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Case Report Crusted Demodicosis in an Immunocompetent Pediatric Patient Guillermo Antonio Guerrero-González, Maira Elizabeth Herz-Ruelas, Minerva Gómez-Flores, and Jorge Ocampo-Candiani Dermatology Department, Hospital Universitario “Dr. Jos´ e Eleuterio Gonz´ alez,” Universidad Aut´ onoma de Nuevo Le´ on, Avenida Francisco I. Madero Poniente s/n y Avenida Gonzalitos, Colonia Mitras Centro, 64460 Monterrey, NL, Mexico Correspondence should be addressed to Jorge Ocampo-Candiani; jocampo2000@yahoo.com.mx Received 11 July 2014; Accepted 27 September 2014; Published 12 October 2014 Academic Editor: Alireza Firooz Copyright © 2014 Guillermo Antonio Guerrero-Gonz´ alez et al. is is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Demodicosis refers to the infestation by Demodex spp., a saprophytic mite of the pilosebaceous unit. Demodex proliferation can result in a number of cutaneous disorders including pustular folliculitis, pityriasis folliculorum, papulopustular, and granulomatous rosacea, among others. We report the case of a 7-year-old female presenting with pruritic grayish crusted lesions over her nose and cheeks, along with facial erythema, papules, and pustules. e father referred chronic use of topical steroids. A potassium hydroxide mount of a pustule scraping revealed several D. folliculorum mites. Oral ivermectin (200 g/kg, single dose) plus topical permethrin 5% lotion applied for 3 consecutive nights were administered. Oral ivermectin was repeated every week and oral erythromycin plus topical metronidazole cream was added. e facial lesions greatly improved within the following 3 months. While infestation of the pilosebaceous unit by Demodex folliculorum mites is common, only few individuals present symptoms. Demodicosis can present as pruritic papules, pustules, plaques, and granulomatous facial lesions. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of facial crusted demodicosis in an immunocompetent child. e development of symptoms in this patient could be secondary to local immunosuppression caused by the chronic use of topical steroids. 1. Introduction Demodicosis refers to the infestation by Demodex spp., a saprophytic mite of the pilosebaceous unit. Colonization usually occurs starting adolescence or aſterwards, when sebaceous glands mature and multiply. A high prevalence of Demodex (80–100%) by the age of 50 years is proposed [1], although few individuals develop symptoms. Demodex proliferation can result in a number of cutaneous disorders including pustular folliculitis, pityriasis folliculorum, and papulopustular and granulomatous rosacea [2]. Several fac- tors may be implicated in the development of pathogenic forms, including increased density of the mite, immune system disorders such as HIV infection, and the use of corticosteroids. 2. Case Presentation We report the case of a 7-year-old female patient presenting with pruritic grayish and yellowish crusted, scaly plaques over her nose and cheeks, along with diffuse facial erythema, papules, and pustules (Figure 1(a)). e father referred chronic use of topical hydrocortisone and betamethasone for over 4 months to treat facial eczematous lesions. e patient was otherwise healthy. A potassium hydroxide (KOH) mount of a pustule scraping revealed several Demodex folliculorum mites (Figure 1(b)). Oral ivermectin (200 g/kg, single dose) plus topical permethrin 5% lotion applied for 3 consecutive nights were administered; aſterwards, oral erythromycin 30mg/kg/day, divided in three doses, plus metronidazole cream was added. Oral ivermectin was repeated every week for a total of 10 doses. Although lesions improved greatly within the following 3 months (Figure 2), oral erythromycin was maintained for 2 months to avoid a recurrence. 3. Discussion Two species of Demodex have been identified in humans: D. folliculorum, with a cigar-shaped body usually found within hair follicles, and D. brevis, which is smaller and favors Hindawi Publishing Corporation Case Reports in Dermatological Medicine Volume 2014, Article ID 458046, 3 pages http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/458046
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  • Case ReportCrusted Demodicosis in an Immunocompetent Pediatric Patient

    Guillermo Antonio Guerrero-González, Maira Elizabeth Herz-Ruelas,Minerva Gómez-Flores, and Jorge Ocampo-Candiani

    Dermatology Department, Hospital Universitario “Dr. José Eleuterio González,” Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León,Avenida Francisco I. Madero Poniente s/n y Avenida Gonzalitos, Colonia Mitras Centro, 64460 Monterrey, NL, Mexico

    Correspondence should be addressed to Jorge Ocampo-Candiani; jocampo2000@yahoo.com.mx

    Received 11 July 2014; Accepted 27 September 2014; Published 12 October 2014

    Academic Editor: Alireza Firooz

    Copyright © 2014 Guillermo Antonio Guerrero-González et al. This is an open access article distributed under the CreativeCommons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided theoriginal work is properly cited.

