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C C H H A A R R A A C C T T E E R R M M O O D D E E L L I I N N G G ! ! ! ! Issue 4 M ay 2006 | Bl enderart Ch aracte r M ode l ing atPl um ife ros !! Model ing a Butte rfl y Rapid Prototyping in Bl ender Bl e nde r2Pov Ch aracte r D e sign 2d sk e tch to 3d R e sPow e r Supe r/Farm M ak e H um an bl ender l earning m ade easy
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BlenderArt Magazine Issue 4 Character Modeling

Mar 13, 2016

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Features Articles/Tutorials on Character Modeling at Plumiferos, Modeling a Butterfly, Rapid Prototyping in Blender, Blender2Pov, Character Design 2D sketch to 3D, ResPower Super/Farm, MakeHuman, and more…

  • CCHH AARRAACCTTEERR MM OO DD EELLIINNGG !!!!

    Issue 4 M ay 2006 | Ble nde rart

    Ch aracte r M ode ling at Plum ife ros !!

    M ode ling a Butte rfly

    Rapid Prototyping in Ble nde r

    Ble nde r2Pov

    Ch aracte r De sign 2d sk e tch to 3d

    Re sPow e r Supe r/Farm

    M ak e H um an

    ble nde r le arning m ade e asy

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    Issue 4 M ay 2006

    EDITOR/DESIGNERGaurav Naw ani gaurav@ ble nde rart.org

    M ANAGING EDITORSandra Gilbe rt sandra@ ble nde rart.org

    W EBSITENam Ph am nam @ ble nde rart.org

    PROOFERKe rnon Dillon

    W RITERSCh ristian Guck e lsbe rge rM anue l Pe re zClaudio AndaurJos M auricio Rodas R.Claas Eick e Kuh ne nRogrio Pe rdizM anue l Bastioni Ale ssandro Proglio Antonio Di Ce cca Giovanni Lanza M artin Ed Cick a

    COPYRIGH TBle nde rart M agaz ine , ble nde rart and ble nde rart logo are copyrigh t Gaurav Naw ani. Ask Ble ntuu and ble ntuu logo are copyrigh t Sandra Gilbe rt.

    All products and com pany nam e s fe ature d in th e publication are trade m ark or re giste re d trade m ark of th e ir re spe ctive ow ne rs.

    CONTENTS

    NNee ww ss FFllaa ss hh - Pg5

    33 dd WW oorrkk ss hh ooppCh aracte r m ode ling at Plum ife ros - Pg8M ode ling a naturalistic Butte rfly - Pg12Rapid Prototyping w ith Ble nde r - Pg23Re nde ring w ith Ble nd2Pov - Pg27Ch aracte r De sign 2d sk e tch to 3d - Pg34

    IInnss iidd ee rrVVii ee wwM ak e H um an - Pg40Split/Fram e re nde ring on - Pg47Re sPow e r Supe r/Farm

    RRee vviiee ww ss3d Cre ature w ork sh op - Pg523d Ph otore alism toolk it - Pg53

    GG aallllee rriiaa - Pg54

    Cre dits - Pg9 1

    D is claim e r - Pg9 2

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    Issue 4 M ay 2006

    Ch aracte r m ode ling h as got to be one of m y favorite th ings to do in Ble nde r. Th e re is noth ing lik e starting w ith a blank scre e n and e nding up w ith living, m oving ch aracte rs. Now grante d, not all m y ch aracte rs turn out as good as I w ould lik e , but th at just k e e ps m e trying. And th e re are so m any th ings to try.

    One of th e be st th ings about ch aracte r m ode ling is th at a ch aracte r can be anyth ing. Th e m ost com m on one s are anim als, alie ns, robots and h um anoids, but th ose k inds of ch aracte rs are but a sm all se le ction of w h at is possible . W ith a little w ork and im agination, you can turn any e ve ryday obje ct into a ch aracte r. As soon as it starts m oving and sh ow ing pe rsonality, it be com e s a ch aracte r. Te le vision com m e rcials are full of such am using ch aracte rs.

    As m uch fun as ch aracte r m ode ling can be , it can also be frustrating at tim e s.

    Ach ie ving a good m ode l th at pose s w e ll and conve ys a se nse of life and pe rsonality can be an e lusive goal. Ligh ting and te xturing ofte n play a big role in h e lping bring a ch aracte r to life , as w e ll as a good unde rstanding of h ow a ch aracte r sh ould m ove and th e tim ing involve d for be lie vable m ove m e nt.

    In th is issue , w e w ill be look ing at a couple of ch aracte rs for you to m ode l and play w ith , as w e ll as a ve ry inform ative article on h ow to tak e your m ode l from th e com pute r scre e n to a re al-w orld ph ysical 3D statue ! (W ouldnt I just love to h ave one of th ose m ach ine s at m y h ouse . J) Additionally, M ale fico Andaue r give s us a be h ind-th e - sce ne s look at som e of th e de cisions m ade for th e Plum ife ros Ch aracte rs.So sit back , grab a cup of coffe e and re ad all about it

    - sandra@ ble nde rart.org

    EDITORIAL

    Sandra Gilbe rtM anaging Editor

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    Issue 4 M ay 2006Iz z y~k now s...

