Top Banner

of 75 Syllabus(Core Cours)

Apr 07, 2018



Welcome message from author
This document is posted to help you gain knowledge. Please leave a comment to let me know what you think about it! Share it to your friends and learn new things together.
  • 8/4/2019 Syllabus(Core Cours)


    Rajiv Gandhi University

    Of Knowledge Technologies





    Major of B.Tech in any branch and Minor in Biology

    With effect for 2010-2011

  • 8/4/2019 Syllabus(Core Cours)


    Rajiv Gandhi University of Knowledge technologies

    Syllabus for Major of B.Tech in any branch and Minor in Biology




    Paper No


    codeStream Course Title



    No of


    II year/






    BI 2001 AllCell Biology, Biodiversity,

    and Biometry36

    II year/






    BI 2002 AllBiochemistry, Molecular

    Biology and Genetics36

    III Year/






    BI 3001 All

    Immunology, cell culture,

    Micro Biology, genetic




    III Year/




    Paper-IBI 3002




    Bioprocess technology,

    Fermentation technology,

    Enzyme Biotechnology

    BI 2001

    BI 2002

    BI 3001



    Paper-I BI 3004




    Fundamentals, down

    stream processing,

    Enzyme technology

    Do 33


    Paper-IBI 3006



    Bio computing, Biological

    data base, sequence

    analysis, programming


    Do 35

  • 8/4/2019 Syllabus(Core Cours)



    Paper-IBI 3008


    BiologyBiomaterials Do 37

    IV Year/




    BI 4001




    Biotransformation, Bio

    fuel, Environmental and

    Quality control

    Do 35


    Paper-IIBI 4003




    Industrial production, Bio

    fertilizers andDo 35



    BI 4005Bio


    Structural Biology, Data

    base management,


    Do 39


    Paper-IIBI 4007



    Biomaterial design, tissue

    engineeringDo 39



    Paper-IIIBI 4002




    1 1 1

    11 BI 4004




    Microorganisms in



    Biotechnology, Microbial


    Do 32


    Paper-IIIBI 4006



    Genomics, Proteomics

    and Drug designingDo 33




    BI 4008Engineering


  • 8/4/2019 Syllabus(Core Cours)



    The given curriculum structure permits a student to specialize in any of the


    Industrial Biotechnology/ Industrial Micro Biology/BioInformatics or Engineering

    Biology. Accordingly a student may choose the respective specialization from the


    year B.Tech onwards. For example a student who wishes to specialize in

    Industrial Biotechnology may take the core subjects compulsorily.

    In addition he/she may take BI 3002, BI 4001 and BI 4002. Similarly for the

    respective Electives courses are

    Industrial Microbiology-BI 3004,BI 4003,BI 4004;

    Bio Informatics BI 3006,BI 4005 and BI 4006;

    Engineering Biology the courses are: BI 3008, BI 4007 and BI 4008.

    It may also be noted that this pattern is only suggestive and not mandatory.

    That is the student can take course of his/her choice subjected to the condition

    that the pre requisites are already taken.

  • 8/4/2019 Syllabus(Core Cours)


    B. TechMinor subject



    Biology core course (paper I)

    (Cell Biology, Biodiversity and Biometry)

    Unit 1: Cell Biology

    1. 1 Structure and organization of Pro and Eukaryotic Cells.1. 2 Plasmamembrane Molecular organization, cell permeability transport

    across membranes, facilitated diffusion, active transport and receptor

    mediated endocytosis

    1. 3 Nucleus ,Nucleolus and chromatin fibers1. 4 Endoplasmic reticulum structure and functions of rough and smooth

    endoplasmic reticulum. General account on microsomes and signal


    1. 5 Golgi Bodies- Morphology of golgi complex, cytochemistry of golgi complex.Functions of golgi complex

    1. 6 Mitochondria- UltraStructure and functions. Biogenesis of mitochondria.1. 7 Role of Mitochondria in Krebs cycle, glycolysis cycle1. 8 Respiratory chain complexes, Electron transport system, mitochondrial

    ATPase Proton pump complexes.

    1. 9 Chloroplast- Ultra structure, morphology, Functions and Biogenesis1. 10Ribosomes- Ultra structure, Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic ribosomes,

    r- RNA biogenesis, Functions of ribosomes.

  • 8/4/2019 Syllabus(Core Cours)


    1. 11 Lysosomes and peroxisomes major characteristics of lysosomes,Functions- intracellular digestion, endocytosis, morphology of peroxisomes

    and micro peroxisomes

    1. 12Cytoskeletal structures Microfilaments , Intermediate filaments andmicrotubules, microtubular organelles ultra structure and function of

    cilia, flagella and centrioles.

    1. 13Cellcycle- Phases of cell cycle, functional importance of each phase,molecular events during cell cycle. Check points, cyclins and protein

    kinases, MPF (maturation promoting factor)

    1. 14 Cell signaling Exocrine, Endocrine, paracrine and synaptic strategies ofchemical signaling. Surface receptor mediated transduction (DAG, C

    a+2, C-

    AMP, G-Protein)

    1. 15Chromosomes- Morphology and structural organization- fine structure,chemical organization. Special types of chromosomes- Salivary gland

    chromosomes and lamp brush chromosomes.

    1. 16Cell motility Amoeboid, ciliary and flagellar movements.1. 17Cell senescence and programmed cell death.

    Unit 2: Biometry (Statistical Applications in Biology)

    2.1 Definition, Need and scope of Biometery, Types of statistics used in Biology,Principles and applications of statistical methods in biological research.

    Methods of sampling.

    2.2 Measures of central tendency- Definition, calculation of Mean, Median andmode

    2. 3 Measures of Dispersion Dispersion- Definition, mean deviation, standard

  • 8/4/2019 Syllabus(Core Cours)



    2. 4 Tests of significance standard error

    2.5 Students t test2.6 The chi-square (x2) Test2.7 Correlation and Regression2.8 Analysis of Variance2.9Probabilityconcepts and problems on probability2.10 Probability Distribution- Binomial, Poisson, Normal Distribution and their


    2.11 Statistical softwares- SPSS, SAS, MINITAB Mathematica.UNIT-3: Biodiversity And Taxonomy

    3.1 Basic concept of Biodiversity- What is Biodiversity- why should we conserveit Elements of Biodiversity.

    3.2 Ecosystem diversity- Genetic diversity- species diversity Eco-stability (plant,Animal and microbial)

    3.3 Biodiversity and conservation- over exploitation threatening living species.International trade. Animals threatened by international trade. Problems in

    controlling international trade (Enforcement, Reservations, illegal trade)

    3.4 Conservation of Biodiversity (In-situ and Ex-situ methods, principle andApplications)

    3.5 Red Data Book and Endangered species3.6 Hot spots of Biodiversity, Biodiversity of India.

  • 8/4/2019 Syllabus(Core Cours)


    3.7 Basic principles of Taxonomy and Phylogeny- classification

    3.8 Modes of Molecular evolution. Neutral theory of molecular evolutionB.TechMinor subject

    PracticalPaper-1 (1 Hour duration)-(Can be conducted in the class room)

    (II Year-Ist


    1. Solving problems of monohybrid, dihybrid and henetic interaction L(modified genetic ratios)

    2. Problems on linkage and crossing over, chromosome maps.3. Estimating gene frequencies in human population, estimation of hetero

    zygotes frequencies, pedegree analysis

    4. Problems on measure of central tendency, mean, median and mode5. Problems on measure of dispersion, mean deviation, standard deviation,

    variance, standard error, coefficient of variance (c.v)

    6. Statistical distributions , fitting, binomial , poisson and normal probabilitydistributions to given data

    7. Testing hypothesis. Test of significance (mean, standard deviation,correlation coefficient)-z-test

    8. Chi-square test for goodness of fit and test for indedpendence9. Studdent t-test (unpaired and paired t-test)10.Usage of spss and sigive plot11.Problems on Analysis of variance (ANOVA)

  • 8/4/2019 Syllabus(Core Cours)




    1. Bliss. C.J.K (1967) statistics in Biology vol.1. McGraw Hill Newyork.2. Campbell R.C (1974) Statistics for Biologists. Cambridge univ. Press.3. Daniel (1999) Bio statistics for health sciences (3rd Edition) Panima Publications


    4. Swardlaw A.C (1988) Practical Statistics for expermental Biologists. John wileyand sons.

    5. Khan (1999) Fundamentals of Bio Statistics6. Principles of Biostatistics Paganoetal.7. An introduction to Biostatistics- Glover8. An introduction to Biostatistics- Mishra & Mishra, Kalyani publications.9. An introduction to Biostatistics Gurumani.N. MJP Publishers, chennai.10.Fundamentals of Biostatistics P.Hanmanth Rao & K.Janardhan- IK

    International publishing House New Delhi

    Cell and Molecular Biology

    1. Molecular Biology of the cell. Alberts, B etal Garland Publishers 20012. Molecular Cell Biology. Lodish etal. Scientific American Bital 19953. Principles of cell and molecular Biology. Klein smith I.J.& Kish vm4. Cell and molecular Biology. Karp.G. John wiley and sons 19995. Molecular Biology. Fred felder. D.Jones and Bartlett Publications.1995

  • 8/4/2019 Syllabus(Core Cours)


    6. Molecular Biology Labfax. T.A. Brown Bios scientific publications7. Molecular Biology of the gene. Watsen JD. Hopkins NM.Reberts.JN8. Molecular cell Biology , Darnell j. lodish and Baltimore D.9. Cell and Molecular Biology . De Roberts10.Molecular Biology- Turner etal11.Cell-Couper


    1. Bio diversity- Agarwal.k (1996)- Agro, Botanica, Bikanner2. Biodiversity Chakrobarty supriyo (2006)- Pointer publishers, india


    1. Taxonomy of Angiosperms- V.N. Naik , 1991. Tata Mc Graw Hill. Pub2. Taxonomy of Angiosperms- T.Pullaiah Regenue Publications3. Molecular systematic of plants II DNA sequencing D.E. soltis, 1998,

    Kulwer Academic Publisher.

