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Burn Management & Assessment Shenandoah Co. Fire and Rescue EMS Training Nov.2006 Bill Streett – Training Section Chief
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Burn Management & Assessmentscfr.net/EMSOnlineTrainingFiles/EMS/BurnMgtandAssessment.pdf• Describe the management of burn injury • Discuss management of patient with inhalation

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Page 1: Burn Management & Assessmentscfr.net/EMSOnlineTrainingFiles/EMS/BurnMgtandAssessment.pdf• Describe the management of burn injury • Discuss management of patient with inhalation

Burn Management & Assessment

• Shenandoah Co. Fire and Rescue

EMS Training – Nov.2006Bill Streett – Training Section Chief

Page 2: Burn Management & Assessmentscfr.net/EMSOnlineTrainingFiles/EMS/BurnMgtandAssessment.pdf• Describe the management of burn injury • Discuss management of patient with inhalation

Objectives

• Review different type of burn injuries

• Describe physical examination of burn

patientpatient

• Describe the management of burn injury

• Discuss management of patient with

inhalation injury

Page 3: Burn Management & Assessmentscfr.net/EMSOnlineTrainingFiles/EMS/BurnMgtandAssessment.pdf• Describe the management of burn injury • Discuss management of patient with inhalation

Objectives

• Describe complications and management of

chemical injuries.

• Describe management and assessment of • Describe management and assessment of

electrical injury.

Page 4: Burn Management & Assessmentscfr.net/EMSOnlineTrainingFiles/EMS/BurnMgtandAssessment.pdf• Describe the management of burn injury • Discuss management of patient with inhalation

Skin Anatomy

Epidermis

Outermost skin layer

DermisDermis

Directly beneath the epidermis helps contain the body and support the functions on the epidermis

Subcutaneous Tissue

Body layer beneath the dermis

Page 5: Burn Management & Assessmentscfr.net/EMSOnlineTrainingFiles/EMS/BurnMgtandAssessment.pdf• Describe the management of burn injury • Discuss management of patient with inhalation

Epidermis

Dermis

Capillary

networkSebaceous

glands

The SkinThe Skin

Subcutaneo

us

fatty tissue

Muscle

fibers

Shaft of

hairHair follicleHair root

(Bulb,

papilla)Sweat gland

Deep fascia

Page 6: Burn Management & Assessmentscfr.net/EMSOnlineTrainingFiles/EMS/BurnMgtandAssessment.pdf• Describe the management of burn injury • Discuss management of patient with inhalation

SkinFatMuscleFibrous tissueBlood vessels

Soft Tissue

Blood vesselsMembranesGlandsBone (hard tissue)NervesOrgan

Page 7: Burn Management & Assessmentscfr.net/EMSOnlineTrainingFiles/EMS/BurnMgtandAssessment.pdf• Describe the management of burn injury • Discuss management of patient with inhalation

Injuries

BurnsBurns

Page 8: Burn Management & Assessmentscfr.net/EMSOnlineTrainingFiles/EMS/BurnMgtandAssessment.pdf• Describe the management of burn injury • Discuss management of patient with inhalation

Superficial Burn

Superficial Burn

� Involves only the

epidermis

� Reddened skin

� Pain at the site

Page 9: Burn Management & Assessmentscfr.net/EMSOnlineTrainingFiles/EMS/BurnMgtandAssessment.pdf• Describe the management of burn injury • Discuss management of patient with inhalation

Partial ThicknessBurn

Partial ThicknessBurn

Involves both the dermis � Involves both the dermis

and epidermis

� Intense pain; Blisters

� White-to-red skin that is

moist and mottled

Page 10: Burn Management & Assessmentscfr.net/EMSOnlineTrainingFiles/EMS/BurnMgtandAssessment.pdf• Describe the management of burn injury • Discuss management of patient with inhalation

Full Thickness

Burn

Full Thickness

Burn

� Burn involves all dermal layers and

may include muscle, bone, or organs

� Dry and leathery skin; Charred

� Little or no sensation; hard to the

touch; pain at periphery

Page 11: Burn Management & Assessmentscfr.net/EMSOnlineTrainingFiles/EMS/BurnMgtandAssessment.pdf• Describe the management of burn injury • Discuss management of patient with inhalation

Rule of Nines

• Compare burn area to the patients palm.

• Palm = 1% Body Surface Area.

• Can be used to estimate burn area of any • Can be used to estimate burn area of any

age patient.

