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Cascading Style Sheets (CSS) -Tutorial - Lesson
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Cascading Style Sheets (CSS) - Gunadarma Universityivan_maurits.staff.gunadarma.ac.id/.../7991/Cascading+Style+Sheets.pdf · browser dan teks editor ... Cascading Style Sheets (CSS)

Apr 11, 2019

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Cascading Style Sheets (CSS)-Tutorial- Lesson

Cascading Style Sheets (CSS)

Software yang dibutuhkan:browser dan teks editor

CSS adalah style language untuk mendefinisikan layout dokumen HTML ex. Fonts, colours, margins,lines, height, width, background images, advanced positions, etc..

Cascading Style Sheets (CSS)

Perbedaan CSS & HTML: HTML digunakan untuk membuat structure content. CSS digunakan untuk formatting structured content.

Keuntungan menggunakan CSS: Mengkontrol layout banyak dokumen dari satu style

sheet. Lebih akurat dalam mengkontrol layout Mengaplikasikan perbedaan layout ke berbagai jenis

media ex. Screen, print, etc.. Dapat menggunakan teknik-teknik tertentu.

HTML vs. XHTML Strict Transitional Frameset

My XHTML Page

This is my first XHTML page.

Cara Kerja CSS

Sintaks dasar CSS:HTML -> CSS -> body {background-color: #FF0000;}

Selector {property: value;}

Lokasi tempat pemformatan dilakukan pada tag(s) HTML

Yang dilakukan property Nilai dari property

Applying CSS to an HTML Document

In-line (the attribute style)Menggunakan atribut style HTML

ex. Example

This is a red page

Applying CSS to an HTML Document

Internal (the tag style)Menyertakan kode CSS menggunakan tag HTML

ex. Example

body {background-color: #FF0000;}

This is a red page

Applying CSS to an HTML Document

External (link to a style sheet)ex.

Applying CSS to an HTML Document

My document

Applying CSS to an HTML Document

default.htm

My document

My first stylesheet

style.cssbody { background-color: #FF0000; }

Colors & Backgrounds

color background-color background-image background-repeat background-attachment background-position background

Colors & Backgrounds

Foreground color: the 'color' property

h1 { color: #ff0000;

}

Colors can be entered as hexadecimal values as in the example above (#ff0000), or you can use the names of the colors ("red") or rgb- values (rgb(255,0,0)).

Colors & BackgroundsThe 'background-color' property

body { background-color: #FFCC66;

} h1 {

color: #990000; background-color: #FC9804;

}

Colors & BackgroundsBackground images [background-image]body {

background-color: #FFCC66; background-image: url("butterfly.gif");

} h1 {

color: #990000; background-color: #FC9804;

}

Notice how we specified the location of the image as url("butterfly.gif"). This means that the image is located in the same folder as the style sheet. You can also refer to images in other folders using url("../images/butterfly.gif") or even on the Internet indicating the full address of the file: url("http://www.html.net/butterfly.gif").

Colors & BackgroundsRepeat background image [background repeat]

Example:body {

background-color: #FFCC66; background-image: url("butterfly.gif"); background-repeat: no-repeat;

} h1 {

color: #990000; background-color: #FC9804;

}

Value background-repeat: repeat-x background-repeat: repeat-ybackground-repeat: repeatbackground-repeat: no repeat

Colors & BackgroundsLock background image [background-attachment]

The property background-attachment specifies whether a background picture is fixed or scrolls (scroll) along with the containing element.

body { background-color: #FFCC66; background-image: url("butterfly.gif");background-repeat: no-repeat; background-attachment: fixed;

}h1 {

color: #990000; background-color: #FC9804;

}

Colors & Backgrounds

Place background image [background-position]

Value Description

background-position: 2cm 2cm

The image is positioned 2 cm from the left and 2 cm down the page

background-position: 50% 25%

The image is centrally positioned and one fourth down the page

background-position: top right

The image is positioned in the top-right corner of the page

Colors & Backgrounds

body { background-color: #FFCC66; background-image: url("butterfly.gif"); background-repeat: no-repeat; background-attachment: fixed; background-position: right bottom;

} h1 {

color: #990000; background-color: #FC9804;

}

Colors & BackgroundsCompiling [background]

With background you can compress several properties and thereby write your style sheet in a shorter way which makes it easier to read.

background-color: #FFCC66; background-image: url("butterfly.gif"); background-repeat: no-repeat; background-attachment: fixed; background-position: right bottom;

Dapat di tulis langsung:background: #FFCC66 url("butterfly.gif") no-repeat fixed right bottom;

Urutan: [background-color] | [background-image] | [background-repeat] | [background-attachment] | [background-position]

Apabila tidak diisi maka akan diset sebagai default.

