 5, Figure 5-3 Invasions of England. 0 0 50 100 KILOMETERS 50 100 MILES

The Cultural Landscape: An Introduction to Human Geography, 10e — Rubenstein, © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

ATLANTICOCEAN

ARABIANSEA

BAY OFBENGAL

Mediterranean Sea

Black Sea

Caspian S

ea

60°

40°

50°

60°

70°

20° 20° 30° 40° 50°10° 10°0°

70° 80° 90°

10°

ICELAND

ITALY

GREECETURKMENISTAN

UZBEKISTAN KYRGYZSTAN

NEPALBHUTAN

BANGLADESH

TAJIKISTAN

AFGHANISTAN

PAKISTAN

DENMARK

NORWAYSWEDEN FINLAND

BELARUS

ROMANIA

BULGARIA

SERB.CROATIA

SLOVENIA

BOS & HERZ.MONT.

ALBANIA MACEDONIAKOSOVO

GEORGIA

AZER.ARMENIA

ESTONIA

LATVIA

LITHUANIA

CZECHREP.

IRELAND

SWITZ.

SPAINPORTUGAL

AUSTRIA

SLOVAKIA

NETH.

BELGIUM

MOLDOVA

HUNGARYFRANCE

TURKEY

RUSSIA

KAZAKHSTAN

CHINA

IRAN

INDIA

IRAQ

SYRIA

GERMANY POLAND

UKRAINE

UNITED KINGDOM

0

500 1,000 KILOMETERS0

500 1,000 MILES

Albanian

Armenian

Balto-Slavic

Celtic

Germanic

Greek

Indo-Iranian

Romance

Non Indo-Europeanlanguages

INDO-EUROPEAN LANGUAGE BRANCHES

Chapter 5, Figure 5-9Branches of the Indo-European language family.

Page 11: Chapter 5, Chapter Opener, Page 134 - PC\|MACimages.pcmac.org/SiSFiles/Schools/NJ/OceanCity/OceanCity...Chapter 5, Figure 5-3 Invasions of England. 0 0 50 100 KILOMETERS 50 100 MILES

Ch

apter 5, F

igu

re 5-10G

ermanic branch of the Indo-E

uropean language family.

The C

ultural Landscape: An Introduction to H

uman G

eography, 10e — R

ubenstein, © 2011 P

earson Education, Inc.

AT

LA

NT

IC

OC

EA

N

No

rth

Se

aB

altic Sea

ICE

LA

ND

UN

ITE

D K

ING

DO

MIR

EL

AN

D

FR

AN

CE

GE

RM

AN

Y

En

glan

d

BE

LG

IUM

LU

XE

MB

OU

RG

DE

NM

AR

K

PO

LA

ND

AU

ST

RIA

SW

ITZ

ER

LA

ND

Wales

NE

TH

ER

LA

ND

S

N O R W A Y S W E D E N

CZ

EC

H R

EP.

ITALY

N. Irelan

dS

cotlan

d

Faeroe Is.

Shetland Is.

Frisian Is.

20°10°

0°10°

20°

65°

60°55°

50°

45° Arctic Circle

0

20

04

00

KIL

OM

ET

ER

S0

20

04

00

MIL

ES

English

Frisia

n

Germ

an

Neth

erla

ndish

(Dutch

)

Mixe

d w

ithnon-G

erm

anic

WE

ST

GE

RM

AN

IC

Danish

Faero

ese

Icela

ndic

Norw

egia

n

Sw

edish

NO

RT

H G

ER

MA

NIC

Page 12: Chapter 5, Chapter Opener, Page 134 - PC\|MACimages.pcmac.org/SiSFiles/Schools/NJ/OceanCity/OceanCity...Chapter 5, Figure 5-3 Invasions of England. 0 0 50 100 KILOMETERS 50 100 MILES

Ch

apter 5, F

igu

re 5-11Languages and language fam

ilies in India.

The C

ultural Landscape: An Introduction to H

uman G

eography, 10e — R

ubenstein, © 2011 P

earson Education, Inc.