    Ch aracte r Modeling & De sign: A sh ort run- dow n of th ings to conside r be fore you start.

    Just w h e re and h ow do you start de signing a ch aracte r? Of course , th e re is alw ays th e just jum p righ t in and do it m e th od. W h ich som e tim e s w ork s w onde rfully, but all too ofte n w ill cause future proble m s de pe nding on w h at you h ad planne d to do w ith your ch aracte r.Be fore you ope n Ble nde r, it is alw ays a good ide a to sit dow n and th ink about your ch aracte r. H e re is a list of que stions you m igh t w ant to conside r be fore you actually start m ode ling:

    W h at style of ch aracte r are you going for? Re alistic, Se m i- re alistic, Toon.

    W h at k ind of ch aracte r? Fantasy, M e ch anical, Anim al, H um anoid, e tc Appe arance : H ow m any arm s, le gs, e ye s, e ars, e tc doe s it h ave any at all? H ow w ill your ch aracte r inte ract w ith its e nvironm e nt? Doe s it h ave /ne e d cloth e s? H ow doe s it m ove ? H ow do you plan on using your ch aracte r? Still im age , gam e ch aracte r, anim ation, e tc W ill it spe ak , m ak e noise , bare its te e th ? (i.e . w ill it ne e d a full m outh se tup or can you m ode l it close d?)

    Once you h ave de cide d on w h at you w ant your ch aracte r to look lik e , it is tim e to ge t re fe re nce m ate rial. If you draw w e ll, you can sk e tch out front and side vie w s of your ch aracte r to load into ble nde r for re fe re nce . If you dont draw w e ll, you sh ould look for im age s th at close ly re se m ble w h at you are going for. Th e inte rne t is a gre at re source for re fe re nce im age s. Anoth e r option, (one I use a lot), is tak ing a trip to m y local de partm e nt store and h e ading straigh t for th e toy aisle . Ch ildre ns toys m ak e gre at re fe re nce obje cts for m ode ling. Th e y are h igh ly de taile d and com e in e ve ry type im aginable .

    You h ave your re fe re nce im age s loade d into ble nde r, now w h at? W e ll, now you start m ode ling. Th e re are various te ch nique s available to com ple te your m ode l. Ch oose th e one th at be st fits your w ork flow and give s th e be st re sults for your m ode l. I pe rsonally pre fe r box m ode ling, but I h ave be e n k now n to use a varie ty of m e th ods to ge t m y m ode l to look just h ow I w ant.

    W h e n m ode ling your ch aracte r, you w ill ne e d to de cide h ow m uch de tail you w ant to m ode l vs. h ow m uch of it can be adde d late r w ith te xture s. Eve n if you de cide th at a lot of th e de tails can be adde d late r, you w ill still ne e d to m ak e sure th at you h ave adde d e nough de tail for prope r posing/anim ation. Th e m ost com m on are as th at ne e d adde d de tail are th e joint are as. If you dont add e nough de tail, th e joints w ont de form prope rly and your m ode l w ont be se e n in its be st ligh t.

    Th is w raps up our run-dow n of th ings to conside r be fore starting your ch aracte r. Now fire up Ble nde r and ge t m ode ling! Your ch aracte rs are w aiting to m ak e th e ir big de but!

    - Iz zy

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    Issue 4 M ay 2006NEW S~FLASH

    Th e long aw aite d Ele ph ants Dre am w as pre m ie re d M arch 24th at Cine m a Ke te lh uis, Am ste rdam . By all accounts, it w as a re sounding succe ss. Th is film m ark s an im portant ach ie ve m e nt in Ble nde r and ope n source h istory.

    Afte r th e pre m ie r and w ork sh ops h e ld th at w e e k e nd at M onte vide o (Ke iz e rsgrach t 264, Am ste rdam ), th e Proje ct Orange te am finish e d up last m inute w ork and h e ade d for h om e . But th e proje ct still h ad a lot to accom plish , nam e ly, th e production of th e prom ise d DVD.

    Artw ork for th e DVD disc and pack age sle e ve h as be e n finaliz e d and Joe ri h as be e n h ard at w ork ge tting e ve ryth ing re ady for DVD production. As of April 24th , th e m aste rs h ave be e n finish e d and all file s se nt to th e re production com pany.

    Th e DVD w ill include not only th e film , but all proje ct file s and a docum e ntary for us to drool ove r and tak e apart for our ow n e ducation. By tim e th is article com e s out, m ost of us sh ould h ave re ce ive d our purch ase d DVDs and th ose w h o didnt purch ase it can look forw ard to dow nloading th e file s sh ortly th e re afte r.

