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Chapter 2 REVIEW OF LITERATURE and RESEARCH M 2.pdf · PDF file24 Chapter 2 REVIEW OF LITERATURE and RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 2.1 Review of Literature Academic literature on the tourism

Mar 06, 2018




  • Chapter 2





    2.1 Review of Literature

    2.2 Research Gaps

    2.3 Research Methodology

    2.3.1 Rationale of the Study

    2.3.2 Objectives of the Study

    2.3.3 Hypothesis Formulation

    2.3.4 Data Collection Data Secondary Data

    2.3.5 Questionnaire Design

    2.3.6 Sample Design

    2.3.7 Tools of Data Analysis

    2.3.8 Limitations of the Study

    2.4 Usefulness of the Present Study to the Society

    2.5 Vistas for Further Research

    2.6 References

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    Chapter 2




    2.1 Review of Literature

    Academic literature on the tourism industry in India has spanned across several

    disciplines from the regional as well as the national perspective. As the largest country in

    terms of size and population in the South Asian region, India has a large influence on the

    regional tourism industry. Most of the literature reviewed examines India only on the

    domestic front and not in comparison with any other international destination. Singapore

    tourism industry on the other hand has been partially compared with Indonesian tourism

    industry. The literature related to competitiveness covers the various models of assessing the

    competitiveness of a nation and also lists out various factors and attributes determining it.

    The gist of some of the research papers reviewed for the purpose of my research is as


    Destination Competitiveness and the Role of the Tourism Enterprise

    Geoffrey I. Crouch, J.R. Brent Ritchie (1995)

    This study finds that tourism enterprises, particularly entrepreneurship, new venture

    developments and small businesses contribute to destination development and

    competitiveness in a number of ways like they help in having a co-operative competitive

    environment, increase specialization in tourism sector by allowing each firm to concentrate

    on its core competencies, provide an ideal mechanism for the identification and development

    of new ideas, help to disperse the economic benefits of tourism development etc. Despite

    these numerous contributions several problems and challenges are also evident. The

    existence of so many small businesses in tourism means that many owner-managers lack the

    skills, expertise or resources to function efficiently and effectively. Externalities, particularly

    environmental, social and cultural are also often significant in tourism but neither small

    tourism enterprises recognize nor care about the wider and long term consequences of some

    of their actions.

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    The Customers Perception of Tourism Accreditation

    David Foster (1998)

    This study attempts to find the level of awareness amongst consumers of the tourism

    accreditation system in Australia. The results disclose that a lot of work needs to be done to

    make the consumers well aware of the existence of the tourism accreditation system. It has

    been demonstrated that even when tourists are aware of accreditation there is confusion

    about what it actually means. However, although the level of awareness & understanding is

    low, respondents have indicated that the issues addressed by the accreditation system are of

    significance to them and may indirectly influence their purchasing decisions

    Tourist Satisfaction in Singapore- A Perspective From Indonesian Tourists

    Theresia A. Pawitra and Kay C. Tan (2001)

    This research paper identifies the image of new Asia Singapore from the Indonesian

    tourists perspective and evaluates their satisfaction level. It highlights the various strong

    and weak attributes of Singapore as seen by Indonesian tourists. It was found that from the

    Indonesian tourists point of view, Singapore Tourism Board was successful in promoting

    and maintaining the performance of the local tourism industry. Singapore outclassed its

    competitors by exceeding Indonesian tourists predictions. Despite Singapores outstanding

    performance, Indonesian tourists were disappointed with the attributes of unavailability of

    wide range of products and no unique tourist places of interest. It demands attention of

    Singapore Tourism Board as both these attributes belong to the attractive category

    Reorienting HRD Strategies for Tourists Satisfaction

    R.P.Das, Nageshwar Rao (2002)

    This paper highlights how the Indian tourism industry can reorient its HRD strategies

    in order to satisfy and delight its customers to survive in the global competition. The HRD

    departments in the tourism industry have to make all efforts to create a strong industry image

    which indirectly reassures the tourists about the quality service. With a better qualified

    younger workforce occupying the positions in the future and with the tremendous

    opportunities opening for them elsewhere, the key task before the policy makers in

    organizations is to keep the tourists contact employees satisfied. The tourist contact

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    employees, as the internal customers, their satisfaction will be very important to facilitate the

    tourism industry to achieve its goal through tourists satisfaction.

    Towards a Model to Enhance Africas Sustainable Tourism Competitiveness

    Ernie Heath (2002)

    This research work finds that from an African perspective appropriate tourism

    development could become the engine of growth that can improve the quality of life of

    millions. The continent has the tourism resources and the market potential certainly exists.

    Possibly the biggest constraints facing Africa in terms of achieving its true tourism potential

    lies with the people of the continent. Africans need to really appreciate the true tourism

    potential, develop a shared tourism vision, coordinate the efforts and strategically manage

    the key elements that constitute destination competitiveness. A new era is drawing for

    tourism in Africa. An era which will not only be dominated by impact of technology and

    intensification of competition in tourism arena , but also by the realization among tourism

    stakeholders that there are major benefits in the co-operation and co-ordination of efforts

    A Conceptual Model of Tourism Destination Competitiveness and Attractiveness

    Sebastian Vengesayi, Monash University (2003)

    This study has proposed a conceptual model of tourism destination competitiveness

    and attractiveness. In the earlier researches, researchers have investigated destination

    attractiveness and destination competitiveness as separate and unrelated concepts. But this

    paper proposes that the popularity of tourism destinations can be enhanced by a combination

    of the factors of competitiveness and attractiveness. The purpose of combining these

    perspectives is to come up with a holistic understanding of the destination popularity


    Tourism Flows Between India and Singapore

    Faizal Yahya (2003)

    This paper examines the growing importance of India as a source of inbound tourists

    for countries in South East Asia and in particular, Singapore. The data collected reveals that

    India is one of the top 12 source countries of tourists for Singapore. The more important fact

    is that the average daily spending of Indian tourists in Singapore is the highest which gives

    an incentive to the Singapore Tourism Board to attract more Indian tourists to visit

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    Singapore. The data shows that the number of Indian tourists visiting Singapore is increasing

    every year at a fast pace. Singapores position in the tourism sector has improved a lot but

    now it wants to be a tourism hub. As the space constraint is there in Singapore so now it is

    exploring more investment opportunities in the tourism sector overseas. The lack of cultural

    and heritage sites in Singapore is also a hurdle in the path of its becoming a tourism hub.

    Thus, the Singapore Tourism Board is collaborating with Indian tourism industry to have

    win-win situation for both the countries. A Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) has been

    signed between India and Singapore which will promote the bilateral flow of cultural


    Competitiveness of Slovenia as a Tourist Destination

    Doris Gornezelj Omerzel (2004)

    This study reveals that there are only a few attributes for which Slovenia was rated

    well above average. Destination management factors were evaluated the worst. This

    indicates that there is no clear strategy for further development. The development of the

    Slovenian tourism sector in recent years has been based on the construction of physical

    infrastructure. The elements like quality of services, educational programmers and

    development of human resources, stimulation of creativity and innovation & formation of

    new interesting tourism products were neglected. The main problem seemed to be the danger

    that because of the ineffectiveness in the phase of developments and marketing of tourism

    products, the destination is losing the potential premium for the comparative advantages. All

    kinds of management activities and actions can be considered as destination competitive

    strategies that can allow Slovenia as a tourist destination to enhance

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