Page 12: Burn Management & Assessmentscfr.net/EMSOnlineTrainingFiles/EMS/BurnMgtandAssessment.pdf• Describe the management of burn injury • Discuss management of patient with inhalation

RULE OF NINES (%)Head & neck

Posterior trunkAnterior trunk

Each upper extremity

External genitalia

91818

9

1

91818

9

1External genitalia

Each lower extremity

118118

Posterior trunk

18 1814

14

9

9

18

Page 13: Burn Management & Assessmentscfr.net/EMSOnlineTrainingFiles/EMS/BurnMgtandAssessment.pdf• Describe the management of burn injury • Discuss management of patient with inhalation

Severity• Depth or Degree

• Body Surface Area-BSA (%)

• Location of the Burn

• Depth or Degree

• Body Surface Area-BSA (%)

• Location of the Burn• Location of the Burn

• Pre-existing medical conditions

• Age of the Patient

• Location of the Burn

• Pre-existing medical conditions

• Age of the Patient

Page 14: Burn Management & Assessmentscfr.net/EMSOnlineTrainingFiles/EMS/BurnMgtandAssessment.pdf• Describe the management of burn injury • Discuss management of patient with inhalation

Determine Severity

Critical BurnsCritical Burns� Full thickness burns involving

the hands, feet, face, or

genitalia

(Continued)

genitalia

� Burns associated with

respiratory injury

� Full thickness burns over 10%

BSA

� Partial thickness burns over

30% BSA

Page 15: Burn Management & Assessmentscfr.net/EMSOnlineTrainingFiles/EMS/BurnMgtandAssessment.pdf• Describe the management of burn injury • Discuss management of patient with inhalation

Determine SeverityCritical BurnsCritical Burns

� Burns complicated by

painful, swollen, deformed

extremity

(Continued)

extremity

� Moderate burns in young

children or elderly patients

� Burns encompassing any

body part e.g. arm, leg, or

chest

Page 16: Burn Management & Assessmentscfr.net/EMSOnlineTrainingFiles/EMS/BurnMgtandAssessment.pdf• Describe the management of burn injury • Discuss management of patient with inhalation

Determine SeverityModerate BurnsModerate Burns

� Full thickness burns 2 –

10% BSA excluding

hands, feet, & face

(Continued)

hands, feet, & face

�Partial thickness burns

15 – 30% BSA

� Superficial burns of

greater than 50% BSA

Page 17: Burn Management & Assessmentscfr.net/EMSOnlineTrainingFiles/EMS/BurnMgtandAssessment.pdf• Describe the management of burn injury • Discuss management of patient with inhalation

Determine Severity

Minor BurnsMinor Burns� Full thickness burns

less than 2% BSA

� Partial thickness

burns less than 15%

BSA

Page 18: Burn Management & Assessmentscfr.net/EMSOnlineTrainingFiles/EMS/BurnMgtandAssessment.pdf• Describe the management of burn injury • Discuss management of patient with inhalation

Emergy

Medical

Care

Emergy

Medical

Care

Stop the burning

process, initially with

water or saline

Stop the burning

process, initially with

water or saline

Page 19: Burn Management & Assessmentscfr.net/EMSOnlineTrainingFiles/EMS/BurnMgtandAssessment.pdf• Describe the management of burn injury • Discuss management of patient with inhalation

EmergencyMedicalCare

EmergencyMedicalCare

�BSI

�Constantly

(Continued)

Remove smoldering

clothing and jewelry

Remove smoldering

clothing and jewelry

�Constantly

monitor

airway

Page 20: Burn Management & Assessmentscfr.net/EMSOnlineTrainingFiles/EMS/BurnMgtandAssessment.pdf• Describe the management of burn injury • Discuss management of patient with inhalation

Emergency

Medical

Care

Emergency

Medical

Care�Prevent

further

Cover the burned area

with a dry, sterile

dressing

Cover the burned area

with a dry, sterile

dressing

further

contamination

Page 21: Burn Management & Assessmentscfr.net/EMSOnlineTrainingFiles/EMS/BurnMgtandAssessment.pdf• Describe the management of burn injury • Discuss management of patient with inhalation

Emergency Medical Care•Do not break blisters.

•Do not use any type of ointment, lotion or antiseptic.

•Do not break blisters.

•Do not use any type of ointment, lotion or antiseptic.or antiseptic.

• Know local protocols for transport to appropriate local facility.

or antiseptic.

• Know local protocols for transport to appropriate local facility.