10°

20°

70°80°

90°

Bay of

Bengal

IND

IAN

OC

EA

N

AL

AY

AL

AA

LA

LA

AL

AY

AL

AAAAY

MM

ND

NH

IN

D

MA

RA

THTA

MIL

MA

LA

YA

LA

M

KA

NN

AD

A

TE

LU

GU

OR

IYA

BE

NG

AL

I

BE

NG

AL

I BO

DO

DO

GR

I

SA

NT

AL

I

SA

NS

KR

IT

MA

ITH

ILI

AS

SA

ME

SE

HI

ND

I

HIN

DI

UR

DU

UR

DU

KA

SH

MIR

I

MA

RA

TH

I

GU

JAR

AT

IKO

NK

AN

I

MA

NIP

UR

I

NE

PA

LI

PU

NJA

BI

SIN

DH

I

0

25

05

00

KIL

OM

ET

ER

S0

25

05

00

MIL

ES

State boundary

Scheduled language

HIN

DI

Austro-A

siatic

Dravidian

Hindi dialect

Other language

Sino-T

ibetan

Indo-European

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The Cultural Landscape: An Introduction to Human Geography, 10e — Rubenstein, © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

Chapter 5, Figure 5-12Romance branch of the Indo-European language family.

PORT.

SPAIN

FRANCE

GERMANY POLAND

CZECH REP.

AUSTRIA

SLOVAKIA

HUNGARY

UKRAINE

ROMANIA

BULGARIA

MONACO

BELG.

LUX.

SWITZ.LIECH.

ALBANIA

SERBIA

KOSOVOMONTENEGRO

BELARUS

MALTA

CROATIA

GREECE

MACEDONIA

TUN.

ALGERIA

MOR.

SLOVENIA

BOSNIAAND

HERZEGOVINASANMARINOANDORRA

MO

LDO

VA

20°15°

35°

40°

45°

10°

ATLANTIC

OCEAN

Mediterranean Sea

Adriatic Sea

Bay ofBiscay

0

250 500 KILOMETERS0

250 500 MILES

Spanish

Catalán

Portuguese

Galician

French/Langue d'oïl

French/Langue d'òc(Occitan)

Romanian

Not Romancelanguages

Romansh

Ladin

Friulian

Italian

Piemontese

Lombard

Venetian

Liguria

Napoletano-Calabrese

Sicilian

Sardinian

Corsican

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The Cultural Landscape: An Introduction to Human Geography, 10e — Rubenstein, © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

Chapter 5, Figure 5-13Creole.

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The Cultural Landscape: An Introduction to Human Geography, 10e — Rubenstein, © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

Chapter 5, Figure 5-14Origin and diffusion of Indo-European (nomadic warrior theory).

40°

50°

60° 10°20° 0°

KURGAN MIGRATION

0

250 500 KILOMETERS0

250 500 MILES

KURGANHEARTH

ATLANTICOCEAN

Mediterranean Sea

Black Sea

Caspian S

ea

Area infiltrated by 4000 B.C.

Area infiltrated by 3500 B.C.

5000–4000 B.C.

4000–3000 B.C.

3000–2000 B.C.

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The Cultural Landscape: An Introduction to Human Geography, 10e — Rubenstein, © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

Chapter 5, Figure 5-15Origin and diffusion of Indo-European (sedentary farmer theory).

ATLANTICOCEAN

Mediterranean Sea

Black Sea

Caspian S

ea

40°

50°

10°20° 0°

ANATOLIANHEARTH

6000–5000 B.C.

5000–4000 B.C.

4000–3000 B.C.

ANATOLIAN MIGRATION

0

500 1,000 KILOMETERS0

500 1,000 MILES

Page 17: Chapter 5, Chapter Opener, Page 134 - PC\|MACimages.pcmac.org/SiSFiles/Schools/NJ/OceanCity/OceanCity...Chapter 5, Figure 5-3 Invasions of England. 0 0 50 100 KILOMETERS 50 100 MILES

The Cultural Landscape: An Introduction to Human Geography, 10e — Rubenstein, © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

Chapter 5, Figure 5-16Language families.