    4. Vascular Plant Systematics A.B. Radford, W.C. Dickinson 1974, Harper,Row Publishers

    5. Flowering Plants: Origin and dispersal- A. TakhtaJan- Otto Koetiz SciencePublishers.

  • 8/4/2019 Syllabus(Core Cours)


    B. Tech-Minor subject



    Biology core course (paper II )

    (Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Genetics)

    Unit 4: Bio chemistry

    4.1 Carbohydrates - Classification, physical and chemical properties, chemicalstructures and their importance.

    4.2 Amino acids - Classification and properties Zwitterion nature4.3 Proteins - Classification, structure and function, primary, secondary, tertiary

    and quaternary structure

    4.4 Enzymes - Classification, General Characteristics, mechanism of enzymeaction, co enzymes, co factor, isozymes

    4.5 Regulation of enzyme activity and factors affecting enzyme activity,competitive, un competitive and non competitive inhibition.

    4.6Lipids structure, classification, properties and functions of lipids, saturatedand unsaturated fatty acids.

    4.7Bioenergetics Principles of bioenergetics and high energy phosphatecompounds, mode of energy production-photo phosphorylation

    Unit- 5 : Molecular Biology

    5.15.2hysicalDNA Structure Chemistry of DNA, Forces stabilizing DNA Structure,

    Helix parameters. Forms of DNA (A,B,C,D,T and Z)

  • 8/4/2019 Syllabus(Core Cours)


    5.3P properties of DNA ( UV-Absorption spectra, Denaturation and Renaturation,Cot Curves, DNA hybridization)

    5.4 DNA Replication General features of DNA Replication, Enzymes andproteins of DNA replication.

    5.5Models of replication, Regulation of DNA, Replication, Prokaryotic andEukaryotic replication mechanism.

    5.6 DNA damage & DNA repair causes and mechanism photo reactivation,excision repair, mismatch repair, SOS repair

    5.7 DNA Recombination Homologous recombination holiday medal, Non-homologous recombination- Transposition.

    5.8 Types of RNA and their function. Outlines of RNA biosynthesis in Prokaryotes.5.9 Structure of Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic gene5.10 Genetic code, properties and wobble hypothesis5.11 Transcription in prokaryotes -Mechanism, Promoters and RNA

    polymerase, transcription factors

    5.12 Transcription in Eukaryotes5.13 Post transcriptional modifications of eukaryotic mRNA, Reverse


    5.14 Translation Mechanism of translation in Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes, Posttranslational modifications of Proteins

    5.15 Regulation of Gene activity in Prokaryotes Operon concept- induction,Repression and Attenuation, Inducible Operon (lac operon) Repressible

    Operon (tryp operon)

    5.16 Regulation of Gene expression in Eukaryotes transcriptional activation,galactose metabolism in yeast.

  • 8/4/2019 Syllabus(Core Cours)


    5.17 Gene organization and expression in mitochondria and Chloroplasts.Unit-6 Genetics

    6.1Mendels laws of heredity with examples, Test cross and back cross, Theprinciple of independent assortment

    6.2 Interaction of genes Incomplete dominance, co-dominance, lethal genes,epistasis, Pleiotropy,

    6.3Polygenic traits and quantitative inheritance6.4 Genomic organization in Prokaryotes6.5Genomic organization in Eukaryotes6.6Mutations Gene and chromosomal mutations, Natural and induced

    mutations mutagenic agents

    6.7Molecular basis of gene mutations, Role of mutations in evolution.6.8Gene concept classical concept Molecular concept of gene- transposons,

    Pseudogenes, overlapping gene, oncogene, repeated gene, Gene


    6.9Fine structure of gene6.10 Genetic Recombination-1: Gene transfer in bacteria Transformation-

    Transposable elements-Plasmid structure, Properties and types of Plasmids.

    6.11 Genetic Recombination-II: Transduction U tube experiment Generalizedand specialized transduction. Conjugation and steps in conjugation.

    6.12 Human Genetic disorders (Klinefelter syndrome and Turnerssyndrome).

    6.13 Population Genetics: Population, Gene pool, mutation and selection, Hardy-Weinberg law and its significance.

  • 8/4/2019 Syllabus(Core Cours)


    B.Tech-Minor subject-Biology

    Practical-Paper-II (Lab-I)




    1. Defferent stages of Mitosis in onion root tip2. Permanent slides- polytene chromosomes, grass hopper spermatids and


    3. Effect of temperature on enzyme activity(Amylase)4. Quantitative estimation of Proteins by Lowrys method5. Quantitative estimation of carbohydrates by Nelson Smogyi method6. Estimation of DNA by UV spectrophotometry7. Electrophoretic analysis of DNA8. Preparation of solid and liquid culture media and their sterilization-

    culturing techniques (Bacteria)

    9. Isolation of pure culture by Streak plate and Pour plate method10.Growth of bacteria on agar slant, agar stab, petriplate and in broth- Growth


    11.Staining techniques- simple staining, Gram staining, negative stainingBooks

    Bio Chemistry

    1. Principles of Bio chemistry A. Lehninger, D.L Nelson worth publishes2. Principles of Bio chemistry G.L. Zubay, W.W. Parson- Brown Publisher.3. Bio chemistry V edition Jeremy M.Berg, Free man &Co.

  • 8/4/2019 Syllabus(Core Cours)


    4. Fundamentals of Bio chemistry Dr. A.C. Deb5. Fundamentals of Bio chemistry J.L. Jain,Sunjay Jain and Nitin Jain

    S.Chand &Co.

    6. Harpies Bio chemistry, murray RK etal Prentice Hall International7. Bio chemistry Stryer L, H Freeman & Co8. Text book of Biochemistry Davlin, thomas-M.9. Bio chemistry Fundamentals, voet etal10.Bio chemistry Fried fider .D11.Practical Bio chemistry Plummer.12.Outlines of Biochemistry conn and stump. Wiley Eastern ltd.


    1. Principles of Genetics E. L Gardner, M.J. Simmons John wiley & sonspublication

    2. Genetics Strick burger M.W Macmillan publisher3. Human Molecular Genetics Strachan T and Read AP-harland science..4. Microbial Genetics Maloy etal5. Concepts of Genetics 7th edition (2003) Klug & Cumming6. Microbial Genetics Frid fleder7. Advanced Genetics (2002) Miglani, G-S8. Fundamentals of Genetics B.D. Singh.9. GeneticsArora and Sandhu10.GeneticsP.K.Gupta

  • 8/4/2019 Syllabus(Core Cours)


    B. Tech-Minor subject



    Biology core course: Paper-III

    (Immunology, Cell culture, Microbiology, Genetic engineering and


    Unit 7: Immunology

    7.1 Immune System- Organs of Immune system (spleen, thymus andlymphnodes)- cells of immune system T- cells its types and receptors- T-

    cell maturation and activation, B-cells and its receptors/, B-cells

    maturation and activation , Haematopoiesis.

    7.2Types of immunity- Passive, Active, Acquired and innate immunityhumoral and cell mediated immunity.

    7.3Antigens- Types, haptens, epitopes and Factors influencing antigenicity.7.4Antibodies- Structure, types, properties and functions of

    immunoglobulins, production of antibodies.

    7.5Monoclonal antibodies.7.6Antigen and Antibody reactions- Agglutination and precipitation

    reactions. Hemagglutination and PHA, immuno fluorescence, ELISA, RIA,

    Coombs test (Direct and Indirect)

    7.7Hyper sensitivity and Allergic reactions, vaccines and Immunization.

  • 8/4/2019 Syllabus(Core Cours)


    UNIT-8: Animal Cell Culture

    8.1An introduction, concept of aseptic techniques, animal tissue culturemedia, cell propagation, preservation and storage of cells, detection ofcontamination, safety consideration in laboratory cell culture.

    UNIT-9: General Microbiology

    9.1 Major groups of micro organisms General Characteristics of Algae,Fungi.9.2General characteristics and classification of Bacteria9.3 General characteristics and classification of plant, animal and Bacterial viruses

    -structure and replication of Bacteriophage ( T2 and ), viroids and Prions.

    9.4Methods in microbiology- sterilization, culture media, isolation of microbes,maintenance of microbial cultures, microbial culture collection centres.

