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Calorimetry Summary Talk Andy White University of Texas at Arlington ILC Workshop Snowmass 2005
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Calorimetry Summary Talk

Nov 10, 2021

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Page 1: Calorimetry Summary Talk

Calorimetry

Summary Talk

Andy White

University of Texas at Arlington

ILC Workshop

Snowmass 2005

Page 2: Calorimetry Summary Talk

Overview

- Physics processes driving calorimeter design

- Calorimeter design issues and examples

- Calorimeter technologies:

- Electromagnetic

- Hadronic

- Other technologies (inc. Forward)

- Conclusions

Page 3: Calorimetry Summary Talk
Page 4: Calorimetry Summary Talk

Physics examples driving calorimeter design

Higgs production e.g. e+ e- -> Z h

separate from WW, ZZ (in all jet modes)

Higgs couplings e.g.

- gtth from e+ e- -> tth -> WWbbbb -> qqqqbbbb !- ghhh from e+ e- -> Zhh

Higgs branching ratios h -> bb, WW*, cc, gg, ττ

Strong WW scattering: separation of

e+e- -> ννWW -> ννqqqq e+e- -> ννZZ -> ννqqqq

and e+e- -> ννtt

Missing mass peak or bbar jets

Page 5: Calorimetry Summary Talk

Physics examples driving calorimeter design

-All of these critical physics studies demand:

Efficient jet separation and reconstruction

Excellent jet energy resolution

Excellent jet-jet mass resolution

+ jet flavor tagging

Plus… We need very good forward calorimetry for e.g. SUSY selectron studies,

and… ability to find/reconstruct photons from secondary vertices e.g. from long-lived NLSP -> γ G

Page 6: Calorimetry Summary Talk

Calorimeter system/overall detector design

TWO APPROACHES:

• Large inner calorimeter radius -> achieve good separation of e, γ , charged hadrons, jets,…

Matches well with having a large tracking volume with many measurements, good momentum resolution (BR2) with moderate magnetic field, B ~2-3T

But… calorimeter and muon systems become large and potentially very expensive…

However…may allow a “traditional” approach to calorimeter technology(s).

EXAMPLES: Large Detector, GLD,…?

Page 7: Calorimetry Summary Talk

230 280 450425

700

450

375350

210

40 3540

Main Tracker EM Calorimeter H Calorimeter Cryostat Iron Yoke Muon Detector Endcap Tracker

QC1745

400

60

260

475

GLD

LDC

HCalECal

Page 8: Calorimetry Summary Talk

Calorimeter system/overall detector design

(2) Compact detector – reduced inner calorimeter radius.

Use Si/W for the ECal -> excellent resolution/separation of γ/charged. Constrain the cost by limiting the size of the calorimeter (and muon) system.

This then requires a compact tracking system -> Silicon only with very precise (~10µm) point measurement.

Also demands a calorimeter technology offering fine granularity -> restriction of technology choice ??

To restore BR2, boost B -> 5T (stored energy, forces?)

EXAMPLE: SiD

Page 9: Calorimetry Summary Talk

SiDCompact detector

Page 10: Calorimetry Summary Talk

The critical issue – jet energy resolution, jet-jet mass resolution

60%/√E 30%/√E

H. VideauTarget region for jet

energy resolution

-> Separation of W,Z,… on an event by event basis

This meeting: is this the right target? What is the physics impact of a lesser requirement?

Must be answered soon!

Page 11: Calorimetry Summary Talk

Results from “traditional” calorimeter systems- Equalized EM and HAD responses (“compensation”)

- Optimized sampling fractions

EXAMPLES:

ZEUS - Uranium/Scintillator

Single hadrons 35%/ √E ⊕ 1%

Electrons 17%/√E ⊕ 1%

Jets 50%/ √E

D0 – Uranium/Liquid Argon

Single hadrons 50%/√E ⊕ 4%

Jets 80%/ √E

Clearly a significant improvement is needed for LC.

Page 12: Calorimetry Summary Talk

The Particle Flow Approach Particle Flow approach holds promise of required solution and has been used in other experiments effectively – but still remains to be proved for the Linear Collider!-> Use tracker to measure Pt of dominant, charged particle energy contributions in jets; photons measured in ECal.

-> Need efficient separation of different types of energy deposition throughout calorimeter system

-> Energy measurement of only the relatively small neutral hadron contribution de-emphasizes intrinsic energy resolution, but highlights need for very efficient “pattern recognition” in calorimeter.

-> Measure (or veto) energy leakage from calorimeter through coil into muon system with “tail-catcher”.

Page 13: Calorimetry Summary Talk

The Energy Flow Approach

- A lot of work before/at this meeting!

- Subject of a separate talk after this by A. Raspereza.

- Ongoing -> performance(s) of PFA(s) is critical input to detector design and performance requirements:

It drives – radial detector locations

- segmentation

- choice of absorber material/active layer thickness (RM).