LANGUAGE FAMILIES(Percentage of people

speaking each)

90°100°110°120°130°140°

50°

40°

30°

20°

10°

10°

20°

30°

40°

50°

60°

LANGUAGE FAMILIES

50°SPANISH = Languages with more than 100 million speakersFrench = Languages with 50–100 million speakers

40°

70°

20°

30°

40°

50°

60°

10°

20°

30°

40°

50°

70°

80°

0°10°

20°

10°

30°

40°

50°

60°

50°

40°

30°

110° 120° 130° 140° 150° 160° 180°

0

0

1,000 2,000

1,000 2,000

3,000 MILES

3,000 KILOMETERS

40°

30°

20°

140° 150° 160° 170°

10°

20°

40°

30°

140°

40°

30°

20°

120°

90°80°70°60°50°

10°

20°

30°

40°

50°

30°

Equator

Tropic of Capricorn

Tropic of Cancer

ATLANTIC

OCEAN

PACIFIC

OCEAN

ARCTIC OCEAN

E N G L I S H

PORTUGUESE

SP

AN

IS

H

SPANISH

French

Afro-Asiatic

Altaic

Amerindian

Australian

Austro-Asiatic

Austronesian

Caucasian

Dravidian

Eskimo-Aleut

Indo-European

Japanese

Khoisan

Korean

Niger-Congo

Nilo-Saharan

Papuan

Sino-Tibetan

Tai-Kadai

Uralic

Sparsely inhabited

Tropic of Capricorn

Tropic of Cancer

Arctic Circle

Equator

PACIFIC

OCEAN

ARCTIC OCEAN

ARABIAN

SEA

CORAL SEA

INDIAN OCEAN

ATLANTIC

OCEAN

BAY OF

BENGAL

A R A B I C

ENGLISH

R U S S I A N

HINDI

PORTUGUESE

ENGLISH

A

RA B I C

Frenc

h

Korean

Italian

SPANISH

GERMAN

BENGALI

JAPANESETurkish

Lahnda(Panjabi)Urdu Wu

Yue

Javanese

Vietnamese

Marathi

Telu

gu

Tamil

M A N D A R I N

Indo-European45.7

Sino-Tibetan21.1

6.4

6.0 3.85.9Niger-Congo

Afro-AsiaticAustronesian

Others5.0

Austro-Asiatic1.7

Japanese 2.1Altaic 2.3

Dravidian

MODIFIED GOODE'S HOMOLOSINE EQUAL-AREA PROJECTION

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The Cultural Landscape: An Introduction to Human Geography, 10e — Rubenstein, © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

Chapter 5, Figure 5-16aLanguage families.

40°90°100°110°120°130°140°

50°

40°

30°

20°

10°

10°

20°

30°

40°

50°

60°

70°

80°

70°

20°

30°

40°

50°

60°

10°

20°

30°

40°

50°50°

40°

30°

20°

10° 10°

20°

30°

50°

Equator

Tropic of Capricorn

Tropic of Cancer

ATLANTIC

OCEAN

PACIFIC

OCEAN

ARCTIC OCEAN

E N G L I S H

PORTUGUESESP

AN

IS

H

SPANISH

French

Afro-Asiatic

Altaic

Amerindian

Australian

Austro-Asiatic

Austronesian

Caucasian

Dravidian

Eskimo-Aleut

Indo-European

SPANISH = Languages with more than 100 million speakersFrench = Languages with 50–100 million speakers

Japanese

Khoisan

Korean

Niger-Congo

Nilo-Saharan

Papuan

Sino-Tibetan

Tai-Kadai

Uralic

Sparselyinhabited

LANGUAGE FAMILIES

Indo-European45.7

Sino-Tibetan21.1

6.4

6.0 3.85.9Niger-Congo

Afro-AsiaticAustronesian

Others5.0

Austro-Asiatic1.7

Japanese 2.1Altaic 2.3

Dravidian

LANGUAGE FAMILIES(Percentage of people

speaking each)

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The Cultural Landscape: An Introduction to Human Geography, 10e — Rubenstein, © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

Chapter 5, Figure 5-16bLanguage families.