    9.5 Food and Microbiology - contamination and spoilage of different kinds offood, Food- borne illness due to bacterial food poisoing- Food preservation

    9.6 Microbial Diseases: Disease reservoirs- infectious disease transmission.Respiratory infections caused by bacteria and viruses- Tuberculosis- Sexually

    transmitted disease including Influenza Diseases transmitted by animals,

    insects and Ticks Food and water borne diseases Pathogenic fungi.

    9.7Host- Parastic Relation Ship- Normal microflora of skin, oral cavity, gastrointestinal tract- Entry of pathogens into the host, colonization and factors

    predisposing to infections, types of toxins and their structure- mode of

    actions- virulence and Pathogenesis.

  • 8/4/2019 Syllabus(Core Cours)


    UNIT-10: Genetic Engineering

    10.1 Introduction to Genetic Engineering Definition, history and scope10.2

    Restriction enzymes- definition, characteristics and uses

    10.3 Cloning and cloning vectors plasmid vectors, phage vectors and cosmids.10.4 Construction and screening of Genomic DNA library and cDNA library10.5 Molecular detection techniques southern, northern and western


    10.6 Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)10.7

    Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP), Random Amplified

    Polymorphic DNA (RAPD)

    10.8 DNA finger printingUNIT- 11: Bio informatics

    11.1Bioinformatics-Definition, scope, role and limitations of Bio informatics-Importance and uses.

    11.2Bioinformatics and Internet-Elementary commands and protocols, ftp,telnet, http, primer on information theory.

    11.3Introduction to Bio informatics soft wareRASMOL & DS viewer pro-Acceptable file formats for RASMOL & DS VIEWER PROBio informatics

    sequence analysis software- CLUSTAL w.

    11.4Data base concepts Biological data and databases- Biological data typeclassification of biological data base- Information retrieval from

    Biological data base.11.5Basics of C language programme control structures, arrays and standard

    libraries (stress on logic than syntax)

  • 8/4/2019 Syllabus(Core Cours)



    12.1 Microscopy- Principles and Applications of Light, phase contrast,Fluorescence microscopy. Scanning and Transmission Electronmicroscopy. Confocal microscopy.

    12.2 Principles of pH meter and calorimetry12.3 Centrifugation- Preparative and Analytical centrifuges, sedimentation

    analysis, RCF, Density gradient centrifugation, ultra centrifugation.

    12.4Chomatography Techniques Theory and application of paperchromatography . TLC, Gel filtration chromatography. Ion Exchangechromatography, Affinity chromatography, GLC and HPLC.

    12.5Electrophoretic Techniques Theory and application of PAGE. AgaroseGel Electrophoresis. 2 DE, Iso- electric Focussing, Immunodiffusion,

    Immuno Electrophoresis

    12.6ELISA, RIA, Southern, Northern and Western Blotting.12.7

    Spectroscopic TechniquesTheory and application of UV and Visiblespectroscopy. Fluroscene spectroscopy, MS, NMR, ESR, Atomic Absorption


    12.8Radio-isotopic techniques- introduction to Radio isotopes and theirbiological applications.

  • 8/4/2019 Syllabus(Core Cours)


    B.Tech-Minor subject-Biology

    PracticalPaper-III (Lab-II)

    IIIrd year-Ist semester

    1. File copying2. Construction of phylogenetic tree using phylip/True view3. Protein BLAST-search protein database using protein query4. Multiple sequence alignmentCLUSTALW5.

    Use visualization tools- RASMOL for protein visualization

    6. Isolationof plasmid DNA7. Agarose gel electrophoresis and restriction digestion of DNA8. DNA amplification using polymerase chain reaction in plant system9. Total count of WBC, RBC, Differential WBC count-Blood grouping10.Principles and working knowledge of instruments like autoclave, pH meter,

    incubator, hot air oven, centri fuse, microscope, colony counter,calorimeter, UV sphectrometer and chromatography

    11.Detection of antigen-antibody reaction by ELISA tests12.Isolation of fungi and bacteria from spoiled food



    1. Immunology J. kuby2. Fundamental Immunology- W.E.Paul3. Fundamental of Immunology coleman, lomabord and sicard

  • 8/4/2019 Syllabus(Core Cours)


    4. Immunology- weir and steward5. Immunology , A text book C.V.Rao6. Lecture notes in Immunology- LR Todd7. Essentials of Immunology Roitt Lm8. Immunology - Under Standing immune system- Kleus D.Elgert


    1. Text book of Microbiology Ananthanaryanan and paniker2. Microbiology in clinical Practice- D.C. Shanson3. Diagnostic microbiology Baran, peteson and Fine gold4. A Text book of basic and Applied Microbiology AneJa, K.R.5. General microbiology powar, C.B. & Daginawala6. Microbiology- Pelezar, M.J. Chan & Krig7. Microbiology- Tauro, Yadav & Kapoor8. General Microbiology Dube , R.C. and Maheswari9. Microbiology Prescott MJ, Harley, J.P AND Kleine .D.A10.General microbiology- Stanier R.Y. Adelrberg .E.A.

    Genetic Engineering

    1. An introduction to Genetic Engineering. Nicholl .D.ST2. Biotechnology smith.J.E3. Genes vill- Lewin B4. A Text Book of Molecular Biotechnology Ramreddy.S,

    Venkateshwarlu k

    5. An introduction of Genetic Engineering. Nicholl. D.ST

  • 8/4/2019 Syllabus(Core Cours)


    6. Principles of Gene Manipulation , An introduction to GeneticEngineering Old R.W and Primrose.S.B.


    1. Bioinformatics- Baxevanis2. Bioinformatics- Higgins and Taylor3. Bioinformatics and Functional Genomics- Pevsner. J (2003)4. Programming Languages Sethi.R. 19965. Programming Language Kermighan and Ritchie. D.M6. Bio informatics: concepts, skills and Applications Restogi.s.c.


    7. Bioinformatics- Baladi.P and Brunak.S. 1998Instrumentation

    1. Tools and Techniques in Biology- welson and Goulding2. Practical Biochemsitry, Principles and Techniques Keith Wilson and

    John Walker

    3. Modern Experimental Biochemsitry- R.F. Boyer4. Experimental Biochemsitry- R.L. Dryet and Gene F.5. Experiments in microbiology plant pathology and Biotechnology

    AneJa, K.R.

    6. Principle of Instrumental Analysis- Skoog & west7. Biochemical Technique Theory and Practice Robyt & White

  • 8/4/2019 Syllabus(Core Cours)


    B. Tech-Minor subject




    Industrial Biotechnology: Paper-I

    (Bioprocess technology, Fermentation technology, enzyme Biotechnology)

    Unit 1 : Bio process Technology


    Introduction to Industrial Biotechnology and Bioprocess Engineering2. Isolation preservation and maintenance of Industrial microorganisms3. Factors that influence solid - state fermentation4. Bioreactors- principle types of bioreactors-aerobic, anaerobic, solid state

    and immobilized cell bioreactors-Bio reactor media.

    5. Scaling up of processes.Unit 2: Strain Improvement

    6. Selection of mutants producing improved level of primary metabolites withsuitable example

    7. Isolation of mutantsUnit 3: Down Stream processing

    8. Removal and recovery of cell mass (precipitation, filtration andcertifugation )

    9. Cell disruption- physical and chemical methods

  • 8/4/2019 Syllabus(Core Cours)


    10.Purification of products-I: Through chromatography-, Adsorption Ion-exchange and HPLC

    11.Purification of products- II: Ultrafiltration, Reverse osmosis, Drying andCrystallization.

    12.Precipitation and separation of proteins, from recombinant strains.Unit 4: Fermentation Technology

    13.Basic principles of fermentation technology14.Fermentation mediaNatural and synthetic media, sterilization techniques.15.Fermentersprocess of Aeration, Agitation and Filtration method.16.Types of FermentationSolid state, submerged fermentation17.Continuous fermentation and late nutrient addition and cell bioreactors18.Process developmentshake flask fermentation. Down stream processing

    (DSP). Disintegration of cells.

    19.Separation , Extraction , concentration and purification of productsUnit 5: Production of microbial products

    Brief account of the following products obtained by industrial

    microbiological fermentation:-

    20.Alcohol and Alcoholic Beverages21.Organic acid-citric acid; Antibioticpenicillin22.Amino acidsGlutamic acid.23.Fermented Foods -yoghurt, Idli, Dosa and cheese.24.Microbial foods Single cell protein (SCP) Single cell oils (SCO)

  • 8/4/2019 Syllabus(Core Cours)


    Unit 7: Enzyme Biotechnology

    25.Industrial Use of Enzymes : cellulase , Lipase, Protease,26.Methods of Enzyme Immobilization and commercial applications.27.Bio reactors for enzyme production :stirred tank , membrane reactors and

    continuous flow reactors

    Unit 8: plant cell Suspension culture

    28.Plant cell suspension culture for the production of food additivessaffornand capasicin

    29.Technique of mass culture of Algae- spirulina30.Microbial polysaccharides and polyesters.

    Unit 9: Quality control , Process Economics and GLP

    31.Sterility testing and Pyrogen testing32.

    Carcinogencity testing and toxicity testing

    33.Fermentation Economics : cost Estimates,process design , capital costestimates and market potential.

