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Chaffee, 3e Chapter 6.pptx

Apr 16, 2015

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Chaffee, 3e Chapter 6.pptx

Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

READING CRITICALLY: HOW DO YOU KNOW WHAT IS REAL? After reading the Russell essay, look closely at a piece of furniture that is within your field of vision: Is

the piece of furniture real? How do you know if its real or not? Explain your reasoning for both responses.

Russell analyzes the table near him in terms of its color, texture, and shape, and concludes:Thus it becomes evident that the real table, if there is one, is not the same as what we immediately experience by sight or touch or hearing. The real table, if there is one, is not immediately known to us at all, but must be an inference from what is immediately known.

Do you agree with Russells conclusion? Why or why not? Russell goes on to observe: Hence, two very difficult questions at once arise; namely, (1) Is there a real

table at all? (2) If so, what sort of object can it be? Explain how you would respond to these two questions, and explain the reasoning behind your conclusions.

Russells essay emphasizes the significance of the philosophical distinction between appearances (what

things seem to be) and reality (what they are). After thinking philosophically about these issues, do you see the world around you in a new light? Explain your response and your reasons for it.

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LOCKE VS. LEIBNIZ ON INNATE IDEAS LOCKE: AGAINST INNATE LEIBNIZS REPLY TO LOCKE Sense experience alone cannot validate general principles or laws We do know things that are not immediately before our perception There is extensive evidence that we have innate cognitive structures

IDEAS The argument from universal consent

for innate ideas is inconclusive Children and idiots do not have innate ideas It is impossible to have ideas of which we are not conscious

Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

LOCKES CAUSAL THEORY OF PERCEPTION: ELEMENTS OF THE KNOWING PROCESS The entity or object in the world Sensations (sense data, images, sensory impressions) emitted by the objects

via impulses and transmitted to our five senses

Ideas, which Locke characterizes as the immediate objects of perception,

thought, or understandingin other words, the images or impressions produced in our minds by the impulses emitted by the objects

The human subject, knower, or conscious mind who is able to perceive the

ideas in his or her mind and reflect on them, thus constructing knowledge

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PRIMARY AND SECONDARY QUALITIES

Primary qualities resemble (or

reside in) an object even when we are not perceiving the object Solidity Extension Figure (shape)

Secondary qualities do not

resemble (or reside in) an object, but are powers of objects to produce sensations in our minds Colors Sounds

Motion or rest Number

Tastes Odors

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GEORGE BERKELEY: TO BE IS TO BE PERCEIVED There is no such thing as material

substance; all that exist are minds and ideasprimary and secondary qualities material objects are really collections of ideas in the mind of God

There is no distinction between

What we mistakenly believe to be

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The Fate of Empiricism With the success of Newtonian physics and

Lockes account of an empiricist metaphysics and epistemology Empiricism seemed to clearly have the upper hand

against rationalism

Hume comes along and shows that there is It leads to a radical kind of skepticism

something deeply troubling about empiricism

Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

Humes Version of Empiricism Contents of the mind can be divided into two

categories

Impressions-- the actual experiences that we have Tasting an apple, seeing a sunset, feeling pain, or

angry or jealous, hungry or sad, etc Ideas Copies of impressions My memory of the taste of the apple, my idea of anger, jealousy, hunger, red

Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

Perception Impressions and ideas are each a kind of

perception for Hume

they are distinguished by their force and vivacity Impressions are our more lively perceptions Ideas (or thoughts) are dull and lifeless copies of

the original impression

This means that both are merely mental

phenomena

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The Empiricist Theory of Meaning Words in language stand for ideas Hume endorses Lockes distinction between simple and complex ideas Complex ideas are composed of simple ones Simples ones either can be traced back to an

impression from which they were copied

Or else they are meaningless nonsense If an idea cannot be traced back to an impression it is meaningless and should not be used

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Empiricist Epistemology Human knowledge falls into two kinds for Hume Relations of Ideas all a priori knowledge Matters of Fact all empirical knowledge

To decide which is which you apply the following

rule

If the negation of the proposition in question is a

contradiction then it is a Relation of Ideas If not, a Matter of Fact

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RoI & MoF Relations of Ideas Matters of Fact

bachelors are unmarried All bachelors are messy All triangles have three sides All dogs have four legs The sun will rise tomorrow

All

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RoI & MoF Relations of Ideas All bachelors are unmarried All triangles have three sides A2+B2=C2 (3 x 5)=(1/2 x 30) For any sentence S, either S is true or S is false S cant be true and also not true at the same time Matters of Fact All bachelors are messy All dogs have four legs Apples are red Rent in NYC is expensive Subway fare is $2.00 Fire causes pain Objects when dropped will fall The future will resemble the past

Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

RoI Relations of ideas consists of two parts Ideas And the relations between them E.g. my ideas BACHELOR and UNMARRIED MALE

are related in such a way as to make it impossible for there to be a married bachelor

This is true for all relations of ideas

Their truth is independent of experience in the

sense that one does not need to go and check to see if they are true Mathematics and logic are purely formal systems of inter-related definitions Numbers do not need to exist to make it true that 2+2-4Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

MoF Matters of Fact on the other hand have their

truth determined by the way that the world happens to be

Hume argues that the idea of cause and effect

is a MoF because it fails to meet the two criteria of something that is a priori To deny it is not a contradiction

We cannot, without experience, predict what the

effect of any given cause will be

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Cause and Effect If c&e is a MoF then what impression does it

derive from?

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C & E II The idea of causation is the idea of a necessary

connection between events

To say that the connection is necessary is to say

that the same effect will always follow from the same cause

We do not get the idea of necessary connection

from reason

And we do not get it from experience We never see the necessary connection

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Meaningless Since this idea cannot be traced back to an

impression it is meaningless

We have no rational reason to expect any given

cause and effect relation to hold in the future

All of our inductive knowledge is founded on our

belief that the future will resemble the past

But this belief is completely irrational Meaning we have no rational basis to believe it

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Summary of the Argument so Far All human knowledge is either learned from

experience (matters of fact) or from reason (relation of ideas)

MoF are composed of ideas copied from

impressions and are true or false depending on the kind of experience we have dogs can fly vs. dogs dont like cats

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The Argument II RoI are true or false depending on the relations

that hold between the ideasthree sides

triangles are four-sided objects vs. triangles have

We can tell the difference between these by

seeing what happens when we negate the sentence in question If it is a contradiction it is a RoI, if not a MoF

Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

HUMES FORK: RELATIONS OF IDEAS AND MATTERS OF FACT Relations of Ideas Mathematical statements, such as those found in geometry, algebra, and arithmetic Tautologies, or logical truths, such as A dog is a dog Known by reason To deny them is to contradict oneself; therefore, they give us absolute certainty But they have no empirical content Matters of Fact Involve sense experience It is possible to logically contradict a mat

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