    A h uge round of applause is due for th e Orange te am and all th e y h ave accom plish e d. Th e ir h ard w ork h as be e n an inspiration for us all

    Proje ct O range

    Google sum m e r of code 20 0 6Once again, Ble nde r h as be e n invite d to tak e part in th e Google Sum m e r of Code .Google Sum m e r of Code is a program sponsore d by Google for stude nts to apply for a sum m e r coding grant.

    Tak e n from a ne w s ite m poste d by Ton:Last ye ar ove r 400 stude nt proje cts w e re grante d (10 for Ble nde r), and Google e xpe cts to approve th is ye ar e ve n m ore . Alth ough w e 've cre ate d a list of ide as for proje cts, w e e spe cially invite stude nts to subm it proje cts base d on past e xpe rie nce and com pe te nce s, or base d on th e ir curre nt re se arch , so th at th e y can e fficie ntly bring in ne w de ve lopm e nt

    dire ctions for Ble nde r. Coordination of th e Ble nde r SoC proje cts is again done by Ch ris W ant. Stude nts inte re ste d to w ork on a Ble nde r proje ct during July/August can find th e inform ation in th e link s be low. Proje ct applications w ill start on M ay 1 and w ill e nd M ay 8 by 17:00 Pacific Dayligh t Tim e Ble nde r SoC inform ation: h ttp://m e diaw ik i.ble nde r.org/inde x.ph p/Ble nde rDe v/SOC_ 2006_ ide as Google SoC inform ation: h ttp://code .google .com /sum m e rofcode .h tm l

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    Issue 4 M ay 2006New s~Flash

    Sh arpConstruct is an 3D m ode ling application th at allow s you to w ork out on de tails of your pre viously cre ate d 3d m ode l. You can e ve n cre ate th e m ode ls e ntire ly in it as w e ll. It allow s you to w ork on an 3d m ode l as if you are w ork ing on clay push ing and pulling th e surface into place to cre ate sh ape s. Th e variations in brush e s incre ase th e le ve l of ope ratibility for th e use r. On th e fly w ork ing on Sub-div surface s m ak e s it an e xce lle nt tool, th e re sponsive ne ss le ve ls at de ce nt e nough de nse m e sh e s m ak e s w ork ing in it quite ple asurable .

    Sh arp construct h ave be e n in ne w s late ly ow ing to its spe e dy de ve lopm e nt, it h as be com e m uch stable and usable w ith th e re le ase of ve rsion .12x. Due to its nice e nough inte rope rability be tw e e n Ble nde r it m ak e for an pre tty use ful tool for Ble nde r- h e ads, alth ough Ble nde r h ave it sh are of tools th at m im ic functionality of Sh arpConstruct but none is m ore fe ature rich th an

    Sh arpConstruct.

    Sh arpConstruct com e s in th e ge nre of Z brush . Alth ough it is no w ay as advance as Z brush itse lf but give n th at it is ve ry young proje ct and h as sh ow n a lot of pote ntial up till now , w e can e xpe ct it to be com e one of th e m ost pow e rful tools Ope n- source h as to offe r.

    It is available for both W indow s and Linux at h ttp://sh arp3d.source forge .ne t

    Sh arp Construct 0 .12

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    Issue 4 M ay 2006New s~Flash

    Ble nde r h as fe ature s th at are sim ilar to Sh arpConstruct, and in th e form of tw o scripts. One com e s w ith Ble nde r 2.41 and anoth e r m ore m ature script, calle d Expre sso. It is an e xce lle nt pyth on script w ritte n by M ich ae l Sch ardt. It w ork s in re al-tim e w ith in Ble nde r.

    It's inte rface is pre se nte d ne atly w ith in Ble nde r's 3d w indow. Expre sso h as th e m ost intuitive ly de signe d pyth on script for Ble nde r, e ve r.

    Th e curre nt ve rsion1.1.1 w ork e d w ith out any proble m s in Ble nde r 2.41 for W indow s but on Fe dora Core 5, it crash e d e ve n be fore it starte d, a

    constant annoyance w ith pyth on scripts

    You can find it h e re at h ttp://m em bers.fortunecity.de/pytablet/

    Expre sso 1.1.1 Re le ase

    Expre sso1.1.1 inte rface

    Fe stival de Vide o- PortugalSECOND SINTRA VIDEO FESTIVAL

    Afte r th e succe ss of th e first e dition, th e Sintra City Council and th e "Le t's M ak e Te le vision" program m e , are once again organiz ing th e Sintra Vide o Fe stival.

    "Adve rtising" is th e th e m e of th is ye ar's fe stival, w h ich is aim e d at all young pe ople unde r 30, re siding in any part of th e country.

    W ork s m ay be subm itte d in th e form of spot adve rtising, docum e ntary, or vide o.Th e priz e - giving ce re m ony w ill tak e place on April 22, and w ill distinguish th e be st film , th e be st ide a, th e be st film of Sintra are a, th e be st actor/actre ss, and th e be st dire ctor.

