Top Banner
Chapter 14 The Nation Divided

Chapter 14 The Nation Divided. Section 2: Compromises Fail Section 1: Growing Tensions Over Slavery Section 3: The Crisis Deepens Section 4: The Coming.

Dec 25, 2015



Ginger Ross
Welcome message from author
This document is posted to help you gain knowledge. Please leave a comment to let me know what you think about it! Share it to your friends and learn new things together.
  • Slide 1
  • Chapter 14 The Nation Divided
  • Slide 2
  • Section 2: Compromises Fail Section 1: Growing Tensions Over Slavery Section 3: The Crisis Deepens Section 4: The Coming of the Civil War CHAPTER 14 THE NATION DIVIDED
  • Slide 3
  • Section 1: Growing Tensions Over Slavery Slavery and the Mexican American War Maintaining the balance Between 1820 and 1848 8 new states were admitted 4 slave and 4 free Totals of 15 slave and 15 free states Remember the Missouri Compromise? It did not apply to the lands claimed after the Mexican- American War Wilmot Proviso David Wilmot of PA proposed this law Congress ban slavery in all territory that might become part of the U.S. as a result of the M-A War. It passed in the house (population) and failed in the senate (equal) Wilmot Proviso never became law, but it was viewed as an attack on slavery by southerners
  • Slide 4
  • Section 1: Growing Tensions Over Slavery An Anti-Slavery Party Free Soil Party Formed on the basis of the Wilmot Proviso they wanted to stop the spread of slavery especially in the newly acquired territory from Mexico 3 candidates run in the election of 1848 Democrats Senator Lewis Cass of Michigan Whigs General Zachary Taylor (hero of the M-A War) Free Soil former president Martin Van Buren Democrat votes are split between Van Buren and Cass This allows Taylor to win
  • Slide 5
  • Section 1: Growing Tensions Over Slavery A Bitter Debate Californias Gold Rush With the inflow if gold seekers California had enough people to become a state Both sides realized that the admission of California would upset the balance between free and slave states Northerners Argued that CA become a free state because most of the land there was north of the Missouri Compromise line Southerners Knew that another free state would upset the balance in the senate They would be unable to block laws like the Wilmot Proviso Began threatening to secede from the union
  • Slide 6
  • Section 1: Growing Tensions Over Slavery Other issues dividing the North and South Northerners Wanted the slave trade abolished in Washington D.C. Southerners Wanted fugitive slave laws Would force the return of runaway slaves to their owners Henry Clay Presents a series of proposals to deal with the issue This sparks one of the greatest debates in American history John C. Calhoun Argues against the compromise The admission of CA as a free state leaves only 2 solutions for the South 1 an amendment protecting states rights must be passed OR 2 The South would leave the Union
  • Slide 7
  • Section 1: Growing Tensions Over Slavery Daniel Webster Argues in support of the compromise He calls for an end to the sectionalism that divides the country Argues for Clays proposal in order to preserve the union
  • Slide 8
  • Section 2: Compromises Fail The Compromise of 1850 In September 1850 Congress passes 5 bills based on Clays Proposals Zachary Taylor had opposed the compromise, but he died in 1850 Millard Fillmore took over the presidency and signed the bills into law To Please the North CA would be admitted as a free state Slave trade would be banned in Washington D.C. To Please the South Popular sovereignty would decide slave issues in other new states from the Mexican Cession Southerners got a tough new Fugitive Slave Law
  • Slide 9
  • Section 2: Compromises Fail Fugitive Slave Act of 1850 Allowed government officials to arrest ANYONE accused of being a runaway slave The accused had no right to a trial no way to defend themselves All that was required was a witness to swear that the individual was a slave Law also required northern citizens to help capture accused runaways if authorities requested assistance Outrage in the North Northerners were upset to see people accused of being fugitives lose their freedom Many African Americans fled to Canada to escape being accused Many Northerners resisted the laws
