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# Chapter 2 Slide

Apr 14, 2018

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Kyle Ward
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Chapter 2

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Programming and SoftwareChapter 2

Objective is how to use the computer as a toolto obtain numerical solutions to a givenengineering model. There are two ways in

using computers:Use available software

Or, write computer programs to extend thecapabilities of available software, such as Excel

and Matlab.

Engineers should not be tool limited, it isimportant that they should be able to do both!

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Computer programs are set of instructions that direct thecomputer to perform a certain task.

To be able to perform engineering-oriented numericalcalculations, you should be familiar with the followingprogramming topics:

Simple information representation (constants, variables, and typedeclaration)

Advanced information representation (data structure, arrays, andrecords)

Mathematical formulas (assignment, priority rules, and intrinsicfunctions)

Input/Output

Logical representation (sequence, selection, and repetition)

Modular programming (functions and subroutines)

We will focus the last two topics, assuming that you havesome prior exposure to programming.

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Structured Programming

Structured programmingis a set of rules that

prescribe god style habits for programmer.

An organized, well structured code

Easily sharable

Easy to debug and test

Requires shorter time to develop, test, and update

The key idea is that any numerical algorithm can becomposed of using the three fundamental structures:

Sequence, selection, and repetition

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Fig. 2.1

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Sequence. Computer

code must be

implemented oneinstruction at a time,

unless you instruct

otherwise. The

structure can beexpressed as a

flowchart or

pseudocode.

Fig.2.2

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Selection. Splitsthe programs flowinto branches

based on outcomeof a logicalcondition.

Fig. 2.3

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Repetition. A means to implement instructions repeatedly.

Fig. 2.4

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Fig. 2.5

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Figure 2.6

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Modular Programming

The computer programs can be divided intosubprograms, or modules, that can be developed andtested separately.

Modules should be as independent and self containedas possible.

It is easier to understand the underlying logic of

smaller modulesThey are easier to debug and test

Facilitate program maintenance and modification

Allow you to maintain your own library ofmodules for later use

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Fig. 2.7

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EXCEL

Is a spreadsheet that allow the user to enter and performcalculations on rows and columns of data.

When any value on the sheet is changed, entire calculation isupdated, therefore, spreadsheets are ideal for what if? sorts

of analysis. Excel has some built in numerical capabilities including

equation solving, curve fitting and optimization.

It also includes VBA as a macro language that can be used toimplement numerical calculations.

It has several visualization tools, such as graphs and threedimensional plots.

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Fig. 2.8

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MATLAB

Is a flagship software which was originally

developed as a matrix laboratory. A variety of

numerical functions, symbolic computations,

and visualization tools have been added to the

matrix manipulations.

MATLAB is closely related to programming.

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Fig. 2.9

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Other Languages and Libraries

Fortran 90 (IMSL)

C++

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Homework #1

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Problem 2.24

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50( ) ( ) 9.8 ( )

80

v t t v t v t t

Before the chute opens (t < 10). Eulers method can be

implemented as

After the chute opens (t 10). The drag coefficient is changed and

the implementation becomes

10( ) ( ) 9.8 ( )

80v t t v t v t t

Problem 2.24

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Problem 2.24

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z =

Columns 1 through 15

0 1.0000 2.0000 3.0000 4.0000 5.0000 6.0000 7.0000 8.0000 9.0000

10.0000 11.0000 12.0000 13.0000 14.0000

-20.0000 -7.6900 3.0813 12.5061 20.7528 27.9687 34.2826 39.8073 44.6414

48.8712 52.5723 29.5246 20.8817 17.6406 16.4252

Columns 16 through 21

15.0000 16.0000 17.0000 18.0000 19.0000 20.0000

15.9695 15.7985 15.7345 15.7104 15.7014 15.6980

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t v

0 -20.000

1 -7.690

2 3.081

3 12.5064 20.753

5 27.969

6 34.283

7 39.807

8 44.641

9 48.871

10 52.572

11 29.525

12 20.882

13 17.641

14 16.425

15 15.969

16 15.799

17 15.734

18 15.710

19 15.701

20 15 698>>

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