110° 120° 130° 140° 150° 160° 180°

40°

30°

20°

40°

30°

20°

120° 140° 150° 160° 170°

10°

20°

40°

30°

140°

90°80°70°60°50°0°10°

60°

50°

40°

30°

20°

10°

30°

40°

50°

10°

20°

30°

40°

50°

Tropic of Capricorn

Tropic of Cancer

Arctic Circle

Equator

PACIFIC

OCEAN

ARCTIC OCEAN

ARABIAN

SEA

CORAL SEA

INDIAN OCEAN

ATLANTIC

OCEAN

BAY OF

BENGAL

A R A B I C

ENGLISH

R U S S I A N

HINDI

PORTUGUESE

ENGLISH

A

RA

B I C

Frenc

h

Korean

Italian

SPANISH

GERMAN

BENGALI

JAPANESETurkish

Lahnda(Panjabi)Urdu Wu

Yue

Javanese

Vietnamese

Marathi

Telu

gu

Tamil

M A N D A R I N

0

0

1,000 2,000

1,000 2,000

3,000 MILES

3,000 KILOMETERS

MODIFIED GOODE'S HOMOLOSINE EQUAL-AREA PROJECTION

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The Cultural Landscape: An Introduction to Human Geography, 10e — Rubenstein, © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

Chapter 5, Figure 5-17Language family tree.

Yue (Cantonese)56

Wu77

Min47

Hakka30

Xiang 36

Jinyu 45

Gan 21

Tai31

Que

chua

n 10

Zhuang15

Tai-K

adai

80

Burmese32

Mandarin845

Nyanja 9

Shona 11

Xhosa 7Sesotho 6

Guara

ni 5

Kongo 5

Sukuma 5Rwanda 8

Zulu 10

Fula12

Tswana 5

Yoruba 19

Mandingo5

Akan8

Mòoré 5

Igbo (Ibo) 18

Sin

o-T

ibet

an 1

,259

Nilo

-Sah

aran

38

Nig

er-C

ongo

382

Sin

itic

Tibeto-Burman

Ben

ue-C

ongo

Kwa

Gur

Hm

ong

7

AtlanticMande

Sino-Caucasian

Rundi 5

Gikuyu 5

Luba 6

Turkish51

Kazakh8

Turkmen7

Uyghur 9

UgricFinnic

Tatar7

Magyar13

Finnish5

Mongolian6

Telugu70

Tamil66

Amharic18

Hebrew5

Hausa24 Oromo

17

Berber

Arabic224

Tigrigna6

Japanese122

Korean66

English328

Spanish329

Portuguese178

Romanian23

Sicilian 5

Lombard9

Venetian6

Catalán12

Neapolitan7

French68

Russian144 Polish

40 Serbo-Croatian

16

Hindi356

Bengali181

Oriya32

Kashmiri6

Assamese27

Sindhi21

Nepali14

Bhojpuri39

Urdu61

Filipino 17

Tagalog 24

Sinhalese16

Marathi75

Lahnda(Panjabi)

106

Maithili35

Indonesian23

Malay39

Sunda 34

Bikol 5

Minangkabau6

Malagasy15

Vietnamese69

Khmer14 Santali

6

Ilocano7Javanese

85

Cebuano16

Hilgaynon6 Madurese 14

Gujarati 47

Bulgarian9

Czech10

Slovak5

Ukrainian37

Belarusan9

Italian62Dutch

28

Swedish 8

Somali13

Armenian6

Albanian6

Greek 13

Danish 5

Norwegian 5

HaitianCreole

8

German102

Afrikaans5

Malayalam36

Kannada35

Azerbaijani19

Uzbek20

Altaic 140

Uralic 21

Dravidian 223

Afro-A

siatic 359

Indo-European2,722

Nostratic?

Possible prehistoric“superfamilies”

Austric?

Japa

nese

122

Kor

ean

66

Aus

tron

esia

n 35

4

Aus

tro-

Asi

atic

104

Semitic

Chadic

Cus

hitic

West

Germanic

Germanic

S. S

lavi

c

Iranian

W. S

lavi

c

E. S

lavic

Farsi(Persian)

31

Balochi7

Tajik5

Kurdish16

Rom

ance

Bal

to-S

lavi

cIn

do-Ir

ania

n

Konkani8

Indo-Aryan

N. Germanic

Pashto20

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Ch

apter 5, F

igu

re 5-17aLanguage fam

ily tree.

The C

ultural Landscape: An Introduction to H

uman G

eography, 10e — R

ubenstein, © 2011 P

earson Education, Inc.

