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Physical Disabilities, Health Impairment and Severe Disabilities By: Russelle Mae L. Balones
13

Cerebral Palsy, Spina Bifida, Spinal Cord Injury and Traumatic Brain Injury

Jun 25, 2015

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CEREBRAL PALSY
The disturbance of voluntary motor functions that may include paralysis, extreme weakness, lack of coordination, involuntary convulsions and other motor disorders.
A long term condition resulting from a lesion to the brain or an abnormality of brain growth.

Specific Types of CEREBRAL PALSY

> Hypertonia
This is characterized by tense, contracted muscles and the movements mat be jerky, exaggerated and poorly coordinated.
Deformities of the spine, hip dislocation and contractures of the hand, elbow, foot, and knee are common.

> Hypotonia
- poor muscle tone particularly in the neck and trunk
- usually detected at birth or during infancy
- a child with hypotonia has low level of motor activity, slow to make balancing responses and may not walk until 30 months of age.

> Athetosis
- slow, worm-like involuntary, uncontrollable and purposeless movements
- a child with this condition may not be able to control the muscles of the tongue, throat, and may drool so there is difficulty in oral language.

> Ataxia
Poor coordination and unsteadiness due to the brain's failure to regulate the body's posture and regulate the strength and direction of limb movements.
It is a disturbance of balance and equilibrium resulting in a gait like that of a drunken person when walking and may fall easily if not supported.

> Rigidity
The quality or state of stiffness or inflexibility.
The marked resistance of the muscles to passive motion and display extreme stiffness in affected limbs.

> Tremor
Uncontrollable shaking, interfering with coordination.
Marked by rythmic, uncontrollable movements or trembling of the body or limbs.

> Mixed type
A child’s impairments can fall into both categories, spastic and non-spastic, referred to as mixed cerebral palsy. The most common form of mixed cerebral palsy involves some limbs affected by spasticity and others by athetosis..

SPINA BIFIDA
A type of birth defect called a neural tube defect. It occurs when the bones of the spine (vertebrae) don't form properly around part of the baby's spinal cord.
As a result, a portion of the spinal cord and the nerves that normally control muscles and feeling in the lower part of the body fail to develop.
Spina bifida can be mild or severe

SPINAL CORD INJURY
These are results of accidents.
Injury in the spinal column is generally described by letters and numbers indicating the site of the damage.

TRAUMATIC BRAIN INJURY
This is commonly caused by injuries to the head as results from automobile, motorcycle and bicycle accidents, falls, assaults, gunshots, wounds and child abuse.
Temporary or lasting symptoms may include cognitive and language deficits, memory loss, seizures and perceptual disorders.

video links:
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=J_wIDm1_ax4
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LToN1mpSimw
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Transcript
Page 1: Cerebral Palsy, Spina Bifida, Spinal Cord Injury and Traumatic Brain Injury

Physical Disabilities, Health Impairment and

Severe Disabilities

By:Russelle Mae L. Balones

Page 2: Cerebral Palsy, Spina Bifida, Spinal Cord Injury and Traumatic Brain Injury

CEREBRAL PALSY

• The disturbance of voluntary motor functions that may include paralysis, extreme weakness, lack of coordination, involuntary convulsions and other motor disorders.

• A long term condition resulting from a lesion to the brain or an abnormality of brain growth.

Page 3: Cerebral Palsy, Spina Bifida, Spinal Cord Injury and Traumatic Brain Injury

Specific Types of CEREBRAL PALSY

• Hypertonia• Hypotonia• Athetosis• Ataxia• Rigidity• Tremor• Mixed type

Page 4: Cerebral Palsy, Spina Bifida, Spinal Cord Injury and Traumatic Brain Injury

HYPERTONIA(spasticity)

This is characterized by tense,

contracted muscles and the

movements mat be jerky,

exaggerated and poorly

coordinated.

Deformities of the spine, hip

dislocation and contractures of

the hand, elbow, foot, and

knee are common.

Page 5: Cerebral Palsy, Spina Bifida, Spinal Cord Injury and Traumatic Brain Injury

HYPERTONIA(SPASTICITY)

Page 6: Cerebral Palsy, Spina Bifida, Spinal Cord Injury and Traumatic Brain Injury

HYPOTONIA(floppy muscle

syndrome)

• poor muscle tone particularly

in the neck and trunk

•  usually detected at birth or

during infancy

• a child with hypotonia has

low level of motor activity,

slow to make balancing

responses and may not walk

until 30 months of age.

Page 7: Cerebral Palsy, Spina Bifida, Spinal Cord Injury and Traumatic Brain Injury

ATHETOSIS

• slow, worm-like involuntary,

uncontrollable and purposeless

movements

• a child with this condition

may not be able to control the

muscles of the tongue, throat,

and may drool so there is

difficulty in oral language.

Page 8: Cerebral Palsy, Spina Bifida, Spinal Cord Injury and Traumatic Brain Injury

ATHETOSIS

Page 9: Cerebral Palsy, Spina Bifida, Spinal Cord Injury and Traumatic Brain Injury

ATAXIA

Poor coordination and

unsteadiness due to the brain's

failure to regulate the body's

posture and regulate the

strength and direction of limb

movements.

It is a disturbance of balance

and equilibrium resulting in a

gait like that of a drunken

person when walking and may

fall easily if not supported.

Page 10: Cerebral Palsy, Spina Bifida, Spinal Cord Injury and Traumatic Brain Injury

CEREBRAL PALSY

RIGIDITY TREMOR

• The quality or

state of stiffness

or inflexibility.

• The marked

resistance of the

muscles to passive

motion and display

extreme stiffness

in affected limbs.

• Uncontrollable

shaking, interfering

with coordination.

• Marked by rythmic,

uncontrollable

movements or

trembling of the

body or limbs.

• A child’s impairments

can fall into both

categories, spastic and

non-spastic, referred to

as mixed cerebral

palsy. The most

common form of mixed

cerebral palsy involves

some limbs affected by

spasticity and others

by athetosis..

MIXED TYPE

Page 11: Cerebral Palsy, Spina Bifida, Spinal Cord Injury and Traumatic Brain Injury

SPINA BIFIDA

A type of birth defect called a

neural tube defect. It occurs

when the bones of the spine

(vertebrae) don't form properly

around part of the baby's

spinal cord.

As a result, a portion of the

spinal cord and the nerves that

normally control muscles and

feeling in the lower part of the

body fail to develop.

Spina bifida can be mild or

severe.

Page 12: Cerebral Palsy, Spina Bifida, Spinal Cord Injury and Traumatic Brain Injury

SPINAL CORD INJURIES

• These are results of

accidents.

• Injury in the spinal

column is generally

described by letters

and numbers

indicating the site of

the damage.

TRAUMATIC BRAIN INJURY

• This is commonly caused by

injuries to the head as results

from automobile, motorcycle and

bicycle accidents, falls, assaults,

gunshots, wounds and child

abuse.

• Temporary or lasting symptoms

may include cognitive and

language deficits, memory loss,

seizures and perceptual

disorders.

Page 13: Cerebral Palsy, Spina Bifida, Spinal Cord Injury and Traumatic Brain Injury