    Rule s and applications are available from w w w 2.cm -sintra.pt

    Ple ase note th at th e w e b site is only in Portugue se Language

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    Issue 4 M ay 2006

    M ode ling a ch aracte r is alw ays ch alle nging be cause it's alw ays difficult to ge t a good topology in orde r to ge t nice de form ations and e xpre ssions. For our film proje ct Plum ife ros , w e h ad to m ode l se ve ral ch aracte rs am ong h um ans, cats, diffe re nt type s of birds and e ve n a bat! Since th e y h ave com ple te ly diffe re nt sh ape s and anatom ie s, w e h ad to study e ach case se parate ly.

    At M anos Digitale s Anim ation Studio, w e w ork our m ode ls starting from a ve ry solid ch aracte r analysis m ade in collaboration w ith th e Art De partm e nt. De signe rs h ave long- h our talk ings w ith th e Dire ctor until a look th at re fle cts th e ch aracte r's pe rsonality is ach ie ve d. H ow e ve r, som e tim e s a look th at is appe aling for de signe rs w ill not w ork in 3D or it w ill tak e too m uch tim e to sk in/de form corre ctly. In th e se case s, w e sugge st m odifications according to our

    ow n e xpe rie nce .

    Anim al Plane tTh e Art De partm e nt not only m ade drafts of th e vie w s ne e de d to m ode l th e ch aracte r, th e y also m ade drafts of th e ch aracte r's e xpre ssions and m ove m e nts. It's ve ry im portant to pay atte ntion to th e se sk e tch e s since th e y w ill be th e k e ystone for m e sh topology.W h e n th is m ate rial ge ts to us m ode le rs, w e draw all e dge loops on top of th e m . Th e n w e use diffe re nt m ode ling

    te ch nique s. Som e of us pre fe r th e face -to-face (or poly2poly) approach w h e re w e cre ate th e face s of th e m ain e dge loops first, and th e n join th e m .

    And, som e of us use subdivision m ode ling (or box m ode ling) w h ich is starting from a cube and subdividing and conform ing th e m e sh . In any case , w e start our w ork as if th e ch aracte rs w e re com ple te ly sym m e trical.

    Ch aracte r M ode lingat Plum ife ros

    by M anue l Picasus Pe re z and

    Claudio m ale fico Andaur

    3d~W ORKSH OP

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    Issue 4 M ay 20063d~W ORKSH OP

    Th is spe e ds up th e proce ss. W e m ode l only one h alf using a M irror M odifie r to ge t th e w h ole picture as m ost pe ople do. W h e n th e m ode l is finish e d, th e se m odifie rs are bak e d and non-sym m e trical de tails are adde d.

    One of th e first proble m s w e h ad w as to figure out h ow to de al w ith th e bird ch aracte r's m outh , since birds h ave no lips nor nose . Afte r som e e xpe rim e nts, it w as cle ar th at th e bird's be ak could be tre ate d just as if it w as a com bo of m outh and nose . Cre ating e dge loops

    w ith th is in m ind m ade it e asy to im agine . W h e n be ak s are too long, w e ch ange topology and k e e p th e usual loops ne ar th e h e ad. De ntal parts of non-bird ch aracte rs are m ode le d as se parate obje cts and th e n

    joine d to th e re st of th e inne r parts of th e m outh .

    Ch aracte rs are m ade of partsCh aracte rs are usually m ade of a unique continuous m e sh . W e de cide d to use m ulti-m e sh ch aracte rs for Plum ife ros,

    m e aning ch aracte rs m ade out of diffe re nt m e sh obje cts w ork ing toge th e r, but ne ve r joine d. Th is approach h as th e follow ing advantage s:

    * W e can h ave m ore th an 16 m ate rials pe r ch aracte r.* W e can re use som e parts (w e igh t painting and sh ape k e ys include d) for oth e r ch aracte rs.* From an inte rface point- of- vie w , w e can ge t diffe re nt draw m ode s for diffe re nt parts of a ch aracte r, spe e ding up th e anim ation proce ss w ith out sacrificing de tail.* M ost tools w ork be tte r w ith le ss ve rtice s or m e sh se ctors, lik e m irroring.* It's m ore suitable for te am w ork .* W e can ch ange parts of th e ch aracte r for diffe re nt sce ne s e asily (e ve r trie d to join tw o m e sh e s w ith sh ape k e ys?). e g: dre ss ch ange s

    Th e only draw back s of such a de cision is th e m ore com plicate d sk inning w ork flow (you ne e d to sk in e ve ry part se parate ly and th e n stitch th e parts in som e w ay). For all th e se draw back s, Pyth on cam e to re scue . Th e re is a ve ry h andy pyth on script, w ritte n by Cam pbe ll Barton, th at w e use d a lot: M e sh W e igh t Copy.