    34.Good laboratory practices.

  • 8/4/2019 Syllabus(Core Cours)


    B.Tech-Minor subject-Biology

    PracticalPaper-IV (Lab-III)

    IIIrd year-IInd semester

    (Elective-Industrial Biotechnology)

    1. Fungal culture-Aspergillus2. Estimation of citric acid fromAspergillus culture3. Screening and isolation of micro organisms, maintenance of strains and

    their improvement

    4. Immunobilization of yeast cells5. Estimation of Alcohol by specific gravity method6. Detection of amylase producing bacteria/Fungi from food sample7. Estimation of fermentative product (Acetic acid from vinegar)8. Determination of Biological oxygen Demand (BOD) of sewage sample9. Bacterial examination of water by MPN method10.Detection of coliforms for determination of the purity of potable water11.Determination of dissolved oxygen concentration of water sample by

    Winklers method

    12.Determination of chemical oxygen Demand (COD) of sewage sample13.Preparation of plant tissue culture media (MS medium) and autoclaving


  • 8/4/2019 Syllabus(Core Cours)



    Bioprocess technology


    Bioprocess technology Fundamental and Application KTH ,Stockholm 2000

    2. Process Engineering in BiotechnologyA.T.Jackson-prentice Hall3. Bioprocess Engineering: basic conceptsM L shuler, and F. Kargi

    prentice Hall

    4. Biochemical EngineeringS.Aiba ,AE, humphray- Academic process5.

    Biochemical Engineering FundamentalsJE Baily and DF ollis

    6. Bioprocess technologykalaichelvan P.T ArulpandiMJP publishers.7. BiotechnologySatyanarayan U. Books and Allied Pvt-Ltd.

    Fermentation Technology

    1. Principles of Fermentation technology PF stanbury, A. whittakerpergamon press

    2. Industrial microbiologycasida LEwiley Eastern3. Biotechnology :A text book of Industrial Microbiology- crueger.w and

    crueger A-panima publishing corporation

    4. Fermentation microbiology and BiotechnologyEL mansi and BryceEnzyme technology

    1. Enzyme BiotechnologyTripathi . G2. Fundamental of Enzymologyprice & steven3. Industrial Enzyme & their application _uhlig . H4. Enzyme KineticsPalmer

  • 8/4/2019 Syllabus(Core Cours)


    5. Enzyme Kinetics Dixon.6. Enzyme Structure and mechanism-Alan Fersht.

  • 8/4/2019 Syllabus(Core Cours)


    B. Tech-Minor subject





    Industrial Biotechnology: Paper-II

    (Biotransformation, Biofuels, Environmental and Medical Biotechnology)

    UNIT-1: Biotransformation

    1. Biotransformation Concept and types of Biotransformation reactions.2. Steroid biotransformation and applications in pharmaceutical industry3. Recent advances in Biotransformation (Ex:Indigo, Xanthan, Malanins)

    UNIT-2: Biofuels- Production

    4. Biomass as fuel , Algae as a source of energy5. Biogas- Interaction between various microbial groups, Biogas plant

    design, Biogas production mechanism

    6. Hydrogen- Biohydrogen, Fermentative production of Hydrogen,Photofermentation, Biophotolysis

    7. Methane- Methanogens Mechanism of Methane Production8. Ethanol Fuel Alcohol Production, Bio butanol9. Bio diesal

  • 8/4/2019 Syllabus(Core Cours)


    UNIT-3: Environmental Biotechnology

    10.Over view of the global environmental problems, climate change, Energycrisis.

    11.Renewable and non renewable source of energy12.Conventional fuels and their environmental impact13.Bioremediation of soil and water contaminated with oil spills, heavy

    metals and detergents.

    14.Treatment of municipal and industrial waste water15.

    Introduction to xenobiotics- Biodegradation of xenobiotic compounds.

    16.Biofertilizers Role of symbiotic and asymbiotic nitrogen fixing bacteriain the enrichment of soil. Algal and fungal Biofertilizer

    17.Environmental significance of genetically modified microbes, plants andanimals

    18.Solid waste management Anaerobic digestion and compostingUNIT-4: Medical Biotechnology and Healthcare

    19.Disease diagnosis- Probes, Hybridization, Ligase chain reaction,Diagnosis through monoclonal antibodies Detection of genetic


    20.Disease Prevention through Vaccines ; conventional vaccines, purifiedantigen vaccines Recombinant vaccines- Recombinant polypeptide

    vaccinesDNA vaccines

    21.Drug designing Introduction, computer aided drug designing,Approaches for rational designing of drug.

  • 8/4/2019 Syllabus(Core Cours)


    22.Drug Delivery Advantages , Disadvantages and applications ofLiposome drug delivery system

    23.Gene Therapy Types of therapy Augmentation therapy Targetedgene transfer

    24.DNA finger printing and forensic applicationsUNIT -5: Patenting Biotechnology and Intellectual Property Rights

    25.Intellectual property Rights26.Copy rights and Trade mark27.General Agreement of Tariff and Trades (GATT)28.Trade related Intellectual property (TRIP)29.Patenting of Biological Material Patenting , micro organisms,

    Transgenic organisms, Higher plants and Higher animals


    1. Microbial Biotechnology Alexander n, Glazer Hiroshi Nikaido W.H2. Molecular Biotechnology, Principles and Applications of Recombinant

    DNA Bernard R. Glick and Jack J.

    3. Fungal Ecology and Biotechnology Rastogi Publications4. Environmental Biotechnology concepts and applications Hans

    Joachin Jordening and Josef winth.

    5. Biology of waste water treatment N.F.Gray6. Biotechnology methods of pollution control S.A. Abbasi and E.


    7. Basic Biotechnology Bullock J and Kristiansen

  • 8/4/2019 Syllabus(Core Cours)


    8. A Text book of Biotechnology Duben R.C.9. Biotechnology and Genomics- Gupta P.K.10.Industrial Biotechnology Jogdand.S.N11.Bioprocess Technology Kalaichelvan P.T12.Plant biotechnologyMahipal singh Shekhawat M.J.P.Publishers

  • 8/4/2019 Syllabus(Core Cours)


    B. Tech-Minor subject

    IVth Year-IInd Semester


    Industrial Biotechnology: Paper-III

    (Animal Biotechnology, Plant Biotechnology, Food Technology)

    Animal Biotechnology:

    Unit-I Introduction to Animal Cell, Tissue Culture and Applications

    1. Introduction, history and scope of animal tissue culture2. Culture media a) Natural media plasma clot, biological fluids tissue

    extract, Importance of serumin media b) Chemical defined media

    3. Primary and Established cell lines and their characterization4. Disintegration of tissue a) Mechanical Methods b) Enzymatic methods5. Primary culture, cultured cells, Evolution of cell lines and maintenance.6. Production and applications of monoclonal antibodies.Unit-2: Transgenic Animals

    7. Introduction to Transgenic Laboratory animals, principles and methods ofDevelopment of Transgenic animals

    8. Gene constructs Promoters, Reporter or marker-genes

  • 8/4/2019 Syllabus(Core Cours)


    9. Transfection methods, Embryonic stem cell transfer, Targeted genetransfer

    10.Animal cloning principle and method with suitable examplePlant Biotechnology

    Unit-3: Techniques in plant tissue culture

    11. Introduction, history and scope of plant cell and tissue culture. Principlesand methods of preparation of culture media.


    Principles and application of callus culture, somatic Embryogenesis,Protoplast culture

    13. Organ culture Root culture, Anther culture, Pollen culture, Meristemculture.

    14. Micropropagation techniques Advantages and Limitations15. Somoclonal variation and their significance.Unit 4: Transgenic plants

    16. Methods to develop transgenic plants Electroporation, microinjection,and particle bombardment.

    17. Agrobacterium mediated Gene transfer and the role of Tiplasmid18. Engineering Herbicide resistant plants.19. Insect and virus resistant plants 20. Transgenic plants for abiotic stress


    20. Vectors for the production of transgenic plants plasmid vectors and plantvirus vectors

  • 8/4/2019 Syllabus(Core Cours)


    Unit 5 : Introduction to Food Technology

    21. Causes of food spoilage Elementary idea of canning and packing.Sterilization and pasteurization.

    22. Food preservation through chemicals ( Acids, Salts, Sugars, Antibiotics,Ethylene oxide, Antioxidants)

    23. Other methods of food preservation radiations, low and hightemperature and Drying

    24. Bio technology of micro organisms associated with food spoilage.Books

    1. Biotechnology Arora m.p2. Culture of Animal cells : A mammal of Basic Techniques Freshney R. Lan3. Principles and practice of animal tissue culture Gangal sudha4. Biotechnology and Genomics Gupta P.K5. Agricultural Biotechnology Purohit S.S6. Plant tissue culture theory and practice BhoJwani S. S and Razdan M.K7. An introduction to plant tissue culture De K.K8. Genetics and Biotechnology in crop improvement Gupta P.K9. Plant Biotechnology Ramawat K.G10.Introduction to immunology Kimball J.W11.Immunology Kuby T W. H12.Essential Immunology - Roitt E.M13.Plant biotechnology J. Hemmond et al14.Principles of plant biotechnology montell etal15.Plant cell culture Evans D.A

  • 8/4/2019 Syllabus(Core Cours)


    16.Fundamental of food biotechnology Lee. B. H17.Food biotechnology : micro organisms Hui Y. H18.Biotechnology : Food Fermentation Joshi V. K and Pandey A19.Plant biotechnology and molecular markers shrivastava et. Al20.Biotechnology in crop improvement H.S Chawla

  • 8/4/2019 Syllabus(Core Cours)


    B. Tech-Minor Subject




    Industrial Microbiology: Paper-I

    (Fundamentals, Down stream processing, Enzyme Technology)

    Unit 1: Fundamentals of industrial microbiology


    Introduction to industrial microbiology2. Classification of microbes systems of classification, numerical taxonomy,

    identifying characters for classification

    3. Ultrastructure of bacteria in general, important differences betweenarchae bacteria and bacteria, features of special interest of cynobacteria.