    Demodicosis refers to the infestation by Demodex spp., a saprophytic mite of the pilosebaceous unit. Demodex proliferation canresult in a number of cutaneous disorders including pustular folliculitis, pityriasis folliculorum, papulopustular, and granulomatousrosacea, among others. We report the case of a 7-year-old female presenting with pruritic grayish crusted lesions over her nose andcheeks, along with facial erythema, papules, and pustules.The father referred chronic use of topical steroids. A potassium hydroxidemount of a pustule scraping revealed severalD. folliculorummites. Oral ivermectin (200 𝜇g/kg, single dose) plus topical permethrin5% lotion applied for 3 consecutive nights were administered. Oral ivermectin was repeated every week and oral erythromycin plustopical metronidazole creamwas added.The facial lesions greatly improved within the following 3months.While infestation of thepilosebaceous unit by Demodex folliculorum mites is common, only few individuals present symptoms. Demodicosis can presentas pruritic papules, pustules, plaques, and granulomatous facial lesions. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of facialcrusted demodicosis in an immunocompetent child. The development of symptoms in this patient could be secondary to localimmunosuppression caused by the chronic use of topical steroids.

    1. Introduction

    Demodicosis refers to the infestation by Demodex spp., asaprophytic mite of the pilosebaceous unit. Colonizationusually occurs starting adolescence or afterwards, whensebaceous glands mature and multiply. A high prevalenceof Demodex (80–100%) by the age of 50 years is proposed[1], although few individuals develop symptoms. Demodexproliferation can result in a number of cutaneous disordersincluding pustular folliculitis, pityriasis folliculorum, andpapulopustular and granulomatous rosacea [2]. Several fac-tors may be implicated in the development of pathogenicforms, including increased density of the mite, immunesystem disorders such as HIV infection, and the use ofcorticosteroids.

    2. Case Presentation

    We report the case of a 7-year-old female patient presentingwith pruritic grayish and yellowish crusted, scaly plaques

    over her nose and cheeks, along with diffuse facial erythema,papules, and pustules (Figure 1(a)). The father referredchronic use of topical hydrocortisone and betamethasone forover 4 months to treat facial eczematous lesions. The patientwas otherwise healthy. A potassium hydroxide (KOH)mountof a pustule scraping revealed several Demodex folliculorummites (Figure 1(b)). Oral ivermectin (200𝜇g/kg, single dose)plus topical permethrin 5% lotion applied for 3 consecutivenights were administered; afterwards, oral erythromycin30mg/kg/day, divided in three doses, plus metronidazolecream was added. Oral ivermectin was repeated every weekfor a total of 10 doses. Although lesions improved greatlywithin the following 3 months (Figure 2), oral erythromycinwas maintained for 2 months to avoid a recurrence.

    3. Discussion

    Two species of Demodex have been identified in humans:D. folliculorum, with a cigar-shaped body usually foundwithin hair follicles, andD. brevis, which is smaller and favors

    Hindawi Publishing CorporationCase Reports in Dermatological MedicineVolume 2014, Article ID 458046, 3 pageshttp://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/458046

  • 2 Case Reports in Dermatological Medicine

    (a) (b)

    Figure 1: (a) Facial erythema, grayish crusted lesions, papules, and pustules. (b) Skin scraping revealing D. folliculorummites.

    Figure 2: Clinical resolution after 3 months of treatment.

    the sebaceous glands [3]. While inhabiting the pilosebaceousunit, they feed on sebum and bacteria. Infestation of the pi-losebaceous unit by Demodexmites is common, mite densityis low in healthy skin, and only few individuals presentsymptoms [4].

