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Chapter 16 AMERICA’S PLACE IN A DANGEROUS WORLD Current Events/American Political Development Focus: The Bush Doctrine © 2011 Taylor & Francis

Dec 18, 2015

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  • Slide 1
  • Chapter 16 AMERICAS PLACE IN A DANGEROUS WORLD Current Events/American Political Development Focus: The Bush Doctrine 2011 Taylor & Francis
  • Slide 2
  • Background With the end of the Cold War, economic power has challenged the primacy of military power Thus, the world is economically multipolar while the world military scene is now unipolar, i.e., dominated by the United States The United States remains the worlds only superpower. 2011 Taylor & Francis
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  • U.S. Superpower
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  • Background The Gulf War of 1990-1991, provided the first test to the United States military hegemony. President George H.W. Bush (41) assembled a coalition of countries to oust Saddam Hussein from Kuwait. However, his son, President George W. Bush (43), has a decidedly different approach to conducting foreign affairs. 2011 Taylor & Francis
  • Slide 5
  • Background Specifically, the Bush (43) Doctrine of 2002 rejects the tenets of the Cold War doctrine of containment multilateralism deterrence 2011 Taylor & Francis
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  • Background Instead, George W. Bushs foreign policy is premised upon unilateralism preemption military supremacy 2011 Taylor & Francis
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  • U.S. military preponderance
  • Slide 8
  • Neoconservative Thinking after First Gulf War Neoconservatives Paul Wolfowitz, Dick Cheney, William Kristol, and Richard Perle Saw the United States decision not to intervene in the Iraqi uprising in Southern Iraq (at the end of the first Gulf War) as a missed opportunity to remove Saddam Hussein from power. 2011 Taylor & Francis
  • Slide 9
  • Neoconservative Thinking after First Gulf War In response, Under Secretary of Defense, Paul Wolfowitz drafts a new military and political strategy (1992) to address the global changes in a post-Cold War era. In the 1992 document, Defense Planning Guidance, he advocates both unilateralism and preemption to prevent the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction. 2011 Taylor & Francis
  • Slide 10
  • Mid-1990s In 1995, Saddam Husseins son-in-law who heads the Iraqi Weapons of Mass Destruction program defects informs the United States and UN weapons inspectors of Iraqs production of biological and chemical weapons. Chemical weapons were used on the Kurds in 1988 prompted the United Nations to enact sanctions send weapons inspectors into Iraq. 2011 Taylor & Francis
  • Slide 11
  • Project for a New American Century In 1998, neoconservatives form The Project for a New American Century to promote stronger and more aggressive U.S. leadership in global affairs through military strength and moral clarity. Wolfowitz, Cheney, Kristol, Perle, Rumsfeld, Armitage, and Bolton submit a letter to President Clinton advocating a more decisive approach to Iraq. They believe the current policy is dangerously inadequate and Saddam Hussein must be removed from power. 2011 Taylor & Francis
  • Slide 12
  • Operation Desert Fox In October 1998, the UN inspectors are removed from Iraq because Hussein has, once again, violated conditions of the UN Security Council resolutions. Between December 16 and 19, 1998 the U.S. and British launch attacks against Iraqi military targets. The mission is called, Operation Desert Fox. 2011 Taylor & Francis
  • Slide 13
  • The Bush Presidency In January 20, 2001, George W. Bush becomes President and assembles a cabinet dominated by neoconservatives. But also includes pragmatic realists such as Secretary of State, Colin Powell and National Security Advisor, Condoleezza Rice who advocate continuing sanctions against Iraq. 2011 Taylor & Francis
  • Slide 14
  • The 9/11 Attacks The neoconservative approach to foreign affairs becomes evident after the September 11, 2001 attacks Bush addresses the nation and asserts that the United States government makes no distinction between the terrorists who committed these acts and those who harbor them. 2011 Taylor & Francis
  • Slide 15
  • The Response to 9/11 Two days later at a Pentagon briefing, Wolfowitz proclaims: I think one has to say it's not just simply a matter of capturing people and holding them accountable, but removing the sanctuaries, removing the support systems, ending states who sponsor terrorism. And that's why it has to be a broad and sustained campaign. Prompts realists to question the administrations intention to expand a war on terrorism to a war on states (specifically, Iraq) 2011 Taylor & Francis
  • Slide 16
  • The Response to 9/11 In a meeting at Camp David on September 15, 2001, Bush convenes his advisors and Cabinet Secretaries to discuss the military response to the 9/11 attacks. The decision to attack Al Qaeda and the Taliban in Afghanistan is supported by the Cabinet (Secretary of Defense, Rumsfeld, abstained from voting). 2011 Taylor & Francis
  • Slide 17
  • The Rise of the Bush Doctrine In January 2002, George Bush addresses the nation in the annual State of the Union Speech and identifies Iran, Iraq, and North Korea as an Axis of Evil. Within the speech, Bush presents the idea of rogue states colluding with terrorists that threaten the free world. 2011 Taylor & Francis
  • Slide 18
  • The Rise of the Bush Doctrine In June 2002, Bush is the commencement speaker at West Point outlines a major shift in national security strategy from containment to preemption. Bush also advocates the aim of America is to continue military hegemony. Refers to the 1992 document, Defense Planning Guidance, written by the current Assistant Secretary of Defense, Paul Wolfowitz. 2011 Taylor & Francis
  • Slide 19
  • Dissent within (and outside) the Administration The Bush administration is fractured between pragmatic realists (Powell, Rice) and neoconservatives (Rumsfeld, Wolfowitz). On August 5, 2002 Colin Powell advises the President should not attempt to act unilaterallyEuropean countries including Germany and Russia are concerned action in the Middle East may escalate tensions. 2011 Taylor & Francis
  • Slide 20
  • Dissent within (and outside) the Administration Many former Cabinet officials from the Bush 41 administration share Powells concerns. In the August 15 edition of the Wall Street Journal, former National Security Advisor, Brent Scowcroft, warns the current approach to Iraq is moving too quickly and the President should allow more time for diplomacy and inspections to proceed. 2011 Taylor & Francis
  • Slide 21
  • Cheney Soon after this editorial, Vice-President Dick Cheney addresses a Veterans of Foreign Affairs group in Nashville Advocates a long-term strategy of regime change that would transform the Middle East and advance the Israeli-Palestine peace talks. 2011 Taylor & Francis
  • Slide 22
  • National Security Strategy On September 17, 2002, the Bush administration formally submits its National Security Strategya radical change in foreign policy. Incorporates tenets of the 2002 Defense Planning Guide (Wolfowitz), including: a reliance on preemption when dealing with rogue states the need for American military hegemony the use of military power to ensure economic supremacy and provide for national security. 2011 Taylor & Francis
  • Slide 23
  • The Bush Doctrine Legacy under the Obama Administration Obama's criticisms of the doctrine Alternatives under new administration renewed diplomatic efforts change of focus from counterterrorism in Iraq to Afghanistan end the Iraq War new Secretary of State Clinton to repair America's relationships abroad, with both friends and foes 2011 Taylor & Francis