Fonts

Font family [font-family]h1 {font-family: arial, verdana, sans-serif;} h2 {font-family: "Times New Roman", serif;}

FontsFont style [font-style]

The property font-style defines the chosen font either in normal, italic or oblique. In the example below, all headlines marked with will be shown in italics.

h1 {font-family: arial, verdana, sans-serif;

} h2 {

font-family: "Times New Roman", serif; font-style: italic;}

Layout:Heading 1 written in ArialAnd heading 2 in Times New Roman - italic

FontsFont variant [font-variant]

The property font-variant is used to choose between normal or small-caps variants of a font. A small-caps font is a font that uses smaller sized capitalized letters (upper case) instead of lower case letters.

h1 {font-variant: small-caps;

} h2 {

font-variant: normal;}

FontsFont weight [font-weight]

The property font-weight describes how bold or "heavy" a font should be presented. A font can either be normal or bold. Some browsers even support the use of numbers between 100-900 (in hundreds) to describe the weight of a font

Ex.p {

font-family: arial, verdana, sans-serif;} td {

font-family: arial, verdana, sans-serif; font-weight: bold;}

Fonts

Font weight - Lesson 4, Example 4 | CSS Tutorial | HTML.net

Text in bold in the cells

Normal text here

Fonts

Font size [font-size]

The size of a font is set by the property font-size.

h1 {font-size: 30px;} h2 {font-size: 12pt;} h3 {font-size: 120%;} p {font-size: 1em;}

FontsCompiling [font]p {

font-style: italic; font-weight: bold; font-size: 30px; font-family: arial, sans-serif;

}

Dapat dipersingkat:p { font: italic bold 30px arial, sans-serif; }

Urutan:font-style | font-variant | font-weight | font-size | font-family

TEXT

Text indention [text-indent]The property text-indent allows you to add an elegant touch to text paragraphs by applying an indent to the first line of the paragraph. In the example below a 30px is applied to all text paragraphs marked with

:

p { text-indent: 30px;

}

TEXTText alignment [text-align]

th { text-align: right;

} td {

text-align: center;} p {

text-align: justify;}

TEXT

Text decoration [text-decoration]h1 {

text-decoration: underline; } h2 {

text-decoration: overline; } h3 {

text-decoration: line-through; }

TEXT

Letter space [letter-spacing]

h1 { letter-spacing: 6px;

} p {

letter-spacing: 3px;}

TEXTText transformation [text-transform]

The text-transform property controls the capitalization of a text. You can choose to capitalize, use uppercase or lowercase regardless of how the original text is looks in the HTML code.

capitalize Capitalizes the first letter of each word. For example: "john doe" will be "John Doe".

uppercase Converts all letters to uppercase. For example: "john doe" will be "JOHN DOE".

lowercase Converts all letters to lowercase. For example: "JOHN DOE" will be "john doe".

none No transformations - the text is presented as it appears in the HTML code.

h1 { text-transform: uppercase;

}

li { text-transform: capitalize;

}

Links a {

color: blue; }

a:link { color: blue;

} a:visited {

color: red; }

a:active { background-color: #FFFF00;

}

a:hover { color: orange; font-style: italic;

}

Linksa:hover {

text-transform: uppercase; font-weight:bold; color:blue; background-color:yellow;

}

Menghilangkan garis bawah pada linka {

text-decoration:none;}

Identification and grouping of elements (class and id)

Grouping elements with class Ex. In HTML

Grapes for white wine:

Riesling Chardonnay Pinot Blanc

Grapes for red wine:

Cabernet Sauvignon Merlot Pinot Noir

Identification and grouping of elements (class and id)

Then we want the white wine links to be yellow, the red wine links to be red and the rest of the existing links on the webpage to stay blue.