    4. Screening for industrially important Microbs5. Various methods of staining of bacteriasimple ,gram, endospore, capsule,


    6. Virusesgeneral account of virusesplant viruses and animal viruses, ultrastructure of viruses.

    7. Nutritional requirements and nutritional types of bacteria, choice of mediaand conditions of incubation.

    8. Pure culture techniques, preparation of different types of culture media ,selective or enrichment media . Methods of culturing aerobic and

    anaerobic bacteria

    9. Concepts of sterilization, definition of sterilization, dry and moist heat,pasteurization, tyndalization, radiation, ultrasonication, filtration.

  • 8/4/2019 Syllabus(Core Cours)


    10.Methods of sterilization used in industrial microbiology physical andchemical, disinfection sanitization, antisepsis sterilants and fumigation.

    11.Microbial growth growth curve, mathematical expression of growth,methods of measurements of growth, factors affecting growth in

    continuous and batch cultures.

    12.Strain developoment methods of improvement and stability ofbiotechnologically important cultures.

    13.Control of microorganisms by physical and chemical agents , pattern ofmicrobial death , factors affecting effectiveness of antimicrobial agents


    Unit-2 .Fermentor design

    14.Types of fermentation, aerobic, anaerobic, batch, continuous, submerged,surface, solid state

    15.Design of typical fermentor16.Types of fermentors17.Control of agitation , aeration, pH, temperature and dissolved oxygen18.Inoculum development - - scale up of fermentation process.

    Unit-3 Down stream processing

    19.Separation of particles- disintegration of cells, extraction20.Concentration recovery and purification-drying21.In-situ recovery of productsapplication

  • 8/4/2019 Syllabus(Core Cours)


    Unit-4: Enzyme Technology

    22.Nature of enzymeapplication of enzymes23.Limitations of microbial cells used as catalysts in fermentation multi

    enzyme reactors

    24.Genetic engineering and protein engineering of enzymes25.Cloning strategy for enzymes26.Technology of enzyme production27.Methods of immobilized cells and enzymes ( ca-alginate beads,


    28.Industrial application of immobilized enzymes and cells.Unit-5: Stains and staining Techiques

    29.Definition of auxochromechromophores. Dyesclassification of stains30.Theories of staining. Mechanism of gram staining ,acid fast staining

    ,negative staining ,capsule staining flagella staining , endospore staining

  • 8/4/2019 Syllabus(Core Cours)


    B.Tech-Minor subject-Biology

    PracticalPaper-IV (Lab-III)

    IIIrd year-IInd semester

    (ElectiveIndustrial microbiology)

    1. Isolation and screening for amylase enzyme2. Screening for antibiotic producing organism3. Immobilization of amylase by using sodium alginate method4. Production, extraction, purification of citric acids5. Production of amylase by surface culture method/ submerged culture


    6. Microbiological analysis of cheese, Butter, milk powdera. Detection for the presence ofE.colib. SCP

    7. Isolation and identification of lactic acid bacteria from curd8. Study of root nodules and isolation ofRhizobium from legume root nodules9. Qualitative and quantitative examination of milk10.Sensitivity/ resistance test (antibiotic)11.Determination of MIC concentration of antibiotic

  • 8/4/2019 Syllabus(Core Cours)



    1. A text book of basic and applied microbiologyAneja. K.R etal.2. General microbiology Power,C.B & Daginewala3. Industrial microbrologypatel. A.H4. Microbiologypelezer, m.J, chan, E.C.S & krieg. N.R5. MicrobiologyTauro, yadav& kapoor6. Microbiology Tortora,G.J, Funke, B.R, case, c.c7. Biology of microorganisms- Brock and madigan8. Introduction to microbiology Ingraham and Ingraham9. Elementary microbiology H.A. Modi10.Text book of microbiology Dubey and maheshwari11.General microbiology -stainer12.Industrial microbiology Prescott and Dunn13.Microbiology purohit14.

    Principles of fermentation technology stanbury , P.F, Whitaker, A andHall. S.J

    15.Industrial microbiologycassida

  • 8/4/2019 Syllabus(Core Cours)


    B. Tech-Minor subject





    Industrial Microbiology- Paper-II

    (Industrial Production, Biofertilizers and Quality control)

    Unit1: Industrial production -1

    Microbial or fermentative procedures.

    1. Production of antibiotics pencillin2. Production of enzyme amylase3. Production of alcohol Ethyl alcohol4. Production of beverages (Beer)5. Production of amino acids ( Glutamic acid)

    Unit2: Industrial productionII

    6. Production of vitamins (B12)

  • 8/4/2019 Syllabus(Core Cours)


    7. Production of organic acids (citric acid)8. Production of dairy products yoghurt9. Production of bakery itemsBread10.Production of soysauce11.Production of Bio fuels (Biogas-Methane)

    Unit3: introduction to fermented Food


    Unit4: Bio fertilizers

    14.Importance of biofertilizer15.Rhizobium Bio fertilizer16.Azoto bacter Bio fertilizer17.Azospirillum Bio fertilizer18.Azolla and BGA Bio fertilizer19.VAM Bio fertilizer20.PSB Bio Fertilizer21.Quality control of Bio fertilizer as per FCO( Fertilizer control order)

    Unit5: Quality control

    22.Introduction to microbiological quality control of foods23.Microbiological analysis of food productsSPC24.Detection for the presence of a. E-coli, b. Staph aureus

    c. Shigella, d. P-pseudomonas, e. Salmonella

    25.Introduction to quality assurance of food products26.Basic concepts of Regulation as per PFA, FDA,FPO27.Standards and norms as per ISO,BIS,AGMARK

  • 8/4/2019 Syllabus(Core Cours)


    28.Raw Material acceptance Process control w.r.t milk and milk products29.Packing , finished product storage30.Transport and Distribution

    Unit 7: Hazard Analysis critical control points ( HACCP)

    31.Seven Principles of HACCP32.Introduction of GMP, GLP33.International commission on the microbiological specification of foods


    34.ICMSF- Sampling plans The two class plan the three class plan35.Microbiological limit tests as per ICMSF


    1. Food microbiology Frazier2. Food microbiology- H. A. Modi ( vol.1 &2)3. Industrial microbiologyA.N patel4. Industrial microbiologyprescott & dunn5. Soil microbiology- subba rao6. Agriculture microbiologyRengaswamy7. Methods in Food and Dairy microbiology-Harrigon8. Bio fertilizers-Vyas & Vyas9. Milk and milk products- winton & winton10.Bio fertilizers Arun sharma11.Industrial Microbiology- Agrawal /Parihar12.Agriculture Microbiology G.Rangaswamy and D.J. Bagyaraj13.Practical Microbiology R. C. Dubey and D.K Meheshwari

  • 8/4/2019 Syllabus(Core Cours)


    14.Experimental Microbiology- Rakesh J.Patel & kiram R.Patel

    B. Tech-Minor subject





    Industrial Microbiology : Paper-III

    (Microorganisms in Agriculture, Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, Microbial


    UNIT 1:Microorganisms in Agriculture

    1. Microbial bio pesticides.2. Genetically modified crops containing insecticidal genes3. Bio fertilizers- Blue green algae and Azolla , Phosphate solublizing


  • 8/4/2019 Syllabus(Core Cours)


    4. Fuel From microorganisms Biogas technology microbial hydrogenproduction-concept of gasohol

    UNIT-2: Geomicrobiology

    5. Microbial leaching of minerals6. Biorecovery of petroleum , MEOR7. Bio remediation and Biodeterioration Petroleum products, leather,

    textile and paper

    8. Bioconversions Biomining and Bioleaching of ores ( use ofThermophilic microorganisms in industrial microbiology Biogas,

    Bioleaching, Biodiesel

    UNIT-3: Pharmaceutical Biotechnology

    9. Genetically Engineered microorganisms for value added products.10.Production of heterologous protein insulin, - growth hormones.11.Recombinant vaccines

    UNIT- 4: Food Microbiology

    UNIT -5: Advanced Microbiology

    12.Bio sensors and Bio polymers13.Biochips, Bio films and Bioplastics14.Micro organisms as Bio indicators

    UNIT 6: Analytical Microbiology

  • 8/4/2019 Syllabus(Core Cours)