    Ch aracte r m ode ling at Plum ife ros

    Illustration 3: Th re e ch aracte rs w ith diffe re nt anatom y: H um an, Pige on, Bat. Edge loops are pre tty sim ilar in th e e nd.

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    Issue 4 M ay 20063d~W ORKSH OP

    Lord of th e W ingsFor our bird ch aracte rs, w e de cide d to m ode l a basic w ing m e sh and from th at, build th e w ings for all ch aracte rs w ith only m inor m e sh e diting. Since w e are using m ulti-m e sh ch aracte rs, w e could add w ings at any tim e w h ile anim ators are w ork ing on corporal or facial e xpre ssion. For th is basic w ing to pe rfe ctly fit oth e r ch aracte rs, w e h ad to de sign a prope r w ing-body inte rface th at w ould w ork for all ch aracte rs.

    W h e n re fe rring to fe ath e rs, I m e an th e m ain fe ath e rs th at are use d in th e bird's fligh t, not th e fe ath e rs cove ring th e

    body. Th e se fe ath e rs w ill be anim ate d, for instance , w h e n th e ch aracte r spre ads its w ings or sh uts th e m .

    Th e w ing fe ath e rs patte rn is a ve ry com ple x and im portant de tail. W e use d se ve ral

    re fe re nce s from all k ind of source s including vide os film e d by

    ourse lve s. Fe ath e rs w e re m ode le d and place d by h and as se parate d obje cts. Diffe re nt plain colour m ate rials w e re applie d in orde r to be tte r ide ntify th e type s of fe ath e rs in th e

    w ing. All of th e se fe ath e rs w e re joine d into one m e sh .

    Be side s th e se functional fe ath e rs m e sh e s, anoth e r m e sh re pre se nting th e m ain part of th e w ing w as m ode le d. In th is m e sh , e dge loops w e re im portant since th is part w ould act lik e a re al w ing, and w ould be de form e d h e avily.

    Ch aracte r m ode ling at Plum ife ros

    Illustration 5: "Basic w ing" for all bird ch aracte rs

    Im g4

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    Issue 4 M ay 20063d~W ORKSH OP

    Th e bat ch aracte r re quire d a com ple te ly diffe re nt approach . Parts of th e w ing sh ould be h ave com ple te ly e lastic allow ing th e ch aracte r to e xpand it or com pre ss it alm ost lik e cloth , and oth e r parts sh ould look fle xible lik e th e rays of an um bre lla. For th e m e m brane parts, w e trie d to stay on th e bare m inim um ve rte x count, trying also to k e e p cle an line s of de form ation to avoid artifacts on w ing be nding.

    Modeling and RiggingOnce th e basic look and fe e l of a

    ch aracte r is ach ie ve d, th e m e sh suffe rs furth e r m odifications in th e sk inning/rigging proce ss. H e re all topology proble m s, th at w e re n't fore se e n, sh ow up in a sort of painful w ay. Th e w orst part is th at th e m e sh ne e ds to be corre cte d w ith out ch anging its e xte rnal sh ape . So, as a re fe re nce , w e use d orth ogonal re nde rs of th e original m e sh e s.

    If a m e sh de form s poorly, it could be cause d by poor rigging, bad sk inning, or bad topology. Eve n w h e n all th e se

    conditions are OK, som e tim e s a m e sh just h as a lack of e dge loops. Som e tim e s m ode le rs, se e k ing a m inim al am ount of ve rtice s, forge t to add e nough e dge loops to guarante e prope r de form ations.

    W e te st th e m e sh e s in diffe re nt actions and se e h ow th e y be h ave . In th is stage of th e proce ss, w e use d to m ode l cloth w rink le s, or ch ange e dge loops dire ctions until w e got th e nice de form ation w e w ante d. For th is k ind of job, w e e dit th e m e sh in its re st state , or if ne e de d, use th e arm ature 's

    de form ate d state (th e so-calle d Crazy Space ).

    Final W ordsI w ish w e h ad m ore spare tim e to w rite a m ore de taile d article but, our production sch e dule is ve ry tigh t. :(

    W e w ould lik e to say Th ank You to all th e Ble nde rh e ads around th e globe w h o are supporting our proje ct and h e lping us in m any w ays, to Ton and th e Orange Te am for th e ir invaluable w ork , and to all code rs w h o are m ak ing Ble nde r bigge r and bigge r

    h ttp://w w w.plum ife ros.com /

    Ch aracte r m ode ling at Plum ife ros

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    Issue 4 M ay 20063d~W ORKSH OP

    IntroductionBe cause of th e re lative ly h igh com ple xity of th e m ode ling proce ss, I de cide d to w rite th is tutorial for th e inte rm e diate ble nde r artists. Th e re w ill be passage s, w h e re you ne e d to continue w ork ing on yourse lf on th e m ode l until th e ne xt im portant ste p is be ing e xplaine d. At all, th is is not a ste p-by-ste p instruction guide ; it is an atte m pt to sh ow you h ow to cre ate organic m ode ls base d on a butte rfly w ith h igh ligh ts on th e m ost im portant parts of th e anim al. Do not forge t th at a m ode ling proce ss is a proce ss of continuous de tailing and re fining.

