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CARE Rapid Gender Analysis Sulawesi Earthquake and Tsunami RGA...  following month, over 590 aftershocks

Mar 19, 2019



CARE Rapid Gender Analysis Sulawesi Earthquake and Tsunami Indonesia

Version 2

31 October 2018




Heather Cole

Gender Technical Consultant


This RGA has benefitted from the valuable contributions from CARE Indonesia colleagues, particularly

Nana Nur Hasdiana, Wahyu Widayanto and Nirma Hasyim.

Photo credits: Fauzan Ijazah/CARE

Table of Contents

Executive Summary 1

Key findings and overarching recommendations 1

Background information to the Sulawesi earthquake and tsunami 2

Objectives of the Rapid Gender Analysis (RGA) 3

Methodology 3

Demographic profile: Sex- and age-disaggregated data 4

Gendered roles and responsibilities 6


Shelter 10

Protection 11

Conclusions 11

Recommendations 11

Overarching recommendations 11

Targeted recommendations 12

Gender mainstreaming recommendations 13

Livelihood and food security 13

Protection 13


Shelter 14


Executive Summary

Natural disasters, such as the earthquake and tsunami that hit

Sulawesi in late September 2018, are discriminatory events

affecting women, men, girls and boys differently. Drawing on pre-

crisis information, this Rapid Gender Analysis (RGA) of the

Sulawesi earthquake and tsunami finds that women and girls

are likely to be placed at particular risk due to their increased

workload and caring responsibilities. Liquefaction and

destruction of food gardens deprive women of family food but

also of their main source of livelihood. Girls and women are also

likely to face secondary gendered risks that result from the

disaster and the humanitarian response, including increased

domestic violence, sexual harassment, abuse and exploitation.

Adolescent girls are particularly exposed to sexual exploitation

and to early marriage in an attempt to secure additional

resources or to reduce the number in the household who need

resources. Inequalities at home may also expose women to

particular risks of food insecurity, eating least and last when

food becomes scarce. The specific responsibilities of women

and adolescent girls mean that they are likely to be more

isolated from sources of support, including services, and reliant

on their husbands and male family members for important

information about and access to the assistance and services

available. Womens reduced control over resources and the

collapse of their income-generating opportunities through

displacement mean an acute tension in trying to fulfil their

domestic responsibilities. The lack of safety and privacy in both

sanitation and shelter is a critical issue for attention. Female-

headed households and widows require particular attention:

with less bargaining power, scarce financial resources to

purchase essential goods and deprived of the required skills to

rebuild their shelters, they are often at increased risk of


Key Overarching Recommendations:

Design the humanitarian response to ensure the following:

At all stages of the response, ensure the team is composed

of women and men. The inclusion of female staff facilitates

consultations with women and adolescent girls and,

therefore, supports their expression of their needs, priorities

and concerns and their access to assistance.

Ensure that both women and men are consulted about their

priority needs, concerns, preferred distribution mechanisms

and access to vulnerable groups.

Assess men and womens differential access to aid. Identify

factors regarding safety to mitigate against risks of gender-

based violence (GBV).

Pay particular attention to the situation of female-headed

households, pregnant and lactating women, older people,

people with disabilities, and of the women who care for


Key Findings: As the main guardians of family health and

caretakers of children and other dependent family members, women are likely to face a further increase in their workload as a result of both the crisis and the humanitarian response, arising from the partial or complete destruction of WASH facilities and food gardens, children no longer being in school and a rise in family morbidity

Damage to food gardens means that women are no longer be able to sell the surpluses, diminishing their access to income.

The poorest members of the community, particularly widows and single mothers, may have increased difficulty purchasing essential goods such as food or water and getting help to (re)construct shelters and are at high risk of sexual exploitation in exchange for such resources.

People with disabilities are at acute risk of neglect and maltreatment; women with disabilities are at risk of sexual violence; and women caring for those with disabilities are at risk of isolation and impoverishment.

As food is scarce, girls and women are less likely to have access to food that is high in protein and fat. Pregnant or lactating women are at particular nutritional risk.

Challenges that women face in fulfilling their role of feeding their family increase the risk of domestic violence.

Increased difficulties in accessing drinking water and the lack of sanitation facilities expose women and girls to greater risks of violence and undermine their dignity.

Economic hardship may heighten the vulnerability of women and girls to sexual exploitation and abuse, as they are more desperate to secure resources.

When schools resume, impoverished families may prioritise the education of boys, with girls required to stay at home if school fees cannot be paid for all.

Displacement isolates women and girls from their sources of support and protection, making them more vulnerable to abuse.

In line with observations and statistics from other natural disasters, it is likely that more women than men will have died since, in trying to protect their children and older and sick people in their care, their own chances of survival are reduced. If this is the case, this will have implications for households and whole communities, since women carry the responsibility for domestic care.


Background information to the Sulawesi earthquake and tsunami

On 28 September 2018, an earthquake with a 7.4 magnitude caused damage and casualties in Sulawesi,

Indonesia, and precipitated a tsunami wave that reached as high as six metres in some places. Over the

following month, over 590 aftershocks hit the Sulawesi area ranging from magnitude 2.9 to 6.3.1 The areas most

affected include the cities of Palu and Donggala, as well as Central Sulawesi Province with additional damage in

nearby smaller towns, including Sigi and Boutong2.

The earthquakes and tsunami have caused enormous damage and significant loss of life in the affected areas.

As of 25 October, there have reports of 2,081 fatalities, more than 4,400 serious injuries, and more than 1,309

are still missing3. Over 68,000 houses have been severely damaged or destroyed. According to the first round of

the Displacement Tracking Matrix (DTM), which is reported in OCHAs Asia and the Pacific: Weekly Regional

Humanitarian Snapshot (23 - 29 Oct 2018), more than 211,000 displaced people are staying in 980 sites across

the three districts of Palu, Donggala and Sigi.4. These numbers are not yet disaggregated by sex, age or

disability. Former and current CARE staff on the ground have noted the number of pregnant women in need of

medical services; those with sufficient funds have been evacuated to Makassar in the South, while those with

less money have been unable to leave5.

During the days immediately following the earthquake, Palu and Donggala were largely cut off, with no electricity

or telecommunications and severe damage to the airport runway and control tower. The seaport, which the

region relies on for fuel supplies, lost its crane for loading and unloading cargo. Debris and landslides blocked

sections of the main roads leading north from Makassar, east from Poso and south from Garontalo. In addition,

whole villages were submerged under the liquefaction of the land6 and above-average seasonal rainfall in

October contributed to a sustained risk of land- and mud-slides and ground movement7.

As of 4 October, power had been restored in some parts of Palu, although fuel is in short supply and vehicles,

generators and water pumps are unable to run. Queues for water are long (up to two hours reported by some

residents), markets remain largely closed and health facilities are reportedly running low on medicines and

supplies8. There is a continuing risk of strong aftershocks, landslides in hilly and mountainous areas, and

liquefaction in urban areas9. The telecommunications network is improving and Telkomsel reports having

recovered most of the network in the area of Palu City, Donggala and the surrounding areas.

The Gove