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Chapter 2 Hardware • Trends in Computing Systems • Generally classified into three groups – Mainframe computers – Midrange (mini) computers – Microcomputers (PCs)

Chapter 2 Hardware Trends in Computing Systems Generally classified into three groups –Mainframe computers –Midrange (mini) computers –Microcomputers (PCs)

Dec 23, 2015



Earl Tate
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  • Slide 1
  • Chapter 2 Hardware Trends in Computing Systems Generally classified into three groups Mainframe computers Midrange (mini) computers Microcomputers (PCs)
  • Slide 2
  • Microcomputer Applications Often referred to as personal computers Many uses, styles, purposes Workstations - High power PCs used for analytical processing, mathematical calculations, statistical analysis Network Servers - Used to manage resources on a network (usually a Local Area Network)
  • Slide 3
  • Microcomputers (cont) Personal Digital Assistants - Highly specialized and mobile devises Use special software to allow for optical character recognition, touch pads, pen- based interface, etc. This is the latest trend in communications devices
  • Slide 4
  • Multimedia Systems Personal computers with a variety of media devices Allow for more robust displays, music, voice recognition and synthesis More expensive than a traditional machine, but much more useful and capable
  • Slide 5
  • Network computers Designed primarily for work situations where users access an Intranet (network using Internet technologies These machines usually have little or no disk storage space Main benefits are low cost, ease of upgrades, manageable
  • Slide 6
  • Computer terminals Dumb terminal - No processing occurs at the terminal level. Usually associated with a mainframe or client/server system Intelligent terminals - Have the capability to process at the local level (includes transaction terminals in grocery store, banks, department stores, etc)
  • Slide 7
  • Midrange Systems Multi user systems that manage network traffic, file access, device management More powerful than a personal computer Less powerful than a mainframe Less costly to purchase, operate, maintain Most efficient when scope of use is narrow but processing needs are high
  • Slide 8
  • Midrange (cont) Used largely in scientific research, process control situations, engineering (CAD, CAM, CAO) Sometimes used as front end processors to aid a mainframe system Good devices for telecommunications and network control (network servers)
  • Slide 9
  • Midrange (cont) Can be used to host an Intranet, Extranet, Internet, or client/server system Can be configured and programmed to operate virtually unaided Do not require special climate controlled areas
  • Slide 10
  • Mainframe Systems Physically larger than midrange, microcomputers, file servers Can process more data and faster Processing measured in MIPS (millions of instructions per second) High storage capacity Require climate controlled operating areas
  • Slide 11
  • Mainframe Applications Support the information and processing needs of large corporations, government offices, military Can handle vast computational tasks Super-server for communications need of large client/server networks Data warehousing
  • Slide 12
  • Supercomputer Applications Used by major universities, multinational corporations, largest government divisions Cooperative applications between countries Use multiple processors (any of which could constitute as a mainframe) $5million to $50 million cost
  • Slide 13
  • Components of a Computer System It is important to understand the components of a computer as a system Input > Processing > Output > Storage > Control
  • Slide 14
  • Input Input devices allow for the feeding of data to the computer system Keyboard/keypad Touch screen Light pens Mouse OCR Voice activation
  • Slide 15
  • Processing Central processing unit (microprocessor in a personal computer) Performs three functions Control unit Arithmetic-Logic unit Primary storage unit
  • Slide 16
  • Output Processed data in the form designated by the user Devices include video display (monitors) Audio response Printers
  • Slide 17
  • Storage Used to store programs (computer instructions), data, processed information Two types Primary storage (main memory) Secondary storage (magnetic disk, compact disc, magnetic tape)
  • Slide 18
  • Control The control unit manages and interprets programs, transmission to other components of the system Is part of the CPU other part is ALU CPU contains cache memory
  • Slide 19
  • Primary Storage Main memory - microelectronic semiconductors Commonly known as RAM (random access memory) Sometimes main memory can use ROM (read only memory) Loss of data if power loss
  • Slide 20
  • Secondary storage Commonly known as permanent storage Physical storage versus electronic storage Support for primary storage
  • Slide 21
  • Multiple Processor Systems Some systems use more than one processor unit Several configurations Usually splits the control unit and the logic unit
  • Slide 22
  • Multi Processor Configurations Support Processor - Free up the main processor to execute program instructions (can be a math co-processor, video display controller or magnetic disk controller) Coupled Processor - Used mostly to provide for fault tolerance Parallel Processors - Execute instructions in sequence
  • Slide 23
  • cont Massively Parallel Processors - Many processors aligned to execute hundreds or thousands of instructions at the same time RISC - Reduced Instruction Set Computer Uses less instructions
  • Slide 24
  • Conclude chapter 2 next week Complete coverage of chapter 3 next week