    W h at is th e m ode l be ing m ade for? I de cide d to m ak e a film for a portfolio pre se ntation, in w h ich th e butte rfly plays th e role of a guide . In th at case , th e re w ill be m any close -up and anim ation sh ots. Since th e sh ots w ill be close , I m ade th e butte rfly re lative ly

    de taile d, but not too de taile d be cause of th e long anim ation re nde ring tim e s. You w ill ne e d to trade off th e de tail of your m ode l for yourse lf, w atch ing it's final de stination.

    Pre parationsI de cide d to m ode l a naturalistic butte rfly. Be cause I h ad not re ally h ad any clue about th is sort of anim al at all, I succe ssfully re nte d a sh ow case and a book about butte rflie s from sch ool. Trust m e , th e book did a good job afte r all, th e butte rflie s in th e sh ow case w e re too sm all to use th e m as a m ode ling re fe re nce . So be fore starting, you sh ould h ave a re fe re nce , tak e a look into th e library or th e Inte rne t. (Fig. 1 and 2) sh ow th e re fe re nce s th at I use d. Th e re is

    a side pe rspe ctive as w e ll as a pe rspe ctive of th e h alf-front h e ad.

    Let's start. Th e abdom e n. As you sh ould do w ith alm ost e ve ry

    organic m ode l, first m ak e a sim ple construction out of prim itive s and re fine it late r. I did not use a re fe re nce picture in th e back ground, but you can do so if you lik e .

    Use Vie w >>Back ground Im age >>Im age to add an im age to your back ground.

    M ode ling a naturalistic butte rfly

    M ode ling a naturalistic butte rfly

    byCh ristian Guck e lsbe rge r

    Le ve l: Inte rm e diate

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    Fine . Le t's do th e th ing from th e back on and start w ith th e abdom e n. I use d a cube from th e side pe rspe ctive [Num 3] and e xtrude d it 4 tim e s. Th e n, I inse rte d tw o ve rte x row s by e nte ring [K] in e dit m ode [TAB], using a loop cut. As an alte rnative , you can also use norm al cuts [K] or m ulticuts [K] or subdivide it tw ice or se ve ral tim e s, but w ith th e last m e th od, you w ill probably h ave to de al w ith unw ante d ve rtice row s at th e e nd. (Fig. 3) sh ow s h ow th e e xtrude d cube look s afte r aligning it on th e sim ple sh ape of th e butte rfly abdom e n.

    Now you w ill ne e d to continue e xtruding th e m e sh righ t to th e th orax part (Fig.4). Afte r aligning th e prim itive m e sh to th e butte rfly sh ape from th e side pe rspe ctive , you w ill also h ave to do th e sam e from th e top one [Num 7]. Try to m ak e th e m ode l sm ooth and round. You

    can also alre ady use Subsurfs (Editing>>M odifie rs>>Subsurf>>Le ve ls) to se e h ow th e m ode l look s sm ooth e d. (Fig. 5) Pay atte ntion to th e h igh ligh te d ve rte x row in (Fig. 5). Late r, it sh ould be com e th e borde r be tw e e n th e uppe r-body (inse ct sh e ll) and th e low e r body. As you can se e in (Fig.5) too, I also alre ady adde d 2 cuts to e ve ry ve rtical one to indicate th e late r borde rs

    be tw e e n th e sh e ll se gm e nts, as w e ll as to re fine th e back - e nd of th e inse ct.Now it is tim e to de fine th e diffe re nt sh e ll se gm e nts th e first tim e . Se le ct th e m iddle of th e 3 row s w h ich indicate a sh e ll division and scale it a bit sm alle r [s] (Fig. 6). You sh ould re pe at th is w ith e ve ry row , th e n continue w ith th e ne xt

    ste p. Ok ay, now w e w ill continue de fining th e diffe re nt se gm e nts of th e abdom e n. To de fine th e uppe r sh e ll, use th e face -se le ct m ode and se le ct all face s th at are low e r th an th e borde r line be tw e e n th e sh e ll and th e low e r-body (Fig. 7).

    M ode ling a naturalistic butte rfly

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    Now w e use [E] to e xtrude th e low e r part and inse rt one m ore row of face s and th e scale -tool [S] to scale th e w h ole low e r part just a bit sm alle r. Le t's m ove th e w h ole th ing [G+ M M B] ve rtically until both line s (th e uppe r line of th e se le cte d se gm e nt and th e sh e ll borde r line ) ne arly cove r e ach oth e r (Fig. 8).

