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CEL4 Computers in Society •Computers are machines that run on programs and instructions are provided by people. People can make mistakes. •Computers are very fast and reliable

Jul 28, 2020




  • CEL4 – Computers in Society

    Part 1

  • • Computers were invented in the late 1940s.

    They are found in airplanes. They control the direction that the aircraft flies and tell the pilots which direction the aircraft is heading.

    They are also found in cars. They control how fast the engine runs and how much air is pumped into the engine.

  • They are used by banks. They keep track of how much money you have in your account and calculate the amount of interest that you earn every month.

  • Other applications include:

    Cheque processing Cash dispensing

  • • Computers are now so common that people become too dependent upon computers.

    • When was the last time that you questioned the results generated by the computers?

  • • Computers are machines that run on programs and instructions are provided by people. People can make mistakes.

    • Computers are very fast and reliable machines. One of the signs of over-reliance on computers is when people trust a computer’s answer rather than their own judgment.

  • Examples of “Computer-aided” Disaster

    1. The collapsed roof of Harford Coliseum.

    2. The crashed of Malaysian Airlines MH17 in Ukraine on its way from Amsterdam to Kuala Lumpur.

    3. The British destroyer H.M.S Sheffield was sunk in the Falkland Islands war by an Exocet missile as the ship’s radar warning systems were programmed to identify Exocet missiles as “friendly” because the British Navy used the Exocet missiles.

  • PIN and Security

    • Uses of PIN (Personal Identification Number)

    – as a security measure to verify the identity of a person.

    When a passenger arrive at the immigration checkpoint, the checkpoint officer reads my passport, and compares him/her to the photograph in the passport.

  • • Uses of PIN

    – as a security measure to verify the identity of a person.

    • Automated banking transactions may not have an actual person verifying your identity.

    • However, the PIN was created so that a machine can verify your identity.

  • PIN • Other people can get hold of your username and

    password/PIN and pass themselves off as you. This is an example of identity theft.

    • If the PIN is not foolproof, why is it still widely used? – Simple

    – Cheap

    – The only way banks can make sure that only the correct person can access an account. There are many cases of identity theft robber.

    • Making use of someone’s PIN is comparable to stealing. If you find someone’s PIN, return it to that person or if you picked it up on the street, destroy the PIN.

  • Protecting Your PIN

    • Fraudulent E-mails

    – Fraudsters send e-mails to try to trick the recipient into revealing their passwords and PINs. This is an example of phishing.

  • cont…

    • Banks or financial institutions will never send such e- mails. If you receive one, you should report it to the bank help-desk. Also, be careful when you receive e- mails containing attachments from an unknown source.

  • Safeguarding Your PIN

    • Never share your PIN with anybody.

    • Change your password regularly.

    • Use different passwords for different services.

    • Never write down your PIN.

  • How are Spyware installed?

    • Software that installs additional components without the user’s knowledge.

    • Visiting websites that require installation of additional components.

    • Some websites have pop-up windows that are deceptive.

    • Some viruses also have spyware functions.

  • Solutions to Spyware

    • The antidote to spyware includes anti-virus software and firewalls. E.g. Add-aware and Spybot spyware scanners.

    • You should also update the latest definition files for these programs regularly.

  • Why Electronic Transactions are Popular?

    1. Cost Savings

    – For banks, electronic transactions are cheaper to maintain than cash transactions.

    2. Convenience

    – For consumers, electronic transactions save time.

    3. Reduction in Robbery

    – Physical attacks on shopkeepers, taxi drivers and cashiers will end. This would make streets safer which will then reduce security and insurance costs.

  • 4. Increase in Tax Collection

     In a cashless society, all transactions are recorded electronically and this will increase the amount of income tax collected.

     When cash is used, not all transactions are recorded and people may under-declare their income.

  • Barriers to Achieving the Cashless Society.

    1. Economic Hurdles

     Electronic transactions cost money to maintain and POS terminals are not cheap.

    2. Consumer Resistance

    – Some consumers prefer cash.

    – Some banks even charge consumers for the card’s convenience.

    – Consumers assume responsibility when a card is lost. Thus, this has resulted in a lack of consumer total acceptance.

  • Barriers to Achieving the Cashless Society.

    3. Privacy Concerns

     Electronic transactions provide a detailed record of a person’s earning and expenditure. E.g. companies can collect records showing what videos you rent or what you buy at the drugstore.

    4. Counterfeits

    – Cash is hard to counterfeit. Electronic money is made up of electronic signals which may seem easier to counterfeit.

  • The Environmental Impact of Computers

    • Fossil Fuel

    – More than 240kg of fossil fuels are needed to make one desktop computer.

    • Materials

    – To manufacture a computer, a large amount of chemicals (22kg) and water (1,500kg) are used.

    • Short Lifetime

    – The average computer has a lifetime of only 5 years.

  • What Can be Done?

    • Recycling

    – Manufacturers and computer users should be given greater incentives or disincentives to upgrade or re-use computer hardware instead of discarding it.

    • Extending computer lifespan

    – Computers can be designed so that new parts can be added on easily.