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Chapter 2

Jun 20, 2015



  • 1. Inside the Earth Third Rock from the Sun
    The Earth is not a solid rock, but instead consists of layers
    Inner Core solid iron and nickel
    Outer Core liquid iron and nickel (contains the basis for our magnetic field that protects us from most forms of solar radiation)
    Mantle semisoft melted rock
    Crust thin cooled skin that floats on the mantle contains cracks and moves
    Movement of the crust causes earthquakes and volcanoes

2. Plate Tectonics
The Earths crust is broken into plates
The plates move along the flowing mantle in different directions
Pressure between the plates builds up until it is released by an earthquake
Ring of Fire hundreds of volcanoes around the Pacific Rim where the Pacific plate interacts with other plates
3. Air and Water Necessary for Life on Earth
Contained with the Earths atmosphere a layer of gasses that surround the planet
Actually composed of many different types of gasses
Nitrogen about 78% (essential for development of proteins)
Oxygen about21% (essential for respiration)
Others about 1% combined
97% of the water on Earth is found in the Ocean its salty
Only 3% of the water on Earth is fresh
Mostly found in the polar caps and glaciers (huge ice sheets found on mountains, Antarctica and Greenland)
Great deal is underground sometimes miles deep
Very little (0.3%) is at the surface (mostly lakes) and therefore useable by living organisms very important to conserve and keep clean what we have
4. Water Cycle
6. Wind and Water help keep the earth from overheating
Hot air rises so air in the tropics rises and is carried towards the polar regions
Cold air in the polar regions sinks to the surface and flows towards the tropics
Cold air can not hold much water vapor
Warm air can hold more water vapor
Wind happens when the air flows from the areas where its sinking to areas where its rising
The Earths rotation helps drive wind direction
Warm water is lighter than cold, dense water
Water in tropical regions flows slowly towards the polar regions
Cold water in the polar regions sinks to the bottom of the ocean and flows south towards the tropical regions, where the cycle begins all over
7. Chapter 2.2Natural Resources
Natural resources are anything from the Earth that people use in meeting their needs for
8. Chapter 2.2Types of Natural Resources (raw material)
Recyclable Resources
Recycle naturally through the earth itself
Water, carbon, oxygen and nitrogen
Can refer to items that can be reused without replacing the resource
Renewable Resources
Resources that can be replaced by man
Wood trees can be replanted
Biodiesel and ethanol crops can be replanted
Nonrenewable Resources
Can not be replaced
Important to conserve and use wisely -- theyre no longer being created
Oil, natural gas, coal, minerals
9. Energy Resources
Energy is needed for every living thing
Fossil Fuels
Include coal, natural gases, petroleum (oil byproduct)
Problem?Not everyone has oil I their back yard
Saudi Arabia and Mexico have large amounts of oil but other countries like the US and China have more natural gas and coal
10. 11. 12. New Supplies Needed!!
1979 OPEC raised the price of oil
What was the outcome?
Gas prices went up
Countries with limited sources of oil had to buy at an increased price raising their asking price for products
A global problem?
13. 14. Chapter 2.3Climate vs. Weather
Day to day changes in the air in terms of precipitation and / or temperature
Its 90 degrees today
Affected by the movement of storms around the planet
Changes rapidly over a few days
Long term average weather in any one place or region
the climate in Jamaica is tropical
Largely affected by wind patterns, water currents and major landforms
Changes take place over years or even millennia
15. Broad Types of Climate on Earth
Low latitudes around the Equator
Generally hot, wet and sunny
Rain forests dominate
Different places around the Earth generally on the opposite side of mountain ranges from wind flow
Little to rain with sandy soil
Sparse to no vegetation
Found in the middle latitudes (like Connecticut)
Temperatures and rainfall are generally moderate enough every year to promote agricultural production
Hot summers and bitterly cold winters
Generally drier than moderate climates
Large grasslands in some areas and forests in others
Found in high latitudes
Cold all year round
Vegetation includes low shrubs, mosses
Very little life found in these regions
16. Map showing relative positions of the Gulf Stream and Labrador Current