    As you can se e , th e ve rtice s of th e uppe r row of th e se le cte d se gm e nt do not stand dire ctly unde r th e one s of th e

    borde r line anym ore . Use th e scale -tool [S+ M M B] again and just scale th e low e r part h orizontally th is tim e , until e ach ve rtice appe ars unde r its ne igh bor again. You can also use th e m ove -tool [G] for th is, but it de finite ly w ill ne e d m ore tim e be cause you w ill ne e d to m ove e ve ry pair of ve rtice s on th e ir ow n.

    Th e Th orax + H e adProce e d e xtruding th e m e sh righ t to th e h e ad and align it to th e inse ct sh ape again. Do not forge t to align it also from th e top pe rspe ctive ! :) For th e h e ad, w e can use a sim ple box subdivide d by th e line s w e alre ady got, so just e xtrude th e th orax again a little bit. Look on (Fig. 9 ) to se e th e w h ole proce ss so far. You sh ould also pay atte ntion to th e

    re fine m e nt of th e back - e nd w h ich I alre ady did. Now continue to m ak e th e h e ad sm ooth e r, m ak ing it look lik e a low -

    de taile d h alf-sph e re from th e side pe rspe ctive . Use th e m ove -tools [G] to ach ie ve th is by e asily m oving th e ve rtice s w h ich w e alre ady got due to our form e r cuts (Fig. 10). (Fig. 11) sh ow s an im age of th e m ode l w e got so far w ith Subsurface turne d on (le ve l 2).

    M ode ling a naturalistic butte rfly

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    Fig8

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    De tails of th e h e adAs you can se e , th e butte rfly on th e re fe re nce picture h as got ante nnas on h is h e ad. Th e re are diffe re nt, bre e d- spe cific ante nnas but w e w ill try to im itate th e se one s. Se le ct tw o face s w h ich are large e nough to be com e th e ante nnas on th e uppe r h e ad from th e top vie w and e xtrude th e m by [E>>Individual Face s] th e w ay it is sh ow n in (Fig. 12). If you ne e d to se le ct tw o or m ore face s on e ach side of th e h e ad (e ach side sh ould be e qual, as m irrore d if you did e ve ryth ing righ t so far), you ne e d to e xtrude th e ante nnas se parate ly.

    If you ne e d so, do it w ith one , th e n copy it and conne ct th e low e r face s w ith th e face s of

    th e h e ad [V] as you can se e in (Fig. 12). I first did th e e xtrusion w ith one or tw o face s, th e n inse rte d som e m ore row s in it and scale d th e m a bit ve rtically/h orizontally from th e top vie w to m ak e th e ante nnas a bit sm ooth e r, not th at cubic. Try to give th e se parts of th e body th e ir spe cific look by e xtruding straigh t, e xtruding and siz ing, e xtruding and siz ing again and th e n e xtruding straigh t again... also try to m ak e th e individual se gm e nts diffe re nt from e ach oth e r to give th e m ode l a random look .

    As you can se e on th e re fe re nce im age , th e ante nnas be com e large r at th e top, so

    le t's do th e m as sh ow n in (Fig. 13). You sh ould also alw ays tak e a look on th e oth e r pe rspe ctive s (front [Num 1], side [Num

    3]) to pre ve nt an unw ante d sh ifting of th e ve rtice s. In both last Fig., I alre ady be nt th e ante nnas a bit to th e le ft and righ t (se e n from th e front) by se le cting som e of th e uppe r ve rtice s, turning Proportional Edit Falloff on [O], se le cting a give n falloff m e th od (h e re I use d a com bination of sm ooth and root falloff) and m oving th e

    w h ole th ing w ith th e m ove -tool [G]. Probably you w ill ne e d to e xpe rim e nt a bit w ith th e righ t falloff m e th od to re ach satisfying re sults. Try it on your ow n. If th e re are also unw ante d ve rtice s, e .g. from th e ne igh bor ante nna sh ifte d w ith , try to m ove th e oth e r ante nna far aw ay w ith Proportional Edit Falloff off and sh ift th e m back late r (Fig. 14 sh ow s th e w h ole , finish e d ante nna of m y m ode l).

    M ode ling a naturalistic butte rfly

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    Fine . Le t's m ak e th e h e ad a bit m ore com ple x now. I adde d face t- e ye s to th e h e ad by adding an Icosph e re (4 Subdivisions), m oving it to th e corre ct place from th e front and side pe rspe ctive and e rasing th e part of it th at protrude s into th e inse cts h e ad. I use d to cre ate th e Icosph e re s out of th e e dit m ode [TAB] to h ave th e m as a single m e sh and on th at w ay, se parate ly for th e late r te xturing proce ss. Finally I got a bit m ore th an a h alf Icosph e re on e ach side w h ich I fitte d on th e h e ad by using th e Proportional Edit Falloff Tools [O] again. Th is action could ne e d som e tim e until th e w h ole e ye fits (ne arly) pe rfe ctly to th e h e ad. So tak e som e coffe e and be patie nt. :) In addition, I also adde d a

    ring, m ade by e xtruding a circle se ve ral tim e s (using th e scale -tool [S]) and fitte d it on th e h e ad as w e ll, as a k ind of

    fram e for th e inse ct e ye s (Fig. 15). As a furth e r e ffe ct, th is re ve als th e unattractive are a w h e re th e Icosph e re h its th e H e ad's Surface .