    Demodicosis can be classified as primary, in the absenceof other inflammatory dermatoses, having a sudden onset, orsecondary when associated with other cutaneous or systemicdiseases, developing gradually over existing dermatoses [5].The latter is frequently found in severely immunosuppressedpatients, including those using topical corticosteroids orcalcineurin inhibitors [6]. Clinical presentation is heteroge-neous and can include pruritic papules, vesicles, pustules,plaques, granulomatous, and even cystic facial lesions [5, 7].Crusted exuberant lesions have already been reported in anadult with HIV infection and chronic use of steroids [8]. Acase of demodicosis mimicking favus has been reported inan immunocompetent child [9].

    Diagnosis can be made by standardized skin surfacebiopsy or skin scraping, usually considering abnormal any-thing more than 5 mites per cm2 [6].

    There are several treatment options with varied efficacy,although there is a strong lack of evidence-based literature.

    Ivermectin (200𝜇g/kg single dose) is the current treatmentof choice and can be combined with topical permethrin,benzyl benzoate, or metronidazole [6, 7]. The mechanism ofaction of antimicrobial agents remains to be fully elucidated,with reports of its efficacy being secondary to their anti-inflammatory effect or by reducing bacteria both living on themite and that on which the mites feed on [2].

    To our knowledge, this is the first reported case offacial crusted rosacea-like demodicosis in a pediatric patient.Usually, Demodex colonization is not significant in infantsand children due to low sebum production [3].

    The pathogenesis and immune response to mite invasionare not clearly understood; thus, the particularly severeclinical manifestations seen in this case could be attributed tolocal immunosuppression secondary to chronic use of topicalsteroids. Like the lesions observed in patientswithNorwegianscabies, this particular clinical presentation ofD. folliculoruminfestation could be due to other unknown factors besides thelocal immunosuppression that led to a defective host-defenseimmune response resulting in a great increase in parasitepopulation.

    Conflict of Interests

    The authors declare that there is no conflict of interestsregarding the publication of this paper.

    References

    [1] R. Aylesworth and J. C. Vance, “Demodex folliculorum andDemodex brevis in cutaneous biopsies,” Journal of the AmericanAcademy of Dermatology, vol. 7, no. 5, pp. 583–589, 1982.

    [2] J. R. Vu and J. C. English, “Demodex folliculitis,” Journal ofPediatric and Adolescent Gynecology, vol. 24, no. 5, pp. 320–321,2011.

    [3] P. A. Rather and I. Hassan, “Human demodex mite: theversatile mite of dermatological importance,” Indian Journal ofDermatology, vol. 59, no. 1, pp. 60–66, 2014.

    [4] B. Baima and M. Sticherling, “Demodicidosis revisited,” ActaDermato-Venereologica, vol. 82, no. 1, pp. 3–6, 2002.

    [5] O. E. Akilov, Y. S. Butov, and K. Y. Mumcuoglu, “A clinico-pathological approach to the classification of human

  • Case Reports in Dermatological Medicine 3

    demodicosis,” JDDG—Journal of the German Society ofDermatology, vol. 3, no. 8, pp. 607–614, 2005.

    [6] W. Chen and G. Plewig, “Human demodicosis: revisit and aproposed classification,”British Journal of Dermatology, vol. 170,no. 6, pp. 1219–1225, 2014.

    [7] J. C. Fichtel, A. K. Wiggins, and J. L. Lesher Jr., “Plaque-forming demodicidosis,” Journal of the American Academy ofDermatology, vol. 52, no. 2, supplement 1, pp. S59–S61, 2005.

    [8] C. S. Brutti, G. Artus, L. Luzzatto, R. R. Bonamigo, S. N.Balconi, and R. Vettorato, “Crusted rosacea-like demodicidosisin an HIV-positive female,” Journal of the American Academy ofDermatology, vol. 65, no. 4, pp. e131–e132, 2011.

    [9] A. Garćıa-Vargas, J. A. Mayorga-Rodŕıguez, and C. Sandoval-Tress, “Scalp demodicidosis mimicking favus in a 6-year-oldboy,” Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology, vol. 57,no. 2 supplement, pp. S19–S21, 2007.

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