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Car lambo

Sep 12, 2014

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Automotive

Lamborghini car

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CARGROUP 1Murtuza IndorewalaAyushi JainApeksha MehtaRohan BhatkarYash RawaniMohammed DriverMayur SanchetiNandan Shah0105081121243233CONTENTAutomotive EngineAutomotive TransmissionBreaking SystemSpeedoMeterFuel MeterAir BagsAir ConditioningSound SystemAutomotive SensorsENGINE TECHNOLOGIES MADE EASY!HERE IS HOW IT WORKS-The most common internal combustion engines of today can be defined as either four-stroke or two-stroke cycle. Two-stroke or four-stroke refers to the number of strokes the piston makes in the cylinder to complete one power cycle. A stroke is the movement of the piston in one direction, moving the piston from the top to the bottom of the cylinder is one stroke. A running internal combustion engine continually repeats a power cycle called: intake, compression, power and exhaust. Your automobile or stern drive engine is most likely a four stroke design. The majority of existing outboard motors use two stroke technology. However the current movement in emissions regulations is pushing the design of current outboards towards the 4 stroke and direct injection two stroke design. Efforts to build a 4 stroke outboard in the past have been many and varied, mostly unsuccessful as the design technology and precision production that can be achieved today were impossible to achieve then. Resulting motors were bulky and unreliable. Those motors that were viable were for the most part rejected by the boating public.

FOUR STROKE DEFINED-The first description reviews the operation of the 4 stroke power cycle. Each 4 stroke image depicts a piston in a cylinder, a spark plug and 2 valves; one intake, one exhaust. The valves are held closed by means of a spring and opened by a rotating eccentric called a camshaft. The camshaft is driven from the crankshaft by means of gears or a drive belt and timed to the up and down movement of the piston. To complete all 4 strokes the crankshaft makes 2 revolutions.FOUR STORKE ENGINE

As the piston is pulled down during the intake stroke, The camshaft opens the intake valve and a fresh charge of fuel/air mix is drawn into the cylinder. The intake valve closes when the piston reaches the bottom of its downward stroke.

The piston now begins to move upward and starts to compress the air/fuel mixture in the cylinder. Both valves are closed. This continuing upward motion compresses the mixture to about 100-120 PSI, around 7 or 8 times atmospheric pressure (the compression "ratio"). As the piston reaches the top of the cylinder the spark plug fires and ignites the compressed mixture.Intake StrokeCompression Stroke

The fuel air mixture now BURNS very rapidly, increases in pressure generated by combustion force the piston downward in the cylinder. Both valves are still closed. This is the only stroke that creates power in the 4 stroke cycle.Upon completion of the power stroke the piston starts to move upward again and now the exhaust valve starts to open. The continuing upward movement forces the hot burned gases out past the exhaust valve. When the piston reaches the top of the cylinder the exhaust valve closes. The piston starts to go back down and the cycle repeats itself.Power StrokeExhaust StrokeThe advantage to the 4 stroke is that the combustion process is very efficient at varying RPM ranges with almost no unburned fuel escaping into the atmosphere. 4 stroke engines also develop significant torque at low Rpm's. The big drawback is there is only one power stroke for every 2 revolutions of the crankshaft so the engine lacks the burst of power experienced with the 2 stroke engine. Four strokes are more complex as well as generally much heavier as a result of additional parts, e.g. camshaft, valve train, balance shafts, etc. required to complete the power cycle. This additional complexity does not reduce the engine's reliability. Four strokes have a proven track record in reliability and dependability.Four-stroke engine

The engine is an air-cooled one-cylinder 4-stroke Diesel engine. Front and side views of the engine are shown in Fig. 4a and b, respectively. The engine is mounted on a base plate (1) which is installed in the seat of the internal combustion engine basic module. The speed of the engine is set with a controller (11). To measure the exhaust temperature, the engine is equipped with a temperature sensor (6), which is installed in the area of the exhaust muffler (7). The connection (8) for the exhaust hose is also located at the exhaust muffler.

