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Breadfruit Breadfruit A Tale of Two A Tale of Two Domesticates? Domesticates?
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Breadfruit A Tale of Two Domesticates?. Outline Artocarpus altilus Artocarpus altilus Biology and Distribution Biology and Distribution The Relatives.

Jan 02, 2016

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Eugenia Rich
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Page 1: Breadfruit A Tale of Two Domesticates?. Outline Artocarpus altilus Artocarpus altilus Biology and Distribution Biology and Distribution The Relatives.

BreadfruitBreadfruit

A Tale of Two A Tale of Two Domesticates?Domesticates?

Page 2: Breadfruit A Tale of Two Domesticates?. Outline Artocarpus altilus Artocarpus altilus Biology and Distribution Biology and Distribution The Relatives.

OutlineOutlineArtocarpus altilusArtocarpus altilusBiology and DistributionBiology and DistributionThe Relatives The Relatives Methods of DeterminationMethods of DeterminationOrigins…Origins…

Page 3: Breadfruit A Tale of Two Domesticates?. Outline Artocarpus altilus Artocarpus altilus Biology and Distribution Biology and Distribution The Relatives.

Artocarpus altilusArtocarpus altilus MoraceaeMoraceae Tree CropTree Crop

Variety of usesVariety of uses Grown for Grown for

infructescence rather infructescence rather than vegetative storage than vegetative storage structuresstructures

Staple of OceaniaStaple of Oceania 2 “generalized” cultivars2 “generalized” cultivars

SeedlessSeedless Few-->Many SeededFew-->Many Seeded

High productivityHigh productivity SeasonalSeasonal Mmm…just like potatoesMmm…just like potatoesA. altilus (Ken Sytsma)

Page 4: Breadfruit A Tale of Two Domesticates?. Outline Artocarpus altilus Artocarpus altilus Biology and Distribution Biology and Distribution The Relatives.

Breadfruit Breadfruit BiologyBiology

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http://www.biologie.uni-hamburg.de/b-online/library/webb/BOT410/Angiosperm/FlowersFruitsSeedsLabCombo.htm

MonoeciousPollen quantity variesParthenocarpic fruit development in seedless

Pollination mechanism unknown

Page 5: Breadfruit A Tale of Two Domesticates?. Outline Artocarpus altilus Artocarpus altilus Biology and Distribution Biology and Distribution The Relatives.

DistributionDistribution

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http://www.hawaii.edu/powerkills/WF1.WORLD.JPG

Page 6: Breadfruit A Tale of Two Domesticates?. Outline Artocarpus altilus Artocarpus altilus Biology and Distribution Biology and Distribution The Relatives.

http://geo.cbs.umn.edu/~nyree/breadfruit_page.html

DiversityDiversity Fruiting SeasonFruiting Season Fruit ShapeFruit Shape Fruit Color & TextureFruit Color & Texture Infructescence Infructescence

surfacessurfaces FlavorFlavor Sections Sections LeavesLeaves SeedsSeeds SEMs of trichomesSEMs of trichomes Infertility Infertility

2n=3x=˜84; 2n=2x=562n=3x=˜84; 2n=2x=56

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Page 7: Breadfruit A Tale of Two Domesticates?. Outline Artocarpus altilus Artocarpus altilus Biology and Distribution Biology and Distribution The Relatives.

Ranges of Close RelativesRanges of Close RelativesA. mariannensis

A. camansi

Fig 2. Zerega et al. (2005)

Page 8: Breadfruit A Tale of Two Domesticates?. Outline Artocarpus altilus Artocarpus altilus Biology and Distribution Biology and Distribution The Relatives.

Methods of Methods of DeterminationDetermination

Morphology, ITS and Morphology, ITS and trnL-FtrnL-F region region AFLPsAFLPs IsozymesIsozymes

Fig 10.2

Page 9: Breadfruit A Tale of Two Domesticates?. Outline Artocarpus altilus Artocarpus altilus Biology and Distribution Biology and Distribution The Relatives.

AFLP DataAFLP Data

Fig. 10.4

Page 10: Breadfruit A Tale of Two Domesticates?. Outline Artocarpus altilus Artocarpus altilus Biology and Distribution Biology and Distribution The Relatives.

Fig. 3 Zerega et al. (2005)

NJ TreeFig. 4

Page 11: Breadfruit A Tale of Two Domesticates?. Outline Artocarpus altilus Artocarpus altilus Biology and Distribution Biology and Distribution The Relatives.

AFLP (cont.)AFLP (cont.)

Fig. 10.5

Fig. 3 Zerega et al. (2004)

Page 12: Breadfruit A Tale of Two Domesticates?. Outline Artocarpus altilus Artocarpus altilus Biology and Distribution Biology and Distribution The Relatives.

MDH isozyme MDH isozyme phenotypes & AFLP phenotypes & AFLP

markersmarkers

Fig. 10.3

Page 13: Breadfruit A Tale of Two Domesticates?. Outline Artocarpus altilus Artocarpus altilus Biology and Distribution Biology and Distribution The Relatives.