Page 22: Burn Management & Assessmentscfr.net/EMSOnlineTrainingFiles/EMS/BurnMgtandAssessment.pdf• Describe the management of burn injury • Discuss management of patient with inhalation

Infant/Child

Considerations

•Consider the •Consider the

possibility of child

abuse!

Page 23: Burn Management & Assessmentscfr.net/EMSOnlineTrainingFiles/EMS/BurnMgtandAssessment.pdf• Describe the management of burn injury • Discuss management of patient with inhalation

Chemical Burns•Take the necessary scene safety precautions to protect yourself form exposure to hazardous

•Take the necessary scene safety precautions to protect yourself form exposure to hazardous exposure to hazardous materials.

•Wear gloves and eye

protection

exposure to hazardous materials.

•Wear gloves and eye

protection

Page 24: Burn Management & Assessmentscfr.net/EMSOnlineTrainingFiles/EMS/BurnMgtandAssessment.pdf• Describe the management of burn injury • Discuss management of patient with inhalation

Work Place Burn Statistics

Page 25: Burn Management & Assessmentscfr.net/EMSOnlineTrainingFiles/EMS/BurnMgtandAssessment.pdf• Describe the management of burn injury • Discuss management of patient with inhalation

EmergencyMedicalCare

EmergencyMedicalCare

�Brush off dry chemicals prior to

Flush with large amounts of water. Continue enroute to receiving facility.

Flush with large amounts of water. Continue enroute to receiving facility.

dry chemicals prior to flushing

Page 26: Burn Management & Assessmentscfr.net/EMSOnlineTrainingFiles/EMS/BurnMgtandAssessment.pdf• Describe the management of burn injury • Discuss management of patient with inhalation

Electrical Burn Injuries

• Account for 4% to 6.5% of admissions to

burn centers.

• Responsible for 500 deaths each year.• Responsible for 500 deaths each year.

Page 27: Burn Management & Assessmentscfr.net/EMSOnlineTrainingFiles/EMS/BurnMgtandAssessment.pdf• Describe the management of burn injury • Discuss management of patient with inhalation

Electrical Shock

• High tension causes more serious injuries

(>1000 volts)

• Fatal electrocutions may also occur with • Fatal electrocutions may also occur with

household current.

• Alternating current (AC) at 60 cycles per

second is more dangerous than direct

current (DC) at same magnitude.

Page 28: Burn Management & Assessmentscfr.net/EMSOnlineTrainingFiles/EMS/BurnMgtandAssessment.pdf• Describe the management of burn injury • Discuss management of patient with inhalation

Electrical Shock

• Trans-thoracic more likely to be fatal than

vertical path of travel.

• V-fib more common from electrocutions • V-fib more common from electrocutions

from A/C current.

• Asystole more common from electrocutions

from D/C current.

Page 29: Burn Management & Assessmentscfr.net/EMSOnlineTrainingFiles/EMS/BurnMgtandAssessment.pdf• Describe the management of burn injury • Discuss management of patient with inhalation

Electrical Burns• Do not attempt to remove the patient from the electrical source unless trained to do so.

• Do not attempt to remove the patient from the electrical source unless trained to do so.trained to do so.

• If the patient is still in contact with the electrical source or if you are unsure, do not touch the patient.

trained to do so.

• If the patient is still in contact with the electrical source or if you are unsure, do not touch the patient.

Page 30: Burn Management & Assessmentscfr.net/EMSOnlineTrainingFiles/EMS/BurnMgtandAssessment.pdf• Describe the management of burn injury • Discuss management of patient with inhalation

Emergency Medical Care

•Administer oxygen if indicated.

•Monitor patient closely for respiratory

•Administer oxygen if indicated.

•Monitor patient closely for respiratory

(Continued)

•Monitor patient closely for respiratory and cardiac arrest.

•Often injures are more severe than external indications.

•Monitor patient closely for respiratory and cardiac arrest.

•Often injures are more severe than external indications.

Page 31: Burn Management & Assessmentscfr.net/EMSOnlineTrainingFiles/EMS/BurnMgtandAssessment.pdf• Describe the management of burn injury • Discuss management of patient with inhalation

EmergencyMedicalCare

EmergencyMedicalCare

Look for Look for Look for both

entrance and exit wounds

Look for both

entrance and exit wounds

Page 32: Burn Management & Assessmentscfr.net/EMSOnlineTrainingFiles/EMS/BurnMgtandAssessment.pdf• Describe the management of burn injury • Discuss management of patient with inhalation