(a) (b)1 Base Unit2 Crank case3 Vibration attenuator4 Output shaft5 Flywheel cover6 Temperature sensor7 Exhaust muffler8 Exhaust connection9 Air filter housing10 Air hose connection11 Speed controller12 Pulley13 Speed controller14 Stop magnet15 Temperature sensor plug16 Power supply stop magnet 17 Fuel line 18 Return line 19 Recoil starter 20 Oil filling connection 21 Oil discharge screw8TransmissionThe modern automatic transmission is by far, the most complicated mechanical component intodays automobile. Automatic transmissions contain Mechanical systems, Hydraulic systems,Electrical systems and Computer controls, all working together in perfect harmony which goesVirtually unnoticed until there is a problem.

What is Transmission ?The transmission is a device that is connected to the back of the engine and sends the power from the engine to the drive wheels Purpose of the transmission is to provide high torque at the time of starting the engine, hill climbing , accelerating and pulling a road.

TYPES OF AUTOMATIC TRANSMISSIONRear wheel drive Front wheel drive

TRANSMISSION COMPONENTSPlanetary Gear SetsHydraulic SystemClutches BandTorque Converter

Rear Wheel Drive

The transmission is usually mounted to the back of the engine. Power flow on this system is simple and straight forward going from the engine, through the torque converter, then through the transmission and drive shaft until it reaches the final drive where it is split and sent to the two rear wheels.Example of rear wheel Alpha Romeo Alfeta in early 70sFront Wheel DriveOn a front wheel drive car, the transmission is usually combined with the final drive to form what is called a transaxle. Transaxle is a device set up in the transmission gear box, clutch, final drive, combined into a single unit. Front-wheel-drive layouts are those in which the front wheels of the vehicle are driven. The most popular layout used in cars today is the front-engine, front-wheel drive, with the engine in front of the front axle, driving the front wheels. This layout is typically chosen for its compact packaging.Front axles are connected directly to the transaxle and provide power to the front wheels.

PLANETARY GEAR SETS

A gear set in which all of the gears are in one plane, grouped around each other like the planets around the sun.The central gear is called the "sun gear". In mesh with it is a circular grouping of gears, called "planet gears", mounted on a rotating carrier.The planet gears also engage teeth on the inner periphery of the "ring gear".By holding any one of the three gear elements motionless, different ratios can be produced between the other two. Planetary gear sets are common in automatic transmissions.Clutch Packs Aclutchis a mechanical device which provides for the transmission of power (and therefore usually motion) from one component (the driving member) to another (the driven member).the simplest application clutches are employed in devices which have two rotating shafts.

BandsA band is a steel strap with friction material bonded to the inside surface.One end of the band is anchored against the transmission case while the other end is connected to a servo.A flexible metal ring fits around the outside of the clutch housing. It tightens to engage the gears, and loosens to release them.

Torque Converter

Atorque converteris afluid couplingthat is used to transfer rotating power from aprime mover, such as aninternal combustion engineor electric motor, to a rotating driven load.Breaking SystemModern cars have brakes on all four wheels, operated by a hydraulic system. The brakes may be disc type or drum type. The front brakes play a greater part in stopping the car than the rear ones, because braking throws the car weight forward on to the front wheels. Many cars therefore have disc brakes, which are generally more efficient at the front and drum brakes at the rear.

Types Of Breaking System-

Disc BreaksDrum BreaksHand BreaksA disc brake has a disc that turns with the wheel. The disc is straddled by a calliperin which there are small hydraulic pistons worked by pressure from the mastercylinder.

The pistons press on friction pads that clamp against the disc from each side to slow or stop it. The pads are shaped to cover a broad sector of the disc.

There may be more than a single pair of pistons, especially in dual-circuit brakes.

The pistons move only a tiny distance to apply the brakes, and the pads barely clearthe disc when the brakes are released. They have no return springs.Disc BreaksApart from the hydraulic braking system, all cars have a mechanical handbrake acting on two wheels - usually the rear ones.

The handbrake gives limited braking if the hydraulic system fails completely, but its main purpose is as a parking brake.

The handbrake lever pulls a cable or pair of cables linked to the brakes by a set of smaller levers, pulleys and guides whose details vary greatly from car to car.Hand BreaksA drum brake has a hollow drum that turns with the wheel. Its open back is covered by a stationary back plate on which there are two curved shoes carrying friction linings.

The shoes are forced outwards by hydraulic pressure moving pistons in th

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