  • Slide 10
  • Section 2: Compromises Fail Calhoun had hoped that the law would force northerners to admit that slave owners had rights to their property Calhoun was wrong it convinced more northerners that slavery was evil Uncle Toms Cabin Written by Harriet Beecher Stowe Daughter of an abolitionist minister Book was written to show the nation what a horrible thing slavery was Focused on a fictional tale of Uncle Tom a kind slave who suffers cruelty from his owner Simon Legree Book was a best-seller in the North Southerners called it Propaganda False or misleading information to spread or further a cause They claimed it did not give an accurate portrayal of the lives of slaves
  • Slide 11
  • Section 2: Compromises Fail The Kansas-Nebraska Act Nation moved closer to war after Congress passes the KS-NE Act in 1854 Proposed by Stephen Douglas Wanted to form two new territories Kansas and Nebraska Southerners objected The two new territories were in areas closed to slavery When they became states they would be free To win southern support, Douglas proposed popular sovereignty in the territories Because of this proposal, the act passed in Congress It was signed into law by Franklin Pierce, (D 1852) According to Pierce the question of slavery would be forever banished from the halls of Congress
  • Slide 12
  • Section 2: Compromises Fail Bleeding Kansas Both pro and anti slavery settlers flooded into the new territory of Kansas Each side was determined to hold a majority when it was time to vote Thousands of MO residents entered Kansas on election day KS only had 3,000 residents but 8,000 votes were cast to elect a legislature In that legislature, 36 of the 39 elected were pro-slavery Anti-Slavery settlers refused to accept the results They held a second election KS now had 2 governments each claiming a right to impose their government on the territory
  • Slide 13
  • Section 2: Compromises Fail Growing Violence In April 1855 a pro-slavery sheriff was shot when he tried to arrest some anti-slavery settlers in Lawrence A month later he returned with 800 men and attacked the town Three days after the attack on Lawrence more violence occurred John Brown led 7 men to a pro-slavery settlement near Pottawatomie Creek and murdered 5 men and children These incidents set off widespread violence throughout the territory
  • Slide 14
  • Section 2: Compromises Fail Bloodshed in the Senate Charles Sumner Abolitionist senator from MA Denounced the proslavery legislature in Kansas Then went on to attack southerners singling out Andrew Butler from SC Butlers nephew a congressman, Preston Brooks marched into the senate chamber and beat Sumner with a cane Sumner never fully recovered Many southerners felt he got what he deserved and sent canes to Brooks to show their support
  • Slide 15
  • Section 3: The Crisis Deepens A New Anti-Slavery Party In 1854 the Whig party split apart Many northern Whigs joined the Republican Party Main goal was to stop the spread of slavery in the western territories Republican Victories In the 1854 elections, republicans won 105 of the available 245 seats in congress They also gained control of most free state legislatures First Republican presidential candidate John C. Fremont (leader of revolution in California) He won 11 of the nations 16 free states Defeated by James Buchanan
  • Slide 16
  • Section 3: The Crisis Deepens Dred Scott Decision Decision was made by the U.S. Supreme Court Facts of the Case Dred Scott was a slave owned by a U.S. Army Doctor. The doctor and Scott lived in Illinois and later in Wisconsin, both were places where slavery was illegal. Later the Doctor and Scott settled in Missouri. Scott, with the help of abolitionist lawyers sued for his freedom claiming that since he lived where slavery was banned, that he should be free. The Court Decides Opinion written by Chief Justice Roger B. Taney Scott was not a free man for 2 reasons First, he had no right to sue in federal court because he was not a citizen Second, merely living in a free territory did not make a slave free, slaves were property, and property rights were protected by the Constitution.