• Adult – Trauma: Burns

• Chemical burns represent a hazard to both the patient and the rescuer, and extreme care

should be taken to avoid exposure to offending agents. The eyes are particularly

vulnerable to chemical burns and, in general, acids tend not to burn as deeply as alkalis

which penetrate very deeply as the tissue is de-fatted. Therefore, eye irrigation should be

started early and continued for at least 15 minutes. The care of electrical burns should

be guided by safety. The heart is most susceptible to voltage below 400 volts. Above

this level internal burns are a major complication. Remember that most injuries in

electrical burns are internal. Fatal arrhythmias are usually a very early problem but other

arrhythmias may occur at any time if the heart has been electrically injured. Care of the

patient with thermal burns should be guided by scene safety, cooling the burn (if

2006-2007 Lord Fairfax EMS Protocol

patient with thermal burns should be guided by scene safety, cooling the burn (if

appropriate), maintaining normal body temperature, and protecting the airway. Shock in

the very early stages of a burn is generally not associated with the burn, thus one should

rule out other life-threatening injuries.

• EMT-B

• Scene safety (turn off power or contact fire department, extinguish flames, wear PPE).

• Apply dry sterile dressings.

• Spinal immobilization, if indicated.

• Irrigate chemical burn site with water if appropriate to chemical (if powdered chemical,

brush off).

• Splint fractures (after applying dressing).

Page 33: Burn Management & Assessmentscfr.net/EMSOnlineTrainingFiles/EMS/BurnMgtandAssessment.pdf• Describe the management of burn injury • Discuss management of patient with inhalation

EMT-Enhanced

1. Manage airway appropriately. Have a high index of suspicion in cases of facial burns, sooty

sputum, singed facial hair, etc.

2. Establish IV access.

3. Fluid bolus of 500 mL NS, may be repeated if necessary after reassessment, up to 1 liter NS if

indicated for hypotension, to maintain a SBP> 90 mmHg.

a. Avoid establishing IV distal to an extremity burn site. Maintain a SBP > 90 mmHg.

b. Administer 500 mL/hr for electric burns if no risk of CHF.

EMT-Intermediate / Paramedic

1. Initiate cardiac and oximetry monitoring.

2006-2007 Lord Fairfax EMS Protocol

1. Initiate cardiac and oximetry monitoring.

2. If pain persists, consider morphine sulfate 2 mg slow IV/IM, maintaining a SBP > 90 mmHg.

3. May be repeated every 5-10 minutes to a total of 6 mg.

Contact Medical Command

Consider additional analgesia.

Key Points / Considerations

• In electrical burns, search for additional traumatic injury.

• In thermal burns, assess the patient for evidence of potential carbon monoxide exposure.

• Remove jewelry and nonadherent clothing.

• Estimate extent of burns (area of patient’s palm = 1% TBSA)

• Note: Continuous EKG, pulse oximetry and blood pressure monitorin

• (every 5 minutes) are mandatory, during, and after administration morphine sulfate.

Page 34: Burn Management & Assessmentscfr.net/EMSOnlineTrainingFiles/EMS/BurnMgtandAssessment.pdf• Describe the management of burn injury • Discuss management of patient with inhalation

Burn Management Summary

• Think Safety first!!!!!!!!!

• Always remember ABC’s.

• Stop the burning process and dress with dry • Stop the burning process and dress with dry

sterile dressings.

Page 35: Burn Management & Assessmentscfr.net/EMSOnlineTrainingFiles/EMS/BurnMgtandAssessment.pdf• Describe the management of burn injury • Discuss management of patient with inhalation

Burn Mgt. Summary Cont.

• Flush chemical burn with large amounts of

water.

• Electrical burns may be much more serious • Electrical burns may be much more serious

than they appear.

• Always look for entrance and exit wound

for electrical burns.

Page 36: Burn Management & Assessmentscfr.net/EMSOnlineTrainingFiles/EMS/BurnMgtandAssessment.pdf• Describe the management of burn injury • Discuss management of patient with inhalation

Any Questions???????????Any Questions???????????

Quiz Time………

Page 37: Burn Management & Assessmentscfr.net/EMSOnlineTrainingFiles/EMS/BurnMgtandAssessment.pdf• Describe the management of burn injury • Discuss management of patient with inhalation

Burn Management Scenarios

• Scenario#1- Wash Bay

-Dispatched for 40 YOM at a local hardware

store with chemical burns to the arms.store with chemical burns to the arms.

Scenario #2 – Tower 1 Bay

-Dispatched for a 22 YOM with facial burns

from a gas grill explosion.

Scenario#3 – Co. 1 Bay

-Dispatched for an HEC worker electrocuted.