Human body has:
– 100 trillion cells – 4 basic kinds of ________________ – About 22 internal organs – 11 organ ____________ interacting together
Four levels of organization in the body:
____________ ______________ ___________ _________________
Integumentary Skin, hair and nails Function:
• Protection against ___________, _________________, and fluid loss. • Helps maintain ___________________ by regulating body _________________.
• Skin: the ______________ organ of the body; it is made of two layers the epidermis and the dermis
– Epidermis: _________ layer of skin – Dermis: ___________ layer of skin
• Sweat glands • Sebaceous (oil) glands Interconnections: Other systems that provide protection: _________________
_________________ Other systems that help maintain homeostasis: _________________
Skeletal System Bones, joints, ligaments
• ________________ and ____________ the body & organs • Bones produce red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets
• Two Parts – Axial Skeleton – Appendicular skeleton
• __________ • Vertebral column
– Cervical – Thoracic – Lumbar – Sacral
• __________ • Sternum
Interconnections: Other systems that provide protection:
Other systems that provide movement:
Other systems that use blood cells made by the skeletal system:
• Pectoral girdle • _______________ • _______________ • Pelvic girdle
Muscular System Muscles- skeletal, cardiac and smooth
*Recall that muscle cells have lots of mitochondria since they need lots of ________ Function
• _____________ limbs and trunk, • moves substances through the body (peristalsis); • provides ____________ and structure. Structure 3 Types of Muscle Tissues:
• Skeletal—______________ muscles; voluntary • Smooth—vessels and ____________; involuntary • Cardiac—___________; involuntary
Interconnections: Other systems that provide movement:
Other systems that are made of muscle tissue:
_________________ (cardiac tissue) _________________ (smooth tissue) Other systems that benefit from the muscles ability to move substances throughout the body:
_________________ _________________ _________________ _________________ _________________
Nervous System Brain, neurons and spinal cord
Function • Receives and sends ____________ through chemicals
– creates a response to stimuli. • Regulates ____________ and the other __________ systems
– controls sensory and motor functions • Maintains ____________________
• Central Nervous System – ________________ = Cerebrum, Cerebellum, Hypothalamus, Brain Stem, Medulla – ____________ __________
• Peripheral Nervous System - all ______________ branching from the cord. – Cranial – nerves from the brain – Spinal – nerves from the spinal cord
• Autonomic Nervous System – performs functions _________________ such as: breathing, heart rate, blood pressure, digestion, and even sleep.
• Brain: – Cerebrum – controls ____________, language, reasoning and perception. – Cerebellum – controls coordination, _________________, balance, & posture. – Hypothalamus – controls body temperature, _____________, thirst &
homeostasis. – Medulla – controls the regulation of breathing & __________ __________ – Brain Stem – is made up of pons, medulla, and the midbrain, which regulate the
body’s ________________ processes.
• Neuron- ___________ cells that transmit information throughout the body
• Spinal Cord- dense ___________ of ___________ ____________ that runs through the vertebral column.
– Links the brain to the peripheral nervous system
Interconnections The nervous system is connected to _____________ other system because it controls
and regulates all functions of the body
Endocrine Hypothalamus, pituitary gland, adrenal gland, pancreas, ovaries/testis
• Regulates the normal everyday functions of the body – secreting _______________ causing a regulatory effect or a defensive effect.
• Helps maintain _________________ • Regulates other organs Examples: adrenaline rush, breathing rate, heart rate, body temp Structure
Interconnections The endocrine system is connected to every other system because it helps
_________________ all organs and provides a regulatory or defense effect for our other systems
Immune Skin, white blood cells, lymph nodes, spleen
• Defends against pathogens and disease: 1) Creates a ____________ to prevent pathogens from entering your body 2) If pathogens get into the body, the immune system tries to __________ and
_______________ it before it can make itself at home and reproduce. 3) If the pathogen is able to _________________ and start causing problems,
your immune system is in charge of eliminating it.
When you are sick a mild ____________, even though it temporarily disrupts homeostasis, is ___________ as it helps to inhibit the growth of pathogens (like viruses) and stimulates the immune system response.
• _____________- primary boundary between germs and your body. – Skin is tough and generally impermeable to pathogens.
• Thymus - produces _______________ • Spleen – _____________ the blood looking for foreign cells and old red blood cells in
need of replacement.
• Lymph system – collects and recycles fluids leaked from the circulatory system and is involved in fighting infections – The lymph detect and remove bacteria from the blood plasma.
• Bone marrow – produces new ________ and ___________ blood cells. The marrow produces all blood cells from stem cells.
• White blood cells - white blood cells destroy pathogens . Some examples of white blood cells are Leukocytes, Lymphocytes, B-cells, T-cells, Helper T-cells, Phagocytes, and Macrophages.
• Antibodies – produced by white blood cells; respond to a specific bacteria, virus or toxin.
The immune system and allergies:
• Allergy- The body’s inappropriate response to an _______________, which can be a common substance that is typically harmless.
• Most allergic reactions are just uncomfortable: – swelling, redness, increased mucus production, runny nose, itchy eyes, etc.