  • Slide 17
  • Section 3: The Crisis Deepens Taneys decision went further. Taney said that Congress did not have the power to prohibit slavery in any territory This meant that the Missouri Compromise was unconstitutional Reaction Supporters of slavery rejoiced. Decision meant that slavery was legal everywhere Northerners were stunned The decision brought out many abolitionists because of outrage One key player was an attorney from Illinois Abraham Lincoln Said that the idea that African Americans could not be citizens was based on a false view of American History
  • Slide 18
  • Section 3: The Crisis Deepens The Lincoln Douglas Debates Lincoln had a brief beginning in politics Served one term as a representative for IL Then returned to his law practice Lincoln was a long time rival of Stephen Douglas Both politically and personally Both men had courted Mary Todd, who married Lincoln A House Divided In 1858 the Republican party chose Lincoln to run against Douglas for the Senate In his nomination acceptance speech, Lincoln claimed that a nation divided by issues such as slavery cannot continue to stand
  • Slide 19
  • Section 3: The Crisis Deepens Debating Slavery Douglas held firm to his position on Popular Sovereignty States had a right to decide what was and was not legal within their borders Lincoln claimed that if slavery is not wrong, nothing is wrong Douglas won the election, but the 2 would face off again Both ran for the presidency later John Browns Raid Brown had a plan Lead abolitionists on a raid at Harpers Ferry Goal was to acquire guns the military had stored there Blacks would join in his uprising, and he would form an army to lead the enslaved to freedom Browns plan fell short While he took over Harpers Ferry, he and his men were soon surrounded by Col. Robert E. Lee
  • Slide 20
  • Section 3: The Crisis Deepens John Browns Trial Brown sat quietly as he was convicted of treason at his trial He received a death sentence and was hung in Virginia December 2, 1859 That day, church bells across the North rang out Many considered him a hero Southerners were stunned How could the north support a man convicted of treason
  • Slide 21
  • Section 4: The Coming of the Civil War The Nation Divides Election of 1860 Republicans nominate Abraham Lincoln The Democratic party splits Southern Democrats nominate Vice President John Breckenridge Northern Democrats nominate Stephen Douglas A third party was formed by Southerners hoping to heal the split between North and South, they form the Constitutional Union and nominate John Bell Douglas felt that Lincoln would win and pleaded with southern voters to stay with the Union no matter what happened He was pelted with eggs and garbage as a result of his efforts The election showed the division of the country Look at the map on page 500
  • Slide 22
  • Section 4: The Coming of the Civil War Southern States Secede Lincolns election shocked the south They felt that a government would move to take away their rights On December 20, 1860 South Carolina passed a declaration In that document was stated The union now subsisting between South Carolina and the other states, under the name of the United States of America, is hereby dissolved
  • Slide 23
  • Section 4: The Coming of the Civil War The Confederate States of America Six more states followed SC out of the union Some moderates in Tennessee and Texas opposed Sam Houston and Andrew Johnson The 7 seceding states met in Montgomery Alabama to form a new nation By the time Lincoln took office, they had written a constitution and appointed a president Jefferson Davis of Mississippi
  • Slide 24
  • Section 4: The Coming of the Civil War The Civil War Begins On March 4, 1861 Abraham Lincoln became President He had to face the greatest crisis in the short history of the U.S. Lincoln tried to give assurance to the seceded states He said that: I have no intention of interfering with slavery where it exists Warned the southern states about continuing on their present course Read the quote on page 501 The south rejected Lincolns proposal They took over forts, post offices, and other federal lands Lincoln now had to decide how to respond
  • Slide 25
  • Section 4: The Coming of the Civil War Fort Sumter The commander of Fort Sumter refused to surrender and turn his post over to the southern states The southern states had cut the fort off from supplies since December They knew that the men inside would starve and be forced to give up Lincoln did not want to give up the fort either He announced that the north was sending unarmed supply ships to the fort The southern states did not give them a chance to arrive On April 12, 1861 Confederate artillery opened fire on Fort Sumter This was the beginning of a Civil War War between opposing groups of citizens of the same country