Yue (C

antonese)56

Wu

77

Min

47

Hakka30

Xiang 36

Jinyu 45

Gan 21

Tai

31

Quechuan 10

Zhuang15

Tai-Kadai 80

Burm

ese32

Mandarin845

Nyanja 9

Shona 11

Xhosa 7

Sesotho 6

Guarani 5

Kongo 5S

ukuma 5

Rw

anda 8

Zulu 10

Fula12

Tsw

ana 5

Yoruba 19

Mandingo5

Akan8

Mòoré 5

Igbo (Ibo) 18

Sino-Tibetan 1,259

Nilo-Saharan 38

Niger-Congo 382

SiniticT

ibeto-Burm

an

Benue-Congo

Kwa

Gur

Hmong 7

Atlantic

Mande

Sino-

Caucasian

Rundi 5

Gikuyu 5

Luba 6

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Ch

apter 5, F

igu

re 5-17bLanguage fam

ily tree.

The C

ultural Landscape: An Introduction to H

uman G

eography, 10e — R

ubenstein, © 2011 P

earson Education, Inc.

Turkish51

Kazakh

8

Turkm

en7

Uyghur 9

Ugric

Finnic

Tatar7

Magyar13

Finnish

5

Mongolian

6

Telugu70 T

amil

66

Am

haric18

Hebrew

5

Hausa24

Orom

o17

Berber

Arabic224

Tigrigna

6

Japanese122

Korean66

English328

Spanish329

Portuguese

178

Rom

anian23

Sicilian 5

Lombard9

Venetian

6

Catalán12

Neapolitan

7

French68

Russian144

Polish40

Serbo-

Croatian

16

Hindi

356

Bengali181

Oriya32

Kashm

iri6 A

ssamese

27

Sindhi21

Nepali14

Bhojpuri

39

Urdu61

Filipino 17

Tagalog 24

Sinhalese

16

Marathi75

Lahnda(P

anjabi)106

Maithili35

Indonesian23

Malay39

Sunda 34

Bikol 5

Minangkabau

6

Malagasy

15

Vietnam

ese69

Khm

er14

Santali

6

Ilocano7

Javanese85

Cebuano

16

Hilgaynon

6M

adurese 14

Gujarati47

Bulgarian

9

Czech10 S

lovak5

Ukrainian

37

Belarusan

9

Italian62

Dutch28

Sw

edish 8

Som

ali13

Arm

enian6

Albanian

6 Greek 13

Danish 5

Norw

egian 5

Haitian

Creole8

Germ

an102

Afrikaans

5

Malayalam

36

Kannada

35

Azerbaijani

19

Uzbek20

Altaic140

Uralic21Dravidian223

Afro-Asiatic359

Indo-European

2,722

Nostratic?

Possible prehistoric“superfam

ilies”

Austric?

Japanese 122

Korean 66

Austronesian 354

Austro-Asiatic 104

Semitic

Chadic

Cushitic

WestG

ermanic

Germanic

S. SlavicIranian

W. Slavic

E. Slavic

Farsi

(Persian)31

Balochi

7Tajik5

Kurdish16

RomanceBalto-SlavicIndo-Iranian

Konkani

8

Indo-Aryan

N.G

ermanic

Pashto20

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Ch

apter 5, F

igu

re 5-18C

hinese language ideograms.

The C

ultural Landscape: An Introduction to H

uman G

eography, 10e — R

ubenstein, © 2011 P

earson Education, Inc.

From

basic characters:

Sun

White, clear (S

un peeping out)

Big (person w

ith arms extended)

Heaven (above the biggest person)

White person

Daytim

e (clear and heaven)

Daytim

e (clear and Sun)

Person

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Ch

apter 5, F

igu

re 5-19A

frica’s language families.

The C

ultural Landscape: An Introduction to H

uman G

eography, 10e — R

ubenstein, © 2011 P

earson Education, Inc.

AR

AB

IC

AK

AN

TIG

RIG

NA

IGB

OY

OR

UB

A

HA

US

AM

ÒO

ZU

LU

TS

WA

NAS

ES

OT

HO

RW

AN

DA

KO

NG

O

XH

OS

AA

FR

IKA

AN

SE

NG

LISH

SH

ON

A

RU

ND

IS

UK

UM

A GIK

UY

U

AM

HA

RIC

OR

OM

O

SOMALI

LUB

A

MALAGASYN

YA

NJ

A

10°0°

10°20°

20°30°

40°

30°

20°

10°

10°

20°

30°

50°

AT

LAN

TIC

OC

EA

NIN

DIA

NO

CE

AN

Mediterranean S

ea

Red Sea

0

50

01

,00

0 K

ILO

ME

TE

RS

0

50

01

,00

0 M

ILE

S

Afro-A

siatic

Austronesian

Indo-European

Khoisan

Niger-C

ongo

Nilo-S

aharan

Language spoken bym

ore than 5 million

ZU

LU

LAN

GU

AG

E F

AM

ILIES

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Ch

apter 5, F

igu

re 5-20N

igeria’s main languages.

