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May 13, 2020
The Second War for Independence and the
Upsurge of Nationalism, 1812–1824
I. On to Canada over Land and Lakes • U.S. military poorly trained, organized, etc.
• U.S. forces unsuccessful in Canada campaign (land forces)
• U.S. Navy more successful (Constitution) especially on Great Lakes under Oliver Hazard Perry. Forced redcoats to withdraw from Detroit and defeated by General Harrison at Battle of the Thames.
• British invasion (after Napoleon was defeated in Europe) of New York thwarted when naval commander Thomas Macdonough defeats British navy on Lake Champlain.
II. Washington Burned and New Orleans Defended
• 4,000 British on Chesapeake enter Washington and burn most public buildings including the Capitol and the White House.
• British fleet hammers Fort McHenry. Detained Francis Scott Key wrote words of Star Spangled Banner.
• Andrew Jackson defeated British at Battle of New Orleans. 2,000 British dead and wounded v. 70 Americans even though treaty had been agreed upon at Ghent, Belgium two weeks before the battle. Jackson a national hero!
Map 12-1 p226
III. The Treaty of Ghent • Set in motion by Russian tsar Alexander I (1814)
• Basically, the treaty was an armistice
IV. Federalist Grievances and the Hartford Convention
• Federalists in New England continued opposition throughout the war. Talked of secession or a separate treaty with Britain.
• Hartford Convention attended by delegates from Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, New Hampshire, and Vermont. Talk of secession but resulted in moderate demands such as 2/3 vote for embargo, repeal of 3/5 clause, single term presidency, etc. Proposal carried to Washington but news of New York, New Orleans, and Ghent drowned it out>death of Federalist Party.
Map 12-2 p229
V. The Second War for American Independence
• War showed U.S. would fight for itself when needed. Other nations had new respect for Americans.
• U.S. Navy had proved itself.
• Sectionalism dealt a black eye when New England Federalists were discredited
• William Henry Harrison and Andrew Jackson became national heroes.
• U.S. manufacturing prospered. U.S. became more economically independent
• Canadian nationalism and patriotism increased as a result of Canadian anger over Treaty of Ghent and lack of Indian buffer along with floating arms race on Great Lakes until Rush- Bagot agreement.
• Europe underwent a “peace of exhaustion” after defeat of Napoleon. Allowed U.S. to focus on other things such as the West.
VI. Nascent Nationalism • Nationalism the most impressive by-product of
the war. U.S. emerged as one nation.
• Washington Irving and James Fenimore Cooper emerge as important writers
• Textbooks written by Americans.
• North American Review published
• Bank of U.S. re-chartered
• National capital rebuilt; army expanded; navy defeated pirates in North Africa.
VII. “The American System” • U.S. manufacturers wanted protection from
British dumping>Tariff of 1816 became first U.S. tariff primarily for protection-not revenue. 20- 25%.
• American System proposed by Henry Clay. a. strong banking system b. a protective tariff c. tariff revenue would fund roads and canals (internal improvements). Most of the public supported improving transportation.
• Funding roads and canals stumbled on Constitutional grounds; consequently, some states funded projects such as Erie Canal.
VIII. The So-Called Era of Good Feelings
• The nomination and election of James Monroe
• “Era of Good Feelings”?
IX. The Panic of 1819 and the Curse of Hard Times
• Characteristics of the Panic of 1819
• Impact in the West?
• The political and social backlashes of the panic
• The seeds of Jacksonian democracy
X. Growing Pains of the West
• 9 new frontier states
• Sectional balance
• Why such explosive expansion?
• Cumberland Road
• Land Act of 1820
• Political demands from the West
XI. Slavery and the Sectional Balance
• Missouri seeks statehood. What issues did this raise?
• Tallmadge amendment and political divisions. The political situation at the time
• Political/economic interests v. morality
XII. The Uneasy Missouri Compromise
• The Missouri Compromise-What did it establish? What are its provisions
Map 12-3 p235
XIII. John Marshall and Judicial Nationalism
• Expansion of the power and authority of the national government through judicial interpretation of the Constitution. (John Marshall-Chief Justice)
• McCulloch v. Maryland
• “loose construction”
• Cohens v. Virginia
• Gibbons v. Ogden
XIV. Judicial Dikes Against Democratic Excesses
• Fletcher v. Peck (1810)
• Dartmouth College v. Woodward (1819)
• Daniel Webster
• Marshall’s legacy?
XV. Sharing Oregon and Acquiring Florida
• John Quincy Adams as Secretary of State
• Anglo-American Convention-What did it establish?
• U.S. takes advantage of Spain’s problems (revolts across Latin America) in Latin America- Andrew Jackson’s role?
• Florida Purchase Treaty (Adam’s-Onis Treaty) What were the provisions of the treaty?
Map 12-4 p240
Map 12-5 p240
XVI. The Menace of Monarchy in America
• European monarchs stamping out democratic movements in Europe after Napoleon-Would they try to stamp out democracy in America? Would Europeans try to restore Latin America?
• Russian jurisdiction extended to 51 degrees. (British Columbia). Trading posts almost to San Francisco Bay. (cause of concern)
• However, Britain loosened trade barriers and asked U.S. to band with them and adopt a “hands off” policy for European nation aggression in Latin America. Why?
XVII. Monroe and His Doctrine
• Adams concerned about British motives? U.S. policy would be born out of Adams’ concerns!
• The Monroe Doctrine *****
XVIII. Monroe’s Doctrine Appraised
• Was it a deterrent to European interference in the Western Hemisphere?
• How did it impact Latin America at the time?
• Russo-American Treaty
• How has the Monroe Doctrine been employed historically?
Map 12-6 p243