Page 14: Calorimetry Summary Talk

Integrated Detector Design

Tracking system EM Cal HAD Cal Muon

system/ tail

catcher

VXD tag b,c

jets

Page 15: Calorimetry Summary Talk

Integrated Detector Design

So now we must consider the detector as a whole. The tracker not only provides excellent momentum resolution (certainly good enough for replacing cluster energies in the calorimeter with track momenta), but also must:

- efficiently find all the charged tracks:

Any missed charged tracks will result in the corresponding energy clusters in the calorimeter being measured with lower energy resolution and a potentially larger confusion term.

- Muon finding/tracking through calorimeter….etc.

Page 16: Calorimetry Summary Talk

Calorimeter System Design

So how do we realize the requirements in terms of actual calorimeter systems?

Page 17: Calorimetry Summary Talk

Calorimeter System Design

Two options explored in detail:

(1) Analog ECal + Analog HCal

- for HCal: cost of system for required granularity?

(2) Analog ECal + Digital HCal

- high granularity suggests a digital HCal solution - resolution (for residual neutral energy) of a purely

digital calorimeter??

Page 18: Calorimetry Summary Talk

Calorimeter TechnologiesElectromagnetic Calorimeter

Physics requirements emphasize segmentation/granularity (transverse AND longitudinal) over intrinsic energy resolution.

Localization of e.m. showers and e.m./hadron separation -> dense (small X0) ECal with fine segmentation.

Moliere radius -> O(1 cm.)

Transverse segmentation ≈ Moliere radius

Charged/e.m. separation -> fine transverse segmentation (first layers of ECal).

Tracking charged particles through ECal -> fine longitudinal segmentation and high MIP efficiency.

Excellent photon direction determination (e.g. GMSB)

Keep the cost (Si) under control!

Page 19: Calorimetry Summary Talk

SLAC-Oregon-UC Davis-BNL Si-W ECal R&D

David Strom

Effective 4 x 4 mm2

Page 20: Calorimetry Summary Talk

SLAC-Oregon-UC Davis-BNL Si-W ECal R&D

KPix Cell 1 of 1024

M.Breidenbach

Tungsten

Tungsten

Si DetectorKPix

Kapton

Bump BondsMetallization on detector from KPixto cable

Thermal conduction adhesive

Kapton Data Cable

Heat Flow

Page 21: Calorimetry Summary Talk

GLD ECal work in Asia (Japan-Korea-Russia)

1 layer

24 layers= 6 super layers

WLS fiber

clear fiber

MA PMTMA PMT

MA PMT

Beam

lead plate

scintillator strip

10-2

10-1

1

0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4

1st Superlayer2nd Superlayer3rd Superlayer4th Superlayer5th Superlayer6th SuperlayerMIP

x (cm)

I(x)

10-3

10-2

10-1

0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4

4 GeV e-

2nd Superlayer

MIP

Simulation

x (cm)

I (x)

Lateral shower profiles –data/simulation

Effectively small granularity of 1cmx1cm

•4cmx4cm tiles to resolve ghost hits

Scintillator 1cm X 20cm X 0.2cm

Page 22: Calorimetry Summary Talk

GLD ECal work in Asia (Japan-Korea-Russia)

DongHee Kim

Evolution of scintillator strip extrusion

76.5% yield

HAMAMATSU MPC

400 pixel

Observed up to 40~60 photon peaks

Page 23: Calorimetry Summary Talk

CALICE – Si/W Electromagnetic CalorimeterStructure 1.4

(1.4mm of W plates)Structure 2.8(2×1.4mm of W plates)

Structure 4.6(3×1.4mm of W plates)

ACTIVE ZONE3x3 Si matrices

S/N ~ 8 !!S/N ~ 8 !!JeanJean--Claude BRIENTClaude BRIENT

1x1 cm2

Goal: Test beam CERN/2006, Fermilab/2007

Page 24: Calorimetry Summary Talk

2 close by 2 close by electronselectrons (~(~ 3cm3cm

FirstFirst realreal test versus test versus thethe «« ParticleParticle FlowFlow »» methodmethodwithwith a a dedicateddedicated detectordetector

R&D for R&D for thethe final designfinal design

Page 25: Calorimetry Summary Talk

Scintillator/W – U. Colorado

Martin Nagel

5x5 cm2

Page 26: Calorimetry Summary Talk

Calorimeter TechnologiesHadron Calorimeter

Physics requirements emphasize segmentation/granularity (transverse AND longitudinal) over intrinsic energy resolution.

- Depth ≥ 4λ (not including ECal ~ 1λ) Enough? Tail-catcher?

-Assuming PFlow:

- sufficient segmentation to allow efficient charged particle tracking.

