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Buckle Down 7–8 Science - Triumph · PDF fileRainbows are created by refraction . ... Buckle Down . 7–8 Science. Unit 1 . ... Forces That Shape the Earth’s Surface Review 9:

Aug 31, 2018

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  • P.O. Box 2180Iowa City, Iowa 52244-2180

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    Science

    78

    Rainbows are created by refraction of sunlight through raindrops. A second rainbow is caused by a double reflection of light inside the raindrops. This flips the second rainbows colors opposite the first rainbow, with red on the inside and violet on the outside.

    Science

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    Buckle Down 78 Science

    Unit 1 The Nature of Science Review 1: The Formation of Scientific Knowledge Review 2: Scientific Investigations Review 3: Representing and Interpreting Data

    Unit 2 Physical Science Review 4: Physical Properties of Matter Review 5: Elements, Compounds, and Mixtures Review 6: Force and Motion Review 7: Energy and Its Transformations

    Unit 3 Earth and Space Science Review 8: Forces That Shape the Earths Surface Review 9: Weather Review 10: Human Activity and the Environment Review 11: The Earth in the Universe

    Unit 4 Life Science Review 12: Structure and Function in Organisms Review 13: Reproduction and Heredity Review 14: Interactions Among Organisms Review 15: Matter and Energy in Ecosystems Review 16: Evolution and Natural Selection

    Unit 5 Science, Technology, and Society Review 17: Science, Technology, and Society Review 18: Process of Engineering Design

    Go to www.BuckleDown.com to review our complete line of state test materials for Grades 212 READING WRITING MATHEMATICS SCIENCE

    2ND EDITION

    Student Set US02104S2Includes: Student Workbook, Form A Practice Test, Form B Practice Test

    Individual Products:Student Workbook US02104W2Form A Practice Test US02104A2Form B Practice Test US02104B2 9 7 8 0 7 8 3 6 5 0 3 3 3

    ISBN 0-7836-5033-751599

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    .TABLE OF CONTENTS

    Introduction ...................................................................................................................... 1

    Unit 1 The Nature of Science .............................................................................. 3

    Review 1: The Formation of Scientific Knowledge .......................... 4Science Standards and Concepts: NS.A.15, PS.A.56

    Review 2: Scientific Investigations ....................................................... 18Science Standards and Concepts: NS.B.19

    Review 3: Representing and Interpreting Data ............................... 31Science Standards and Concepts: NS.B.25, NS.B.1012

    Unit 2 Physical Science ....................................................................................... 43

    Review 4: Physical Properties of Matter ............................................ 44Science Standards and Concepts: PS.A.13

    Review 5: Elements, Compounds, and Mixtures ............................ 55Science Standards and Concepts: PS.A.39

    Review 6: Force and Motion .................................................................. 70Science Standards and Concepts: PS.B.15

    Review 7: Energy and Its Transformations ...................................... 86Science Standards and Concepts: PS.C.17

    Unit 3 Earth and Space Science ..................................................................... 99

    Review 8: Forces That Shape the Earths Surface ....................... 100Science Standards and Concepts: ESS.A.1, ESS.B.12, NS.B.1112

    Review 9: Weather .................................................................................. 114Science Standards and Concepts: ESS.A.2

    Review 10: Human Activity and the Environment .................... 126 Science Standards and Concepts: ESS.A.3, NS.C.4

    Review 11: The Earth in the Universe ............................................ 136 Science Standards and Concepts: ESS.C.15

    Unit 4 Life Science ............................................................................................... 147

    Review 12: Structure and Function in Organisms ....................... 148 Science Standards and Concepts: LS.A.14, LS.B.2

    Review 13: Reproduction and Heredity ......................................... 160 Science Standards and Concepts: LS.B.15

    Review 14: Interactions Among Organisms ................................... 171 Science Standards and Concepts: LS.C.13

    Review 15: Matter and Energy in Ecosystems ............................. 180 Science Standards and Concepts: ESS.A.1, LS.C.47,

    Review 16: Evolution and Natural Selection ................................. 193 Science Standards and Concepts: LS.D.14

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    Unit 5 Science, Technology, and Society ................................................ 207

    Review 17: Science, Technology, and Society .............................. 208 Science Standards and Concepts: NS.A.4, NS.C.14, PS.C.3

    Review 18: Process of Engineering Design .................................... 219 Science Standards and Concepts: NS.D.14

    Glossary......................................................................................................................... 227

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    Table of Contents

    To the Teacher:

    Science Standard and Concept codes are listed for each review in the table of contents and for each page in the shaded gray bars that run across the tops of the pages in the workbook (see example to the right). These codes indicate which Buckle Down science standards and concepts are covered in a given review or on a given page.

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  • Unit 1 The Nature of Science

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    Review 1The Formation of Scientific KnowledgeThink about all the kinds of scientific research youve heard about: Geneticists probing the secrets of DNA, marine biologists tracking whales across oceans, and cosmologists considering the beginning of the universe. These pursuits have a common goalto discover and explain the patterns at work in natural systems. Scientists develop theories that explain their observations and predict events not yet witnessed. As scientists gather more evidence, however, scientific theories can change. This review focuses on how scientific theories form and why they sometimes change.

    What Is a Scientific Theory?If you look in a dictionary, youll see that most words have a few meanings. Take the word theory. It has both an everyday meaning and a scientific one.

    Give an example of how you might use the word theory in its everyday sense.

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    Find and write down the scientific meaning of the word theory.

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    How does the scientific meaning of theory differ from its everyday sense?

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    Science Standards and Concepts: NS.A.1

    electronelementexplanationhypothesisinference

    Wordsto Know

    alpha particleatom atomic nucleusbiasdescription

    observationplum-pudding modeltheory

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    When you use the word theory in everyday speech, you usually mean hunch or good guess. Scientific theories are a much stronger claim of knowledge. In science, a theory is a dominant explanation that is supported by a mountain of evidence. A theory explains how many different events and facts are related to each other, and it makes predictions about events and facts not yet seen. The theory of gravity, for example, explains how the force that pulls apples to the ground also keeps the Moon orbiting the Earth. Nineteenth-century astronomers used the theory of gravity to predict the existence of the planet Neptune long before they actually saw it. Obviously, the theory of gravity is more than a hunch: It describes and predicts the effects of gravity on small and large scales.

    But scientific theories can change. If scientists find data that contradict the theory, then they might alter the theory. If scientists find a lot of data that the theory cannot explain, then they may propose a hypothesis that explains the new data and makes new predictions. Other scientists will run experiments and collect data to test the hypothesis. If the hypothesis stands up to repeated testing, explains a wide range of data, and makes successful predictions, then it may become a theory.

    For over 2,000 years, most scientists believed that everything in the universe orbited the Earth. Suggest one reason why this theory, now disproved, was so successful.

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