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Feb 22, 2016
Chapter 15 Life at the Turn of the Century
Chapter 15Life at the Turn of the CenturySec. 1 ReviewWho were the Old Immigrants?1800-1880Immigrants from Northern & Western EuropeUnited KingdomThe NetherlandsGermanySweden & Norway
Who were the New Immigrants?1880-1910Mainly from Eastern & Southern EuropePolandHungaryCzechoslovakia RussiaItalyGreece
Reasons for Mass Immigration from Eastern Europe:
Poverty Overcrowding & Joblessness Religious Persecution
Where did most of the New Immigrants live?CITIESLittle Italy, New York
Settlement of Immigrants (1880)
Where Were Immigrants Processed?
Where did Asian Immigrants Arrive in U.S.?Angel Island (San Francisco)
Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882Banned Chinese immigration for 10 yearsChinese in America could not get citizenshipWHY?1870s: American economy takes downturnMany Chinese lived in cities doing low-wage workChinese blamed for taking jobs and making wages decreaseDenis Kearney The Chinese must go!
What people opposed immigration?NATIVISTS Labor Unions blamed immigrants for lower wages, taking jobs & breaking strikesPrejudice (ex. Anti-Semitism, anti-Chinese, Anti-Catholic)
Effects of ImmigrationAmerica becomes more multiculturalDevelopment of ethnic communitiesIncrease in U.S. population Rapid Urbanization
UrbanizationThe Rise of Cities1900: 40% of Americans living in citiesCities grew by native-born Americans relocating to cities from rural areas and from increasing immigrant population1897-1930: 1 million southern blacks migrate north & west to cities. How does urbanization connect to industrialization?Patterns of Urban Growth - 1880
Urban Changes Why did cities grow?Mass-Transit TechnologyBefore mass-transit, people had to live within walking distance of the city.1890s: Electric trolleys, streetcars, subways developedLeads to residential communities forming outside the city
Construction of NYC Subway System1901
Urban Changes2. Skyscrapers Made possible by innovations of the Industrial Revolution: steel, elevators & central steam heating.Allowed cities to expand rapidly by building upwardHome Insurance Building in Chicago first true skyscraper at 10 stories high!
Changing New York City Skyline
18981931What is the Worlds Tallest Building now?Burj Khalifa in the United Arab Emirates
Urban Changes3. Ethnic NeighborhoodsImmigrant groups settled into distinct ethnic neighborhoodsEthnic neighborhoods allowed immigrants to maintain their cultural heritage: language, culture, churches/temples & social clubs.
Residential SuburbsStreetcars & Trains allow people to live in communities outside of citiesWealthy & middle classes wanted to escape bad conditions in cityExample of increasing disparity between upper/middle class and the working class poor.
Roxbury Highlands, Massachusetts
Andrew Carnegies Home
Class DivisionsWorking class lived in crowded citiesTenement Apartments
Why is this era calledThe Gilded Age?Phrase coined by Mark TwainGilded something covered with an outward layer of goldAn era of economic growth and wealth that covered deep societal issues, such asPovertyGovernment CorruptionMaterialismPoor working conditions
Political CorruptionPolitical Machines controlled city politicsPolitical Bosses worked to:Ensure their candidates were electedMake sure that city government worked to their advantage
Machine OrganizationCity BossWard BossesPrecinct Workers, ImmigrantsThe Boss Controlled jobs, business licenses & influenced the Court systemWard Bosses Usually 2nd generation immigrants. Helped immigrants with jobs, housing and naturalization in exchange for votes. James Garfield Refuses to give certain members of the Republican party jobs. Assassinated by Charles Guiteau
VP Chester Arthur becomes President and begins reforming the Federal Government & fighting the spoils systemGovernment CorruptionThe Spoils SystemBegun by President Andrew JacksonNew President would dismiss 1,000s of government workers & replace with his supporters in his party.To the victor goes the spoils of war
Pendleton Civil Service ActSupported by President Arthur & passed by Congress 1883Legislated that government jobs be based on merit. Applicants would take a Civil Service Test to determine if they were qualifiedMade it illegal to fire government employees based on party affiliation
Beginning of an era of REFORMNow on to .The Populist Movement
Go to the blogopen Populist Movement Guided Reading