- for “digital” approach – sufficiently fine segmentation to give linear energy vs. hits relation

- efficient MIP detection

- intrinsic, single (neutral) hadron energy resolution must not degrade jet energy resolution.

Page 27: Calorimetry Summary Talk

To DAQ

FEE

Tiles+SiPMsCal

ibra

tion

elec

troni

csHadron Calorimeter – CALICE/analog

Vishnu V. Zutshi

Amplifier Board Data Acquisition

Monitoring

Tile size

3x3 6x6 12 x 12

need 3500 4000 1000

molded

3500 4000 1000

milled 3500 3000 800

Page 28: Calorimetry Summary Talk

Hadron Calorimeter – CALICE/analog

Tail Catcher

ECAL

HCAL Electronic Rac

Beam

Preparing for test beam in summer-fall of 2006/CERN, 2007/Fermilab

SiPM production/selection Felix SefkowCalibrated light source, adjust working point, ~500/week

Page 29: Calorimetry Summary Talk

Hadron Calorimeter – CALICE/digital

500 channel/5-layer test

30x30cm2 foils

Details of new 30cm x 30cm foils from 3M

(1) Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) – based DHCAL

Page 30: Calorimetry Summary Talk

Hadron Calorimeter – CALICE/digital

Average multiplicity = 1.27

Cross talk studies

78

80

82

84

86

88

90

92

94

96

0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45

Efficiency of the 9-pads GEM chamber:

Ar:Co2=80:20V=409v

Two fold

Three fold

Three foldwith 3' separation

MIP Efficiency

Energy Deposit

MIP Efficiency study

Assembly techniques for large scale GEM layers

Goal: Test beam at Fermilab 2007

Page 31: Calorimetry Summary Talk

Hadron Calorimeter – CALICE/digital(2) Resistive Plate Chamber-based DHCAL

Signal PadMylar sheet

Mylar sheet Aluminum foil

1.1mm Glass sheet

1.1mm Glass sheet

Resistive paint

Resistive paint

1.2mm gas gap

-HVGND

Charged particles

Page 32: Calorimetry Summary Talk

Hadron Calorimeter – CALICE/digital

AIR4

Note the scale difference!

“RPC’s totally understood -ready to build RPCs for the

1m3 test beam section”

Goal: Test beam at Fermilab 2007

Page 33: Calorimetry Summary Talk

Hadron Calorimeter – CALICE/digitalCommon to RPC and GEM (400,000 channels/module)

FE ASIC needed to multiplex early on

Functionality specified by ANL; design work started June ’04/FNAL

Prototype run submitted on March 18th 2005

40 unpackaged chips in hand

Tests started: digital part tested: OK, analog tests next.

Page 34: Calorimetry Summary Talk

Digital HCal and SiW ECal in US

The evaluation in beam tests and comparison with GEANT4 simulations to underpin the PFA studies is the critical issue for LC calorimetry/detector design.

However, NSF/MRI was not funded and this needs urgent attention!

Module construction (~400,000 channels/module for HCal), testing, data analysis, and simulation comparison will take several years – a large fixed target experiment.

We must get started on this soon!

Page 35: Calorimetry Summary Talk

Design work at FNALDesign work started in June, 2004

Prototype run submitted on March 18th 2005

40 unpackaged chips in hand

Tests started: so far looks good

Other technologies/calorimetry

Challenge – how to configure for a LC calorimeter??

Page 36: Calorimetry Summary Talk

Crystal Calorimeter

Empasize energy resolution, position/angular resolution

LC Detector design? HCal?

Page 37: Calorimetry Summary Talk

Other technologies/calorimetry

IP

VTX

FTD

300 cm

LumiCal

BeamCal

L* = 4m

Very forward calorimetry/Luminosity Cal.Wolfgang Lohmann

•Detection of electrons and photons at small polar angles-important for searches

•Shielding of the inner Detectors

•Measurement of the Luminosity with precision O(<10-3) usingBhabha scattering

•Fast Beam Diagnostics

Page 38: Calorimetry Summary Talk

Other technologies/calorimetry

W-Diamond sandwichMessage:

Electrons can bedetected!

Technologies for the BeamCal:

Wolfgang Lohmann

Page 39: Calorimetry Summary Talk

Other technologies

Halina Abramowicz

15 cylinders * 24 sectors * 30 rings = 10800 cells)(θ )(φ )(z

RL 6.10 m

Luminosity detector

Beam monitor

Page 40: Calorimetry Summary Talk

Conclusions- Steady progress (since LCWS05):

- Calorimeter systems designs

- Prototype construction/testing

- Development of PFA’s (later talk)

BUT ! A long way to go for a clear understanding of

Physics needs -> PFA performance -> Detector design

- Approaching a critical phase of large HCal module, and further ECal, construction/testing - essential to ensure adequate support is available!

- Designing LC calorimeters with the required performance for the physics is a fascinating challenge –let’s keep up the momentum!