• There are some severe allergic reactions, though, that can be life threatening.
Interconnections Other systems involved in protection: _________________
_________________ This system produces bone marrow: _________________
Saliva is anti-bacterial and found in this system: _________________
Blood cells are apart of this system:
Respiratory Mouth, nose, trachea, lungs, bronchi/alveoli
• Moves air into and out of the __________ • Controls gas exchange between blood and lungs. • Helps to maintain ____________
• Larynx: _____________ _________, vibrations produce noise • Glottis: opening to the trachea (___________________) • Trachea: windpipe carries __________ ____ _______________ • Pharynx: back of ______________, beginning of trachea • Epiglottis: covers the glottis as we swallows • Bronchi: two branches (left & right bronchus) at lower end of trachea • Bronchioles: smaller branches located in lungs • Diaphragm: muscle that __________________ to allow air to enter the lungs • Lungs: right lung- four lobes, left lung- three lobes, _______________ ___________
– Your lungs contain almost 1500 miles of airways and over 300 million alveoli. – Every minute you breathe in 13 pints (26 cups or 6.14 liters) of air.
• Alveoli: air filled sacs where ___________ and carbon dioxide are exchanged
Trace a breath through the respiratory system: • External Nares Nostrils/Mouth • Pharynx • Larynx • Trachea • Bronchi • Brochioles • Alveoli
Interconnections Other systems that involve exchanging oxygen and carbon dioxide into and out of the
The system that helps compose the lungs (made of smooth tissue): _________________
The other systems involved in helping us breathe:
Circulatory Heart, blood, blood vessels
• _________________ nutrients, wastes, hormones, and gases through a series of organs and vessels;
• involved in maintaining ___________________ Structures
• 2 Parts: – Cardiovascular (heart-vessel) System – Lymphatic System (often listed separately)
• Atria: 2 top chambers of the heart – _________________ the blood – Left and right atrium
• Ventricles: 2 bottom chambers of the heart – ______________ the blood – Left and right ventricle
• Septum: separates the right & left sides of the heart • Aorta: carries oxygenated blood to body • Superior vena cava: carries blood from head to heart (deoxygenated) • Inferior vena cava: carries blood from body to heart (deoxygenated) • Arteries: carry blood ___________ from the heart (oxygenated, except in pulmonary
• Veins: Carry blood to the heart (deoxygenated, except in pulmonary veins)
Interconnections The other system that involves exchanging oxygen and carbon dioxide into and out of
_________________ The other system that involves lymph nodes:
_________________ The other system that makes blood cells:
_________________ This system is composes the cardiac tissue in the heart: _________________
Nutrients absorbed in this system are circulated throughout the body:
A series of organs involved in ________________ and ________________ breaking
down food with the help of enzymes & bacteria, and absorbing nutrients for the body’s
_____________ and _______________.
• break up ___________molecules (proteins, carbohydrates, and fats) into small subunits (amino acids, glucose, glycerol, and fatty acids)for energy
• helps body maintain _____________________
Mouth – Digestion _____________ here
Salivary Glands – Secrete enzymes to help with digestion
– tube that goes from the mouth to the stomach
– pushes food down the tube through peristalsis Stomach
– ___________________ digestion
– protein digestion with pepsin or HCl Small Intestine
– Completes digestion
– ___________ nutrients; trypsin, lipases, bile Large Intestine
– Reabsorbs Water
– Passageway for _____________ Gall Bladder – Stores ___________
– Secretes enzymes into small intestine
– produces ____________ (endocrine hormone for sugar regulation)
– Secretes bile
– Purifies _____________
– Removes _____________
*Food does NOT pass through these 3 organs!
Interconnections Nutrients are absorbed from the small intestine and carried throughout the body by this
_________________ This system controls peristalsis:
_________________ This system gets rid of the waste produced by the digestive system:
_________________ These systems are also closely linked: _________________ _________________
Excretory Kidneys, bladder, urethra, sweat glands
• ____________ metabolic/nitrogenous wastes from the bloodstream • Controls the ionic composition of the blood. • ______________ wastes outside of body. • Involved in maintaining homeostasis.
• Kidney: Filters waste from ____________, produces urine • Ureter: Carries urine from kidney to bladder • Urinary Bladder: Stores ______________ • Urethra: tube from the bladder to the outside of the body through which urine
• Renal arteries & veins: take oxygenated blood to the kidneys & deoxygenated blood away from the kidneys, respectively.
• Nephron: tube-like structure in the kidneys that _____________ wastes from the body and retains useful molecules; microscopic functional unit of the kidney
Interconnections The system that brings wastes/toxins to the kidneys for filtering:
_________________ Other system that involves sweat: _________________
Other systems closely related: _________________ _________________
Reproductive System Function
• Produce ______________ and to nourish and protect offspring until birth Structures
• Male: testes, vas deferens, epididymis, penis • Female: ovaries, uterus, vagina, fallopian tubes, cervix Interconnections This system controls the hormones associated with the reproductive organs:
_________________ Other systems related to the reproductive system
_________________ _________________ _________________