Identification and grouping of elements (class and id)

Dalam HTML

Grapes for white wine:

Identification and grouping of elements (class and id)

a { color: blue;

} a.whitewine {

color: #FFBB00; } a.redwine {

color: #800000; }

Identification of element using idIn addition to grouping elements, you might need to identify one unique element.

Chapter 1 ... Chapter 1.1 ... Chapter 1.2 ... Chapter 2 ... Chapter 2.1 ... Chapter 2.1.2

Chapter 1 ... Chapter 1.1 ... Chapter 1.2 ... Chapter 2 ... Chapter 2.1 ... Chapter 2.1.2 ...

Identification of element using id

Let us say that the headline for chapter 1.2 must be in red. This can be done accordingly with CSS:

#c1-2 { color: red;

}

Grouping of elements (span and div) Grouping with

The element is what you could call a neutral element which does not add anything to the document itself. But with CSS, can be used to add visual features to specific parts of text in your documents.

Early to bed and early to rise makes a man healthy, wealthy and wise.

span.benefit { color:red;

}

Grouping of elements (span and div)

Grouping with Whereas is used within a block-level element as seen in the previous example, is used to group one or more block-level elements.

Franklin D. Roosevelt Harry S. Truman John F. Kennedy Lyndon B. Johnson Jimmy Carter Bill Clinton

Dwight D. Eisenhower Richard Nixon Gerald Ford Ronald Reagan George Bush George W. Bush

Grouping of elements (span and div)

#democrats { background:blue;

} #republicans {

background:red;

}

The box model The box model in CSS describes the boxes which are being generated for HTML-elements. The box model also contains detailed options regarding adjusting margin, border, padding and content for each element. The diagram below shows how the box model is constructed:

The box modelArticle 1:

All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights.

They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood

Margin and padding

Set the margin in an elementAn element has four sides: right, left, top and bottom. The margin is the distance from each side to the neighboring element (or the borders of the document)

Margin and paddingCSS code:body {

margin-top: 100px; margin-right: 40px; margin-bottom: 10px; margin-left: 70px;

}

Kompilasi:body {

margin: 100px 40px 10px 70px; }

Margin and padding

body { margin: 100px 40px 10px 70px;

} p {

margin: 5px 50px 5px 50px; }

Margin and paddingSet padding in an element

Padding can also be understood as "filling". This makes sense as padding does not affect the distance of the element to other elements but only defines the inner distance between the border and the content of the element.

h1 { background: yellow;

} h2 {

background: orange;}

Margin and padding

h1 { background: yellow; padding: 20px 20px 20px 80px;

} h2 {

background: orange; padding-left:120px;

}

Borders

The width of borders [border-width]

Borders

The color of borders [border-color]

The property border-color defines which color the border has. The values are the normal color-values for example "#123456", "rgb(123,123,123)" or "yellow"

Borders

Borders

Types of borders [border-style]

Borders

Examples of defining bordersh1 {

border-width: thick; border-style: dotted; border-color: gold;

} h2 {

border-width: 20px; border-style: outset; border-color: red;

}

p { border-width: 1px; border-style: dashed; border-color: blue;

} ul {

border-width: thin;border-style: solid; border-color: orange;

}

Bordersh1 {

border-top-width: thick; border-top-style: solid; border-top-color: red; border-bottom-width: thick; border-bottom-style: solid; border-bottom-color: blue; border-right-width: thick; border-right-style: solid; border-right-color: green; border-left-width: thick; border-left-style: solid; border-left-color: orange;

}

BordersCompilation [border] p {

border-width: 1px; border-style: solid; border-color: blue;

}

Dikompilasi:p {

border: 1px solid blue; }

Height and width Setting the width [width]

div.box { width: 200px; border: 1px solid black; background: orange;

}

200px width

with textText

Height and width

Setting the height [height]div.box {

height: 500px; width: 200px; border: 1px solid black;background: orange;

}200px width and 500px height

with textText

Floating elements (floats)

An element can be floated to the right or to left by using the property float

Floating elements (floats)

causas naturales et antecedentes, idciro etiam nostrarumvoluntatum...