    15.Bioassay of growth supporting substances Amino acids and Vitamins16.Bioassay of growth inhibiting substances Antibiotics17.Quality control tests sterility testing, Microbial Limit Test (MLT)18.Pyrogen Testing (LAL Test), Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC)19.FDA and Good manufacturing practices20.Quantitative and qualitative analysis of food, milk, water and sewage

    UNIT- 7: Microbial Biotechnology

    21.Commercial Production of microorganisms single cellprotein(Spirullina)

    22.Microorganisms in Agriculture waste water treatmentUNIT-8: Food Microbiology

    23.Dairy products cheese, Butter, Yogurt24.Microorganisms as food SCP, Spirullina and mushroom25.Indian and oriental fermented food26.Micro organisms of food spoilage and their sources27.Spoilage of different food materials- Fruits, vegetables, meat, fish, milk


    28.General account of food preservation preservation of food and milk29.Composition of milk, grading of milk- MBRT Resazurin and Phosphate


    30.Microorganisms as food SCP- edible mushrooms (white button, andpaddy straw)

  • 8/4/2019 Syllabus(Core Cours)



    1. Text Book of industrial Microbiology A.H.Patel2.

    Industrial Microbiology L.E.Cassida

    3. Industrial Microbiology - G.Reed4. Industrial Microbiology Agarwal and Parihar5. Biology of Industrial Microorganisms A.L. Demain6. Principles of Fermentation Technology Standbary, whitakar and Hall7. Food Microbiology , Fundamentals and Frontiers Doyle M.P etal.8.

    Food Microbiology Frazier , W.C and Westhoff.D.C

    9. Modern Food Microbiology Jay, J.M10.Biofertilizers in Agriculture and Forestry Subbarao. N.S11.Agriculture Microbiology Rangaswamy.G and Bhagyaraj.D.J12.Food Microbiology Adams, M.R and Moss .M.O13.Industrial Microbiology Patel.A.H.14.

    Applied Microbiology Singh.R.P.

    15.Environmental Microbiology P.D.Sharma16.Environmental Microbiology K.h.Vijaya

  • 8/4/2019 Syllabus(Core Cours)


    B. Tech-Minor subject




    Bioinformatics: Paper-I

    (Bio computing, Biological Databases, Sequence analysis and Programming concepts)

    UNIT-1: Biological Data Bases

    1. Introduction to Bioinformatics -History of Bioinformatics- Internet andBioinformatics

    2. Introduction Data base definition , data, Biological databases- Types ofdatabases- conventions for databases indexing and specification of

    search terms

  • 8/4/2019 Syllabus(Core Cours)


    3. Contents and formats of database entries retrieval of data using textbased search tools sources of data (Ex. Sequencing projects , individual

    scientists , Patent offices etc. ), Method for deposition of data to


    4. Nucleic acid sequence databases Genbank, EMBL , DDBJ5. Protein sequence database Primary sequence database. Introduction

    to protein information Resource (PIR)- Martinsried institute of Protein

    Sequence (MIPS), SWISS- PROT , Structure of SWISS- PROT Entries,

    Translated EMBL (TrEMBL)

    6. Secondary sequence Database- Introduction to PROSITE, PROFILE,PRINTS, BLOCK, pfam and IDENTITY databases.

    7. Genome Databases at NCBI, EBI, TIGR, SANGER.8. Structural and Related Databases PDB, NDB, CCSD, Prosite, PRODOM,


    UNIT-2: Sequence Analysis

    9. Various file formats for Bio molecular sequences Genbank, FASTA,GCG, MSF, NBRF-PIR. Basic concepts of sequence similarity, identity and

    homology , definitions of homologues, orthologues, Paralogues

    10.Scoring matrices- Basic concept of a scoring matrix- matrices for nucleicacid and protein sequences PAM and BLOSUM matrices Principles

    based on which these matrices are derived

    11.Sequence based Database searches- What are Sequence baseddatabase searches, BLAST and FASTA algorithms. Various versions of

    Basic BLAST and FASTA. Use of these methods for sequence analysis

  • 8/4/2019 Syllabus(Core Cours)


    12.Pairwise sequence Alignments- Basic concepts of sequence alignment,Needleman & Wuncsh, Smith & Waterman algorithms for Pair wise

    alignments use of pair wise alignments for analysis of nucleic acid and

    protein sequences

    13.Sequence Patterns and profiles Basic concept and definition ofsequence patterns, motifs and profiles, various types of pattern

    representations- namely consensus, regular expression and profiles.

    14.Profile based database searches using PSI- BLAST, analysis andinterpretation of profile based searches

    Unit-3: Introduction to Data Mining

    15.Introduction to Data Mining- Applications of Data mining toBioinformatics Problems and Applications of Bioinformatics

    16.Bioinformatics softwares Clustal V , Clustal WI.7,RasMol, Oligo,Molscript, Treeview, Phylip ,Alscript, Genetic Analysis software.

    UNIT- 4: Bio Computing

    17.Introduction to string matching Algorithms, Database searchTechniques sequence comparison and Alignment Techniques.

    18.Introduction to Graph matching Algorithms Automated Genomecomparsion and its Implication.

    19.Gene predictionidentification of Bacterial operons and pathways.

  • 8/4/2019 Syllabus(Core Cours)


    20.Preparation of biochips or DNA chips , Macro and micro Arrays Analysis of Gene Arrays.

    21.Markov chains and applications Hidden markov models. Applicationsof HMM in gene indentification and Profiles HMMS, Neutral Networks

    and support vector machines Machine, Learning methods.

    UNIT-5: Phylogenetic Analysis

    22. Introduction Evolution, definition of phylogenetic tree nodes,internodes , root , tree , styles, cladogram, Phenogram, curvogram

    23.Steps involved in construction of Phylogenetic tree24.Methods of Phylogenetic analysis Distance method, character based


    25.Tree Evaluation Jumbling sequence addition order, Boot strap method.26.Problems in Phylogenetic analysis- Phylogenetic analysis tool (Phylip,

    Clustalw,Tree view)

    UNIT-6: Programming Concepts and C Language

    27.Introduction to programming Steps involving in problem solving Problem definition Algorithm characteristics, Notation of Algorithm

    28.Computer Languages High level, Low level, Assembly level, Compiler,Interpreter

    29.Procedural Languages- Object oriented Programming, FunctionalProgramming Logic Programming

    30.Introduction to Bio C Language.

  • 8/4/2019 Syllabus(Core Cours)


    31.Data type , operators and Expressions in C Control and Repetitivestatements: IF, THEN-ELSE, SWITCH, WHILE, FOR, DO; Break and

    continue statements

    32.Input and output functions- Function and program structure in C Parameter passing, Pointers, Arrays, Structures, C- Library.

    33.Bio PerlUnit 7: Applications of Bio Informatics

    34.Chemiinformatics in Biology- conventions for representing moleculesChemiinformatics, resources

    35.Bioinformatics in Pharmaceutical industries, Immunology, Agriculture,Forestry, Geo Informatics, Bio sensing.

    36.Legal , Ethical and commercial ramifications of bioinformatics

  • 8/4/2019 Syllabus(Core Cours)


    B.Tech-Minor subject-Biology

    PracticalPaper-IV (Lab-III)

    IIIrd year-IInd semester

    (Elective- Bio informatics)

    1. Nucleotide BLASTsearch nucleotide database using nucleotide query2. Browse the ExPASY sites and write information received in your record3. Retrieving protein and DNA sequences using entrez at NCBI4. Retrieving protein and DNA sequences using SRS at EBI5. Web browsing at SWISSPORT6. Details of PDB files7. Binding site identification8. Pharmacophore identification9. Receptor and Ligand optimization10.Getting the amino acid sequences by exploring and querying the protein

    sequence database

    11.Getting the gene sequences by exploring and querying the nucleoic aciddatabases.


    1. Bioinformatics for Dummies Claverie.J.M. and Notredame.C.

  • 8/4/2019 Syllabus(Core Cours)


    2. Bioinformatics Letovsky, S.I.3. Bioinformatics Baldi.P and Brunk.S.4. Introduction to computational Molecular Biology Setubal.J and


    5. Bioinformatics, sequence and Genome Analysis Mont.D.W.6. DNA microarrays Bowtell.D. and sambrook.J7. Bioinformatics methods and applications Restogi.s.c.8. Structural Bioinformatics- Philip E etal.9. Introduction to Bioinformatics- Attwood & Parry-smith.10.Programming Languages sethi.R.11.Programming Languages Appleby, D and Vand Kopple.J.J12.Programming using C Language Hutchinson.R.C, and Just.R.B.13.C Programming Dennis Ritchie14.Let us C Y.C.kanetkar15.Bio C by L.N. Chavali

    B. Tech-Minor Subject



  • 8/4/2019 Syllabus(Core Cours)



    Bioinformatics: Paper-II

    (Structural Biology, Data base management, Algorithms)

    Unit 1: Structural biology

    1. Protein structure primary , secondary , tertiary and quaternary structure2. Membrane proteins, peripheral membrane proteins, Integral membrane

    proteinselectronic properties of proteins proteinprotein interactions

    significance of Ramachandran map

    3. Structure of nucleic acids nucleosides and nucleotides types of basepairing Watson Crick and Hoogstein types of double helicesA,B,Z and

    their geometrical as well as structural features

    4. DNA super coiling and unusual DNA structures- structure of transfer RNA5. Introduction to structural databasesProteins Data Bank (PDB),Nucleic Acid

    Data Bank (NDB) , Molecular Modeling Data Bank (MMDB)-PDB file formats

    of Bimolecules

    6. Inter molecular interactions proteins- proteins interactions,-proteinDNAinteractions, DNA binding proteins Types of interactions of DNA with

    proteins and small molecules , different forces involved in the interactions

    Unit2: Protein structure prediction

    7. Introduction to protein three dimensional structures to function andrelation protein structure prediction

  • 8/4/2019 Syllabus(Core Cours)


    8. Prediction of protein structure from sequences by using homologymodeling. Protein folding

    9. Expert Protein Analysis System (ExPASy). ExPASy tools.10.Secondary structure analysis and prediction using Chou-Fasman method-

    Protein modeling using Swisspdb viewer and Modeller

    11.Structure visualization tools knowledge of program such as SPDBV ,Rasmol , Webmole ,Cn3D , molmol ,chime .