The C

ultural Landscape: An Introduction to H

uman G

eography, 10e — R

ubenstein, © 2011 P

earson Education, Inc.

BE

NIN

NIG

ER

CA

ME

RO

ON

NI

GE

RI

A

Lagos

Kano

Abuja

AT

LAN

TIC

OC

EA

N

LakeC

had

0

10

02

00

KIL

OM

ET

ER

S0

10

02

00

MIL

ES

NIG

ER

-CO

NG

O F

AM

ILY

AF

RO

-AS

IAT

IC F

AM

ILYN

ILO-S

AH

AR

AN

FA

MILY

Adam

awa F

ulfulde

Anaang

Ebira

Edo

Ibibio

Igbo

Izon

Nigerian F

ulfulde

Tiv

Yoruba

Other P

eoples

Kanuri

Other P

eoples

Hausa

Other P

eoples

All languages w

ith over 1 million speakers

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Ch

apter 5, F

igu

re 5-21R

evival of Hebrew

.

The C

ultural Landscape: An Introduction to H

uman G

eography, 10e — R

ubenstein, © 2011 P

earson Education, Inc.

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The Cultural Landscape: An Introduction to Human Geography, 10e — Rubenstein, © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

Chapter 5, Figure 5-22Celtic language branch.

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The Cultural Landscape: An Introduction to Human Geography, 10e — Rubenstein, © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

Chapter 5, Figure 5-23Languages in Belgium.

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The Cultural Landscape: An Introduction to Human Geography, 10e — Rubenstein, © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

Chapter 5, Figure 5-23aLanguages in Belgium.

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The Cultural Landscape: An Introduction to Human Geography, 10e — Rubenstein, © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

Chapter 5, Figure 5-23bLanguages in Belgium.

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The Cultural Landscape: An Introduction to Human Geography, 10e — Rubenstein, © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

Chapter 5, Figure 5-24Languages in Switzerland.

FRENCH

GERMAN

ITALIAN

R O M A N S H

FRANCE

ITALY

AUSTRIA

LIECH.

LakeGeneva

Bodensee

Geneva

Lausanne

Lugano

Bern

Basel

Zurich

St. Moritz

0

25 50 KILOMETERS0

25 50 MILES

GERMAN FRENCH ITALIAN ROMANSH

LANGUAGES IN SWITZERLAND

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The Cultural Landscape: An Introduction to Human Geography, 10e — Rubenstein, © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

Chapter 5, Figure 5-25Preserving language diversity in New Zealand.

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The Cultural Landscape: An Introduction to Human Geography, 10e — Rubenstein, © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

Chapter 5, Figure 5-26Languages of online speakers 1996–2008.

1.6

ChineseJapaneseKorean

ArabicRussianPortuguese

FrenchGermanSpanish

EnglishOther

1

1.2

1.4

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 20080

On-line population (billions)

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The Cultural Landscape: An Introduction to Human Geography, 10e — Rubenstein, © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

Chapter 5, Figure 5-27English/French language boundary in Canada.

ME

NHVT

MANY

CT

RIToronto

Ottawa

Montréal

Québec

P.E.I.

NovaScotia

NewBrunswickQuébec

OntarioATLANTIC

OCEAN

Lake

Hur

on

Lake Ontario

Gulf ofSt. Lawrence

0

100 200 KILOMETERS0

100 200 MILES

81.4–100

50–81.3

4.4–49.9

0–4.3

Sparselyinhabited

PERCENT FRENCHSPEAKERS

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The Cultural Landscape: An Introduction to Human Geography, 10e — Rubenstein, © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

Chapter 5, Figure 5-28Languages other than English in Canada.

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Ch

apter 5, F

igu

re 5-29Languages other than E

nglish in the United S

tates.

The C

ultural Landscape: An Introduction to H

uman G

eography, 10e — R

ubenstein, © 2011 P

earson Education, Inc.