#picture { float:left; width: 100px;

}

Floating elements (floats)Another example: columns

HTML Code:

Haec disserens qua de re agatur et in quo causa consistat non videt...

causas naturales et antecedentes, idciro etiam nostrarum voluntatum...

nam nihil esset in nostra potestate si res ita se haberet...

Floating elements (floats)CSS Codefloat can be set as either left, right or none.

#column1 { float:left; width: 33%;

}#column2 {

float:left; width: 33%;} #column3 {

float:left; width: 33%;}

Floating elements (floats)

Floating elements (floats)The property clear

The clear property is used to control how the subsequent elements of floated elements in a document shall behave.

Bill Gates

causas naturales et antecedentes, idciro etiam nostrarum voluntatum...

Floating elements (floats)#picture {

float:left; width: 100px; } .floatstop {

clear:both;

}

Positioning of elements The principle behind CSS positioningh1 {

position:absolute; top: 100px; left: 200px;}

Positioning of elementsAbsolute positioning #box1 {

position:absolute; top: 50px; left: 50px; } #box2 {

position:absolute; top: 50px; right: 50px; } #box3 {

position:absolute; bottom: 50px; right: 50px; } #box4 {

position:absolute; bottom: 50px; left: 50px; }

Positioning of elements

Layer on layer with z-index (Layers)

#ten_of_diamonds { position: absolute; left: 100px;

bottom: 100px; z-index: 1;}#jack_of_diamonds { position: absolute; left: 115px; bottom: 115px; z-index: 2;} #queen_of_diamonds { position: absolute; left: 130px; bottom: 130px; z-index: 3;}

#king_of_diamonds { position: absolute; left: 145px; bottom: 145px; z-index: 4;} #ace_of_diamonds { position: absolute; left: 160px; bottom: 160px; z-index: 5;}

Layer on layer with z-index (Layers)

Web-standards and validation

W3C is the World Wide Web Consortium, which is an independent organization that manages code standards on the web (e.g. HTML, CSS, XML and others)

The idea of having standards is to agree upon a common denominator on how to use web technologies

http://www.w3.org/

Web-standards and validationCSS validator

To make it easier to observe the CSS standard, W3C has made a so-called validator which reads your stylesheet and returns a status listing errors and warnings, if your CSS does not validate

http://jigsaw.w3.org/css-validator/

http://www.w3.org/TR/REC-CSS2/http://jigsaw.w3.org/css-validator/http://jigsaw.w3.org/css-validator/

Cascading Style Sheets(CSS)Cascading Style Sheets (CSS)Cascading Style Sheets (CSS)HTML vs. XHTML Cara Kerja CSSApplying CSS to an HTML DocumentApplying CSS to an HTML DocumentApplying CSS to an HTML DocumentApplying CSS to an HTML DocumentApplying CSS to an HTML DocumentColors & BackgroundsColors & BackgroundsColors & BackgroundsColors & BackgroundsColors & BackgroundsColors & BackgroundsColors & BackgroundsColors & BackgroundsColors & BackgroundsFonts FontsFontsFontsFontsFontsFontsTEXTTEXTTEXTTEXTTEXTLinks LinksIdentification and grouping of elements (class and id) Identification and grouping of elements (class and id)Identification and grouping of elements (class and id)Identification and grouping of elements (class and id)Identification of element using idIdentification of element using idGrouping of elements (span and div) Grouping of elements (span and div)Grouping of elements (span and div)The box model The box modelMargin and padding Margin and paddingMargin and paddingMargin and paddingMargin and paddingBorders BordersBordersBordersBordersBordersHeight and width Height and widthFloating elements (floats) Floating elements (floats)Floating elements (floats)Floating elements (floats)Floating elements (floats)Floating elements (floats)Floating elements (floats)Positioning of elements Positioning of elementsPositioning of elementsLayer on layer with z-index (Layers) Layer on layer with z-index (Layers)Web-standards and validation Web-standards and validation