    Unit3: Experimental techniques

    12.Introduction to X-Ray crystallography crystal system Braggs Law,diffraction of crystals , structure factor-atomic scattering factor ,

    crystallization, data collection, structure solution and refinement , structure

    validation, Protein nano crystallography.

    Unit 4: Database management system

    13.Data models DBMS architecture and Data independence. Databaselanguages and Interfaces

    14.View of Data Database usersDatabase system structure15.Database modelsER model ,Keys , constraints design issues16.Rational model Structure , Relational Algebra hierarchical model

    Network modelobject oriented model

    17.Structured query language Basic structure , set operations , Aggregatefunctions .Null values

    18.Relational Database and storage Pitfalls in Relational Design Database Functional Dependencies

  • 8/4/2019 Syllabus(Core Cours)


    19.Overall Database design process multi valued Dependencies20.Data storage Ordered indices, static Hashing , Dynamic Hashing21.Database system Architecture and information retrieval Centralized and

    client server Architecture

    22.Distributed DBMS , Data mining , Data integration , Data warehousingUnit 5: Algorithms

    23.Simple Algorithms- Analyzing Algorithms , Asymptotic notation24.Design methods General consideration Algorithms Design paradigms and

    Representative problems: Divide and conquer (Binary Search, Merge sort)

    25.Greedy method ( minimal Spanning Tree) Dynamic programming ( chainedmatrix multiplication )

    26.Longest common subsequence Back tracking (8-queens problem ) , Branchand Bound (0/1, knapsack problem)

    27.String matching problem, Brute force method, KMP Algorithm Boyer Moore Algorithm . Approximate string matching


    Carry out a small research project on any topic related to Bio Informatics

    and submit a brief dissertation at the end of 8th

    semester. The dissertation

    will be valued by an examiner


    1. Molecular modeling Principles and applications- Andrew. R. Leach2. Protein structure and molecular properties Creighton .T.E

  • 8/4/2019 Syllabus(Core Cours)


    3. Introduction to protein Architecture Lesk , A-M4. Introduction of molecular crystallography McPherson .A5. Structural Bio Informatics Philip .E. et.al6. Introduction to protein structureBrandel. C and Tooze .J7. Structure and mechanism in protein science Fersht . W.H8. Protein folding Creighton . T.E9. Database System concepts silberschatz. A . etal.,10.An introduction to database systems Date, C.J11.Fundamentals of Database systems Elmastri and navathe12.Principles of Database system Ullman . J.D13.Data Structure Lipshutz14.Data StructureStandish15.Fundamentals of computer Algorithms Horowitz. E and sahanis16.Introduction to the design and Analysis of AlgorithmsGoodman SE and


    17.Algorithmics Brassard. G18.ChemoinformaticsGasteiger

    B. Tech-Minor subject



  • 8/4/2019 Syllabus(Core Cours)



    Bioinformatics: Paper-III

    (Genomics, Proteomics and Drug Designing)

    Unit 1: Genomics

    1. Human Genome project, its importance2. Genome projects- bacteria, plants and animals3. Preparation of Gene chips, Gene chip analysis using bio informatics4. Introduction-Basic steps for gene expressionconcept of micro array-Types of micro array-Spotted array, Oligonucleotide array.5. Designing the experimentTwo color micro array experiment-clustering

    gene expression profileself organizing maps.

    6. Tools for micro array analysis- Soft finder, Xcluster, Micro array DataManager (MADAM)-Serial Analysis of Gene Expression (SAGE).

    7. Micro array experimentation- fabrication Application of micro array-Medical application.

    Unit 2: Proteomics

    8. Protein chipspreparation , analysis of protein chips.9. Introduction Proteomics an analytical challenge- The life and death of


    10.Methods in Protein separationIsoelectric point, One dimensionalSDS-PAGE,2D-SDS-PAGE. Problem with 2D-SDS-PAGE.

  • 8/4/2019 Syllabus(Core Cours)


    11.High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC)-Capillaryelectrophoresis-Protein digestion technique.

    12.Protein analysis technique- biological Mass spectroscopy for ProteinanalysisProtein identification by peptide mass finger printing.

    13.Separation of Proteins by 2D gels- protein- protein interaction usingyeast two hybrid systems.

    Unit 3: Protein Sequencing

    14.Introduction Cleavage of disulphide bond and separation ofpolypeptide chain-Chemical hydrolysis of Polypeptide chain and

    determination of amino acid composition.

    15.Steps in the determination of amino acid sequences-Enzymatic methodfor protein sequencing identification of c-terminal residues of peptide.

    16.Partial hydrolysis of Polypeptide chain-Separation and analysis ofpeptide-Ordering the peptide fragment-assignment of position of

    disulphide linkage.

    Unit 4: Sequence Alignment

    17.Introduction-Definition of sequence alignment-Definition of Local andglobal sequence alignment-Differences between local and global

    sequence alignments with examples.

    18.Pair wise sequence alignment and multiple sequence alignment-dotmatrix method.

    19.Useful program for alignment-Clustal W, BLAST p, Application of BioEdit,Application of pair wise and multiple alignment.

  • 8/4/2019 Syllabus(Core Cours)


    Unit 5: Gene Prediction Approaches

    20.Gene Prediction methods-Laboratory based approach-Feature basedapproach-Homology based approach-Statistical and HMM approaches.

    21.Finding functional sites with internet tool(Web gene server), BCMfinder, ORF Finder

    22.Splice site prediction, poly A site, CpG island, Exon, tRNA geneprediction.

    Unit 4: Gene Mapping

    23.Introduction to Gene Map, Genetic maps-Restriction Fragment Lengthpolymorphism (RFLP).

    24.Variable Number Tandem Repeats(VNTR)-Sequence Tagged Sites(STS)-Expressed Sequences Tags(EST)

    25.Physical Maps-Chromosomal maps-Expression maps-Radiation hybridmap-chromosome jumping-chromosome walking.

    26.Genome Sequencing-Clone based Sequencing-Shot gun Sequencingmethod-Pyrosequencing-Sequence assembly program.

    Unit 9: Drug Designing

    27.Introduction-Natural product-Drugs-Principles of drug development.28.Bioinformatics in drug development-Chemoinformatics and


    29.Applications of Drug discovery and in-silico Drug Designing.30.Structure based drug designing approaches-Target identification and

    validation, homology modeling and protein folding.

    31.Receptor mapping, active site analysis and pharmacophore mapping-Grid maps.

    32.Ligand-based drug designing approaches: Lead Designing, CombinatorialChemistry.

  • 8/4/2019 Syllabus(Core Cours)


    33.High Throughput Screening (HTS), QSAR, Database generation andChemical libraries. ADME property.

    34.Introduction to docking methods to generate new structure-Tools andmolecular docking programs-Auto Dock, Dock, HEX.


    1. Theory examination ------------20%2. Assignment -----------------------25%3. Project --------------------------- -30%4. Class preparation ---------------10%5. Record -----------------------------5%6. Viva --------------------------------5%


    1. Principles of Genome Analysis and Genomics-Primrose, S.B and Twyman,R.M.Blackwell published company.

    2. Introduction to proteomics-Tools for the new biology-Liebler, D.C.-Humanpress Inc.

    3. Bioinformatics and functional Genomics-Pevsner,J-John Wiley and sons.4. Bioinformatics: Sequence and Genome Analasysis-Mount, D-cold spring

    Harbar Laboratory press.

    5. Molecular modeling-Principles and Applications-Andrew R.Leach-prenticeHall.

    6. Strategies for organic Drug Discovery synthesis and Design-Lednicer.D-Wiley International Publishers.

    7. Combinatorial Chemistry- A practical approach-Fenniri-H-Oxford universitypress.

    8. Biotechnology and GenomicsGupta.P.K9. Plant Genomics and proteomics- Cullis.C.A10.Computer aided drug design: methods and applications-Thamas.J.

