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Brief History of an English-Language Journal in the Brief History of an English-Language Journal in the Ottoman Empire: The Levant Herald and Constantinople Messenger (1859-1878) Burhan

Jun 29, 2018

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  • Brief History of an English-Language Journal in the Ottoman Empire: The Levant Herald and

    Constantinople Messenger (1859-1878)

    by

    Burhan alar

    A thesis submitted in conformity with the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts

    Department of Near and Middle Eastern Civilizations University of Toronto

    Copyright by Burhan Caglar 2017

  • ii

    Brief History of an English-Language Journal in the Ottoman

    Empire: The Levant Herald and Constantinople Messenger

    (1859-1878)

    Burhan Caglar

    Master of Arts

    Department of Near and Middle Eastern Civilizations

    University of Toronto

    2017

    Abstract

    The Levant Herald (1856-1914) was one of the English-language newspapers published in

    Constantinople by British subjects. Given the length of its lifecycle, which exceeded half a century,

    The Levant Herald was one of the longest lasting newspapers issued during the entire Ottoman

    period. Although it was published in Ottoman territory, it also circulated in Europe and Britain.

    Due to this, the newspaper had a somewhat international character. Throughout its lifecycle, it

    faced many suspensions, closures, and bans, and it suffered from regular political pressure. The

    proprietors of the newspaper changed several times during its lifecycle and due the regular threat

    of closure, it had to be issued under different names. The names that the newspaper used were as

    follows: The Levant Herald, The Constantinople Messenger, The Eastern Express, The Levant

    Herald & Eastern Express.

  • iii

    Acknowledgments

    I would like to express my heartfelt gratitude to the many people, without whose patience,

    understanding and assistance, this research would never have materialized.

    I want to convey my sincere gratitude to Dr. Milena Methodieva, my thesis supervisor, for

    overseeing this project from start to finish. Her patience, support, wisdom, and academic

    knowledge helped me to persevere with more confidence; her criticisms, incisive comments and

    thorough questions have provided me with enormous assistance in thinking through and shaping

    this study.

    I owe a debt of thanks to Dr. Victor Ostapchuk, my MA program co-supervisor, for providing me

    with priceless guidance during my graduate studies in the University of Toronto and for his

    patience, kindness, encouragement, and gracious hospitality while working on this research.

    I would like to express my gratitude to Anna Sousa, graduate secretary for the Department of Near

    and Middle Eastern Civilizations, for her enormous help and support, her good humour and warm

    enthusiasm, and for always coming up with practical solution whenever I needed help during all

    stages of my studies in Toronto.

    I am also grateful to Dr. Eleazar Birnbaum, Dr. Virgina Aksan, Dr. Ariel Salzmann, and Dr. Selma

    Zecevic for their support, guidance and encouragement.

    I am especially indebted to Dr. Glay Ylmaz Diko, who helped and encouraged me during my

    graduate applications at the University of Toronto.

    In the course of researching and writing this thesis, I received invaluable help and encouragement

    from my professors, mentors, friends and relatives. I am thankful to Dr. dris Bostan, Dr. Ferudun

    Emecen and Dr. Zeynep Tarm for their indispensable support early on my academic education,

    for their instructional contributions, as well as for granting me inspirational and motivational tools

    that were instrumental during my graduate studies.

    I am particularly grateful to Dr. Arif Bilgin, Dr. M. Yaar Erta and Dr. Fatih Bozkurt who

    encouraged me to complete my graduate education at the University of Toronto.

  • iv

    I owe a special debt of gratitude Turul omu and Hcer Klarslan for their invaluable support

    in the conception of this research, and for their assistance throughout all stages of this project.

    Mehmet Filiz, mer Fruk Can, and Gker nan also deserve special thanks for tirelessly giving

    me a hand in collecting archival materials, including especially the microfilms.

    I also owe Enis Alaluf for his friendship and help, as well as Cesar Martin Hernandez, Shervin

    Mizbani, and her dear husband Erik Blackthorne-O'Barr for their useful suggestions during my

    library research and archival adventures.

    I would like to thank Mehmet Kuru, Lale Javanshir Qocabeyli, Murat Yaar, Shun Tu Kuang,

    Usman Hamid, Nicolas Jodoin, Mehmet Kurunlu, Ebru Azer Mutlu and Mitch Cruse for their

    dedicated help, emotional support, and friendship throughout my Toronto years.

    My friends, Nicole Sami, Nancy Tutuncu, Arthur Sanchez, Ashley Schneider, David Rhe, Emrah

    Gama Barajas, Grken Gmtekin, Hamed Samarghandi and his wife Azin Samarghandi were

    all immensely supportive and I could not have done this without them.

    Finally, I would like to extend my thanks to everyone who has contributed to this study, and in

    general to my academic career, since my undergraduate education at Istanbul University. Also, I

    wish to express my sincere gratitude to the Turkish Historical Society (Trk Tarih Kurumu) for

    their assistance along this study.

    Last but not the least, my adoring parents, my father and my mother, deserve more than thanks for

    their endless support, friendship, thoughtfulness and encouragement.

  • v

    Table of Contents

    Acknowledgments.................................................................................................................... iii

    Table of Contents .......................................................................................................................v

    List of Figures .......................................................................................................................... vi

    Notes ....................................................................................................................................... vii

    Introduction ................................................................................................................................1

    Chapter 1 Foreign-Language Press in The Ottoman Empire .....................................................7

    1.1 The Birth of the Foreign-Language Press in The Ottoman Empire ...............................7

    1.2 The Foreign-Language Press and Press Regulations in The Ottoman Empire ............13

    Chapter 2 The Levant Herald ...................................................................................................28

    2.1 The Foundation of The Levant Herald.........................................................................28

    2.2 Advertisements, Announcements and News in The Levant Herald ............................38

    2.3 The Stylistic Features, Editions, Circulation and Price of The Levant Herald ............49

    2.4 The Penalties and Closures Faced by The Levant Herald ...........................................52

    2.5 From The Levant Herald to Constantinople Messenger: The Incriminating Letter ....58

    Chapter 3 The Names Behind The Levant Herald: The Proprietors ........................................70

    3.1 James Carlile McCoan .................................................................................................70

    3.2 Edgar Whitaker ............................................................................................................72

    Conclusion ...............................................................................................................................85

    Bibliography ............................................................................................................................94

    Primary Sources ..................................................................................................................94

    Secondary Sources ..............................................................................................................96

    Figures....................................................................................................................................103

    Appendix Subscription Fees of The Levant Herald 1859-1887 ...........................................124

  • vi

    List of Figures

    Figure 1: The Former Office of The Levant Herald Today (Photo: Hikmet Gkta)................. 103

    Figure 2: The Former Office of The Levant Herald Today (Photo: Hikmet Gkta)................. 104

    Figure 3: Memory Plate for The Levant Herald ......................................................................... 104

    Figure 4: James Carlile McCoan (1929-1904) ............................................................................ 105

    Figure 5: The Censor on Duty .................................................................................................... 105

    Figure 6: Letter from Edgar Whitaker to Said Pasha .................................................................. 106

    Figure 7: Letter from Edgar Whitaker to Kamil Pasha ............................................................... 107

    Figure 8: Petition from Edgar Whitaker to the Sultan, Abdulhamid II ...................................... 108

    Figure 9: Edgar Whitakers Signature ........................................................................................ 109

    Figure 10: Whitakers Petition to the Sultan Abdulhamid II ...................................................... 110

    Figure 11: Edgar Whitakers Handwriting

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