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British rule

Jun 14, 2015




  • 1. Vasco da GamaPortugal

2. 1600s, the British East India Company set up trading posts at Bombay, Madras, and Calcutta. At first, Indias ruling Mughal Dynasty kept European traders under control. By 1707, however, the Mughal Empire was collapsing. Dozens of small states, each headed by a ruler or maharajah, broke away from Mughal control. 3. Nawab siraj-ud-daulahRobert Clive (1725-1774)The battleOpposing force :British East India Company :950 Europeans, 2100 Indians,few guns.Nawab of bengal :a total of 50,000 men with some heavy artillery. (artillery operated by about 40 French soilders) (16,000 men under Mir jafar,others under Yar Latif and Raj Durlabh) (almost all the major comman -ders were conspirators, except Mir Madan ) Only about 15,000 men from the nawabs army participated in the battle.The battle opened at 7:00 a.m. on 23 june 1757 the nawab soon become apprehensive as his generals were not participating Nawab forcemad some gains but finally losse because of betrayed of Mir jafar and british back attack on broking war rule 4. A British company that basically ran India Gained control after a decisive victory at the Battle of Plassey in 1757 Controlled an area that included modern BD, most of southern India, and nearly all the territory along the Ganges River in the north. During the 1700s and 1800s the East India Company slowlytook control of India As the Mughal Empire grew weak, the East India Companygrew in economic and political strength and began to build itsown military force The military force mainly consisted of sepoys, Indian soldiers, led by British commanders 5. CottonSilkTear. 1773 - 1784 r. 1828 - 1835 r. 1786 - 1793 r. 1848 - 1856 6. Became like a foreign govt. Took more land Forced Indian rulers to sign treaties granting it power Collected taxes from Indians Est. law code & courtsRobert Clive (1725-1774) Traditional rivalries kept Indian rulers from uniting against the British. The British encouraged disunity among Indian leaders East India Company controlled some land directly, others indirectlythrough local princes East India Company earned the right to collect taxes, set up a law code, setup a court system Indians had many grievances against British rule. British outlawed Hindu ritual suicide by widows British imposed high taxes Christian missionaries tried to convert Hindus 7. Ninety-six percent of the company's of army of 300,000 men in India were native to India British believed they were superior and looked down upon their dark-skinned compatriots In the military, Sepoys could not be promoted to high ranks and the pay was miserable. British did not respect Indian cultural or religious traditions and beliefs. The controversy over the use of the Enfield rifleIn 1857, new cartridges were issued to Indian troops of the British EastIndian Army. The cartridges were rumored to have been greased withcow or pig grease; as such, they were forbidden to the Indian troopsbecause of their religious beliefs. Moslems believe that pigs are unholy,and Hindus believe that it is unholy to kill a cow. The cartridges of thistime required a soldier to tear open the cartridge with his teeth, and pourthe powder & bullet down the barrel of the gun. This process would havecaused the Sepoys to get soul polluting grease directly into their bodies. 8. After refusing to use the new cartrdiges, a whole regiment of Sepoy troops were imprisoned by the British. Other Sepoys attemptedto free these prisoners and it snowballed into a revolt across all of northern India. There were many massacres where hundreds OfEuropeans were killed by Sepoys who were bent on revenge and on kicking the British out of India. 9. The mutiny marked a turning point in Indian history.As a result of the mutiny, in 1858 the British government took direct command of India.The part of India that was under direct British rule was called the Raj. The term Raj referred to British rule over India from 1757 until1914.Tie them to a cannon, and fire the cannon. 10. second-class citizens in their own country. Even Indians with a European education faced discrimination. barred from top posts in the Indian Civil Service. paid less than Europeans. 11. British government took over India as a colony.British ruled most of India directly but a third was still ruled by local princes whosigned treaties giving Britain control of foreign and military affairs.Britain reformed the law code and set up its own court system.Britain set up its own civil service, body of officials, to rule the colony.The Britsh East India Company ruled India with little interference from theBritish government.The company even had its own army, led by British officersand staffed by sepoys, or Indian soldiers. Most of the company's troops wereHindus or Muslims. About one in six was British. Yet, only the British could becommissioned officers; no Indian could reach a higher rank than that of pettyofficer. 