  • 8/4/2019 Syllabus(Core Cours)


    B.Tech-Minor subject



    Biology elective-4

  • 8/4/2019 Syllabus(Core Cours)


    Engineering Biology-Paper-1- Biomaterials

    Unit 1: Introduction to biomaterials

    1. Biomaterials definition, history and evolution, subjects integral to biomaterials

    2. Classification of biomaterials, metals, ceramics, polymers and biomedical


    Unit 2: Properties of biomaterials

    3. Bulk property of materials, atomic structure, bonding, crystal and


    4. Mechanical properties of biomaterials elastic behavior, stress and strain,

    tension and compression, shear stress,

    5. Mechanical property of some implant material and tissues, mechanical testing

    6. Brittle fracture, plastic deformation, creep and viscous flow

    7. Fatigue, toughness and finite element analysis

    8. Surface properties and surface characterization and surface analysis

    Unit 3: Polymers

    9. Natural and synthetic polymer, polymer synthesis

    10. Polymer molecular weight, polydispersity, tacticity, crystallinity

    11. Mechanical and thermal property, characterization Techniques, determination

    of structure

  • 8/4/2019 Syllabus(Core Cours)


    12. Polymeric biomaterials and its application, silicone Biomaterials

    13. Medical Fibers and Biotextiles and construction and application of fibers

    14. Hydrogels, preparation, smart hydrogels and application

    15. Bioresorbable and Bioerodible Materials: Degradable Materials, degradable

    polymers like PHB, PHV, & Copolymers, Polycaprolactone, Polyanhydrides, PLA,

    PGA & copolymers and other degradable polymers.

    16. Degradation of polymer: phase of degradation, factors for degradation,

    Factors affecting polymer stability, Bioerosion, Sterilization and Packaging.

    Unit 4: Metallic biomaterials

    17. Stainless steel, cobalt alloy, titanium alloy, shape memory alloys, dental

    alloys, tantalum,

    18. Hard tissue replacement implant: Orthopedic implants, Dental implants.

    19. Soft tissue replacement implants: Percutaneous and skin implants, Vascular

    implants, Heart valve implants-Tailor made composite in medium.

    Unit 5: Ceramics, Glasses and Glass-Ceramics Biomaterials

    20. Bioactive ceramics

    21. Inert ceramics

    22. Importance of wear resistance and low fracture toughness

    23. Application of ceramics

    Unit 6: Natural materials and modification of natural materials

    24. Natural materials and modification of natural materials

    Unit 7: Composite biomaterials and applications

    25. Composite biomaterials and applications

    Unit 8: Carbon material

  • 8/4/2019 Syllabus(Core Cours)


    26. Pyrolytic carbon and diamond-like carbon

    Unit 9: Biological response of biomaterials

    27. Biological response: host response, material response, inert, interactive,

    viable and replant biomaterials

    28. Protein interactions with biomaterials

    29. Cell interactions with biomaterials

    30. Biomaterials and thrombosis

    31. Biomaterial implantation and acute inflammation

    32. Wound healing and the presence of biomaterials

    33. Immune response and biomaterials

    34. Infection, tumorigenesis and calcification of biomaterials

    35. Fibrosis/ Fibrous Encapsulation, Foreign body reaction, Granulation Tissue,

    Chronic Inflammation, Techniques for Cell/Tissue analysis

    Unit 10: Non fouling surface and surface modification

    36. Non fouling surfaces

    37. Surface modification techniques: Physicochemical Surface Modification


    Mechanical properties of bone

    Mechanical Properties of bone: Bone Screw Pull-out Test. Tensile testing ofvarious screw thread types and sizes in fresh animal cortical bone.

    Mesh Implant Analysis.

    Project: Determine Coefficient of Friction of an Artificial Knee Joint.

  • 8/4/2019 Syllabus(Core Cours)


    Material Handling / Endoscopic Surgery Simulation

    Surface Analysis of Biomaterials: SEM Experiment/Demo

    Demonstration of sample preparation and imaging using a SEM

    Producing biomaterial like mouth guard

    Reference books

    PARK J.B., Biomaterials Science and Engineering, Plenum Press, 1984.

    Biomaterials Science: An Introduction to Materials in Medicine Buddy D. Ratner,

    Frederick J. Schoen, Allan S. Hoffman, Jack E. Lemons

    Hench L L Ethridgc E.C. Biomaterials, an interfacial approach, Academic press


    Bronzino J D, the biomedical engineering handbook CRC Press

    B.Tech-Minor subject



    Biology elective-4

    Engineering Biology -Paper-II

  • 8/4/2019 Syllabus(Core Cours)


    Bioengineering II - Biomaterials design and Application and Tissue


    Unit 1: Biomaterial design

    1. Potential and demand for new biomaterials

    2. Fundamentals of material science applied in biomaterial design

    3. Systematic approach to design a new biomaterial

    4. Material characterization: Bulk analysis, surface analysis, mechanical test,

    biological response

    5. Invivo invitro testing, Clinical trials, failure of implants

    6. Govt. regulation, patent, economic impact, ethics

    Unit 2: Applications of biomaterials

    7. Successful biomaterials, cardiovascular devices

    8. Nonthrombogenic treatments and Strategies, Dental implantation adhesive and


    9. Ophthalmologic applications-intraocular lens implants, orthopedic


    10. Performance of drug delivery systems

    11. Sutures, Burn dressings and Skin substitutes

    12. Artificial organs and tissues: Implantable cardiac assist devices. Materials for

    extracorporeal devices, Cochlear implants. Artificial red blood cell substitutes,artificial veins and arteries,

    13. Biosensor, Surface-Immobilized Biomolecules, biochip, tissue engineering,

    control release of drug, nano biomaterial

    14. New areas of innovation in biomaterial

  • 8/4/2019 Syllabus(Core Cours)


    Unit 3: Introduction to tissue engineering

    15. Basic definition; current scope of development; use in therapeutics and in

    vitro testing

    16. Structure and organization of tissues: epithelial, connective; vascularity,

    lymph. Basic developmental biology

    Unit 4: Transport properties of tissues

    17. Introduction to mass transfer

    18. Diffusion of simple metabolites

    19. Diffusion & reaction

    20. Diffusion & reaction of proteins

    21. General aspects of cells in culture; transport limits on 3D cultures

    Unit 5: Tissue growth and microenvironment

    22. Cell-Matrix & Cell-Cell Interactions I

    23. Cell-Matrix & Cell-Cell Interactions II

    24. Differential cell adhesion & tissue organization

    25. Hormone & Growth Factor Signaling

    26. Growth factor delivery in tissue engineering

    27. Cell proliferation and Apoptosis

    28. Quantitative analysis of receptor-ligand binding

    29. Applications of growth factors: VEGF/angiogenesis

    Unit 6: Scaffold for tissue engineering

    30. Scaffolds & tissue engineering - Basic properties

  • 8/4/2019 Syllabus(Core Cours)


    31. Scaffolds used in tissue engineering

    32. Basic transplantation immunology and tissue repair

    Unit 7: Stem cells

    33. Stem Cells I: Introduction, Hematopoiesis

    34. Stem Cells II: ES cells

    35. Stem cells & bone

    Unit 8: Cell migration

    36. Cell Migration

    37. Control of cell migration in tissue engineering

    Unit 9: Application of tissue engineering

    38. Application of tissue engineering: cardiovascular tissue engineering,


    39. Case study of multiple approaches: Introduction to liver pathophysiology, Cell

    transplantation for liver tissue engineering, In vitro organogenesis, Physiological



    Cells in culture on different kinds of matrix - different cell types, staining, etc


    Cell surface markers, FACS analysis, repopulation experiments

    Tissue engineering of fat

  • 8/4/2019 Syllabus(Core Cours)


    Tissue characterization

    Quantitative analysis and Morphometric investigation of a living cell system

    Reference books:

    Principles of tissue engineering (3rd edition, Edited by Langer, Lanza, and Vacanti,

    Academic press)

    Tissue engineering: From Lab to Clinic (Pallua, Norbert; Suschek, Christoph V.


    Semester VI - B.Tech

    Biology minor elective

  • 8/4/2019 Syllabus(Core Cours)


    Engineering Biology - Biomaterials

    Introduction to biomaterials, properties of biomaterials, polymers properties and

    application, metallic biomaterials, ceramics, glasses and Glass-Ceramics

    Biomaterials, Composite biomaterials and applications, Carbon material,

    Biological response of biomaterials, Non fouling surface and surface modification.

    Semester VII - B.Tech

    Biology minor elective

  • 8/4/2019 Syllabus(Core Cours)


    Engineering Biology II - Biomaterials design and Application and Tissue


    Biomaterial design, Applications of biomaterials, Introduction to tissue

    engineering, transport properties of tissue, tissue growth and microenvironment,

    Scaffold for tissue engineering, Stem cells, Cell migration, Application of tissue


    Semester VIII - B.Tech

    Biology minor elective

  • 8/4/2019 Syllabus(Core Cours)


    Engineering Biology II Biomechanics and image processing

    Biomechanics: arterial system, oxygen to bioartificial organs, tissue, cellular and

    molecular biomechanics. Image processing: applications, components,

    characterization of continuous images, Image classes, 2D Fourier transform,

    image acquisition, characterization of discrete images, image processing

    operations, Introduction to image analysis and computer vision.