What trends are seen in What trends are seen in the data?the data?

Melansian and Polynesian breadfruit Melansian and Polynesian breadfruit cultivars are more closely related to cultivars are more closely related to A. A. camaricamari

Micronesian cultivars are closely Micronesian cultivars are closely related to Polynesian and Melanesian related to Polynesian and Melanesian A. A. camansicamansi-derived breadfruit and to -derived breadfruit and to A. A. mariannensismariannensis

Micronesia has the greatest genetic Micronesia has the greatest genetic diversity; however, Polynesia cultivars diversity; however, Polynesia cultivars are most genetically differentiatedare most genetically differentiated Dependent on mode of reproduction and Dependent on mode of reproduction and

human selectionhuman selection

Page 14: Breadfruit A Tale of Two Domesticates?. Outline Artocarpus altilus Artocarpus altilus Biology and Distribution Biology and Distribution The Relatives.

Analysis of Molecular Analysis of Molecular Variance Based on AFLPVariance Based on AFLP

Individual Islands Serve as Repositories for Genetic Diversity

Page 15: Breadfruit A Tale of Two Domesticates?. Outline Artocarpus altilus Artocarpus altilus Biology and Distribution Biology and Distribution The Relatives.

Pattern and Pattern and Process and Process and

Man’s MigrationsMan’s Migrations

Page 16: Breadfruit A Tale of Two Domesticates?. Outline Artocarpus altilus Artocarpus altilus Biology and Distribution Biology and Distribution The Relatives.

Melanesia and PolynesiaMelanesia and Polynesia

Assumption: Assumption: High genetic variability=Region of OriginHigh genetic variability=Region of Origin

Colonization during Pleistocene (40,000 Colonization during Pleistocene (40,000 yrs ago), dispersal of yrs ago), dispersal of A. camansiA. camansi to to “near” Oceania, and human selection“near” Oceania, and human selection

Lapita cultural complex shifted to Lapita cultural complex shifted to vegetative propagation for longer vegetative propagation for longer voyages (4,000 yrs ago)voyages (4,000 yrs ago)

Page 17: Breadfruit A Tale of Two Domesticates?. Outline Artocarpus altilus Artocarpus altilus Biology and Distribution Biology and Distribution The Relatives.

From Fig 1. Zerega et al (2004)

Page 18: Breadfruit A Tale of Two Domesticates?. Outline Artocarpus altilus Artocarpus altilus Biology and Distribution Biology and Distribution The Relatives.

MicronesiaMicronesia

Triploid A. camansi-derived “E Polyn”Triploid A. camansi-derived “E Polyn” Hybrid cultivarsHybrid cultivars

Fertile and sterile diploids and sterile Fertile and sterile diploids and sterile triploidstriploids

Human involvement a must as ranges Human involvement a must as ranges of of A. camansiA. camansi and and A. mariannensisA. mariannensis do do not overlapnot overlap

Settled from multiple directions many Settled from multiple directions many times…times…

Page 19: Breadfruit A Tale of Two Domesticates?. Outline Artocarpus altilus Artocarpus altilus Biology and Distribution Biology and Distribution The Relatives.

From Fig 1. Zerega et al (2004)

Page 20: Breadfruit A Tale of Two Domesticates?. Outline Artocarpus altilus Artocarpus altilus Biology and Distribution Biology and Distribution The Relatives.

What about the rest of What about the rest of the World?the World?

Page 21: Breadfruit A Tale of Two Domesticates?. Outline Artocarpus altilus Artocarpus altilus Biology and Distribution Biology and Distribution The Relatives.

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Travels of the Travels of the HMS HMS BountyBounty

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X

Page 22: Breadfruit A Tale of Two Domesticates?. Outline Artocarpus altilus Artocarpus altilus Biology and Distribution Biology and Distribution The Relatives.

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Travels of the Travels of the HMS HMS BountyBounty

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Page 23: Breadfruit A Tale of Two Domesticates?. Outline Artocarpus altilus Artocarpus altilus Biology and Distribution Biology and Distribution The Relatives.

Captain BlighCaptain Bligh Transport Breadfruit to the Caribbean Transport Breadfruit to the Caribbean

from Tahiti on the from Tahiti on the HMS BountyHMS Bounty The “No Paradise” ruleThe “No Paradise” rule MutinyMutiny Navigated 3600 nautical miles using Navigated 3600 nautical miles using

a sextant and a pocket watcha sextant and a pocket watch Pitcairn IslandPitcairn Island Returned and took 347 breadfruit Returned and took 347 breadfruit

plants to St. Vincent and Jamaica on plants to St. Vincent and Jamaica on February 5th, 1793February 5th, 1793

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Page 24: Breadfruit A Tale of Two Domesticates?. Outline Artocarpus altilus Artocarpus altilus Biology and Distribution Biology and Distribution The Relatives.

Thank YouThank You

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