12. The British held much of the political and economic power. British policies called for India to produce raw materials for Britishmanufacturing and to buy British manufactured goods.In addition, Indian competition with British goods was prohibited. For example, India's own handloom textile industry was almost putout of business by British textiles. Cheap cloth and ready-made clothes from England flooded the Indian market and drove out localproducers.To pay for British imports, Indians had to raise cash crops such as tea, pepper, coffee, and cotton. As Indian farmers grew less food,famines became frequent and widespread.Also, under the imperial control of the East India Company, an increasing number of small Indian states were forced to pay dues to theCompany for military protection.The lessening of Company profits and a need to recoup debts generated by military efforts, produced a need for higher revenues. Peasantlandowners, required to pay their taxes in cash, increasingly had to turn to moneylenders who seized much of this land for nonpaymentof loans. 13. 379 dead; over 1200 wounded!Making SaltIndian weaving was ruined by the competition of Britishmachine-made textiles! 14. Im going to play a clip from a popular 2000 Hindi film called Lagaan .In this scene the king of the area comes to the British captain who is incharge of the region. He asks the king to forgive the tax for the farmers, because it has not rained, and they cannot pay this year. The Captainagrees to forgive the tax, but on one condition. You will see what that condition is. Also notice the setting in which the discussion is takingplace. They are basically having an english tea party. You remember that picture that I showed you from before, with the women riding thehorses. The British tried to isolate themselves from everywhere else in India. Basically making a version of England in India. Which includeddressing up in fancy clothes, which are completely inappropriate for the Indian heat, and having tea parties. A couple of things to watch for.Notice how the English captain talks about protecting the Indians with his army. He says that he is protecting the king from the neighboringking, who also happens to be his cousin. Pay attention to the way the Captain tries to destroy the honor of the Hindu king. And remember.The Hindu king rules in name only. He is allowed to stay because the British let him. The British are the ones who are in control. 15. the worlds third largest railroad network was a major British achievement. railroads enabled India to develop a modern economy and brought unity to the connected regions. a modern road network, telephone and telegraph lines, dams, bridges, and irrigation canals Sanitation and public health improved. Schools and colleges were founded, and literacy increased. British troops cleared central India of bandits End to local warfare among competing local rulers.Under the rule of the British, the laying of the world's third largest railroad network was accomplished.The railroads allowed the British to transport raw materials from the interior to the ports and manufactured goods back again.The majority of the raw materials were agricultural products produced on plantations. Plantation crops included tea, indigo, coffee,cotton, and jute. Another crop was opium. The British shipped opium to China and exchanged it for tea, which they then sold in England. 16. British officer: This Custom tho ' shocking to humanity we still allow in consequence of the revenue it brings in, which is of importance. I havealso private reasons for not suppressing the burning system immediately.British bishop: Why my Lord, with a view to [O]economy under existing circumstances it might be imprudent to press themeasure at present. Besides I think I feel also the private motives which actuates your Lordship.Sati (Su-thi , a.k.a. suttee) is the traditional Hindu practice of a widow throwing herself on her husband's funeral pyre.Sati was prevalent among certain sects of the society in ancient India, who either took the vow or deemed it a great honor to die on thefuneral pyres of their husbands. 17. Child MarriagesIn India during the 1860s, marriage meant girls getting married below 8 or 9 yearsold. It wasnt until 1880 that child marriage as a problem became a public issuein India and examples of young wives being killed and or raped by theirhusbands brought the tradition to an end. 18. Britain introduced changes that affected Indian society. Improved health care and sanitary conditions led to population growth.The British set up schools and colleges to educate higher-caste Indians. The course of study stressed English language and culture. 19. Harsh and racist actions against Indians British held much of the political and economic power. Restricted Indian-owned industries such as cotton textiles. Conversion to cash crops reduced food production, causing famines in the late 1800s. Loss of cultural practices and language 20

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