    Afte r applying th e e ye s, w e w ill continue w ith th e se cond instrum e nt th e se anim als h ave on th e ir h e ad. As you can se e on (Fig. 15), th e y start out as ne arly as unde r th e e ye and long until th e uppe r e nd of it. Th e ir structure is re lative ly e qual to th e one of th e ante nnas, so use th e sam e te ch nique to cre ate th e m .

    As you can se e in (Fig. 16), I also cre ate d a be ak w h ich h oists spiral unde r th e h e ad. You can e asily cre ate th is by

    e xtruding one face from th e uppe r m iddle h e ad and continuing e xtruding [E] and rotating [R] it until you h ave a spiral. I did th e w h ole

    th ing a bit m ore com ple x to give it a bit of structure as you can se e in (Fig. 17). Th e re is also a "m outh " (or be tte r: h ole ) sh ow n w h e re th e be ak com e s out. I took th is scre e nsh ot w ith Subsurface s turne d off, so you h ave a be tte r insigh t into th e m ode ling structure . As you can se e above th e be ak (or m outh , se e n from th e top or front pe rspe ctive ), I h ad to m ak e som e m ore cuts to de fine th e m . Do not use loop cuts [K] all th e tim e . Inste ad of th is, use norm al cuts [K] to incre ase just th e part of ge om e try you re ally w ant to incre ase in de tail and avoid proble m s w ith too m any face s or proble m s w ith too ch ise le d e dge s (Th is occurs w h e n too m any e dge s com e too close toge th e r on oth e r re gions of th e m e sh , e .g.) w h e n turning Subsurf on again.

    M ode ling a naturalistic butte rfly

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    Fig16 Fig17

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    Th e le gs and th e ir conne ction to th e body.As se e n on th e re fe re nce im age , th e butte rfly h as a sh e ll around it's le gs as w e ll as on th e part w h ich finally conne cts to th e re st of th e body. Th is part look s re lative ly com ple x w h ich w ould ne e d a lot of additional ve rtice s in th e th orax ge om e try and on th at w ay could probably disturb th e Subsurf functionality or e asily incre ase th e ve rte x count unne ce ssarily. Be cause of th is, I did th e se e le m e nts as w e ll as th e le gs se parate ly. So - le t's ge t of e dit-m ode [TAB] and first cre ate tw o le gs as

    se e n on (Fig. 18). I starte d out w ith a circle (about 5-7 ve rtice s) from th e top vie w and e xtrude d it until I re ach e d a m ode l as sh ow n in th e figure . To cre ate th e individual sh e ll se gm e nts, you can use th e sam e te ch nique as alre ady done w ith th e abdom e n or th e ante nnas. To m ak e th e individual sh e ll parts sh ifting unde r e ach oth e r, m ove [G] and scale [S] th e m until th e y re ach a bit unde r th e ne igh bor sh e ll se gm e nt, as se e n in (Fig. 19 ).

    Th e re is also th e low e st part of th e inse ct, its claw s, sh ow n. M ode ling th e m h igh ly de taile d incre ase s th e visual

    com ple xity of your final m ode l. W e w ill use th e te ch nique sh ow n h e re to re fine th e abdom e n late r in th e de tails se ction. Now w e sh ould h ave m ode ls as in (Fig. 20) and in (Fig. 18, th e oth e r le gs).

    Now w e w ill start

    out w ith th e conne ctions to th e body. I did a cube at first, flatte ne d it a bit [S+ M M B], e rase d th e bottom face and th e n inse rte d som e loop cuts [K].

    M ode ling a naturalistic butte rfly

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    I continue d m oving th e ve rtice s until I re ach e d a form as in th e re fe re nce im age s. Th e n, I fitte d th e m on th e th orax by using th e Proportional Edit Falloff tools from th e 3d- and side -pe rspe ctive [Num 3] and e xtrude d one e dge until th e y re ach e d th e uppe r m iddle of th e th orax. As a last ste p, I m irrore d th e part and joine d th e tw o m e sh e s by h itting [J]. Now I conne cte d th e parts I e xtrude d be fore to th e uppe r m iddle of th e th orax toge th e r (Use [V]-k e y w h ile h aving 2, 3 or 4 unconne cte d ve rtice s se le cte d to cre ate a line , a tri, or a quad). Th at's it. Now you just ne e d to

    m ak e 2 variations of th is form for th e oth e r 2 pairs of le gs. You can also cre ate som e de e p-structure by m ak ing 3 ve rtical cuts again and m oving th e m iddle of th e m along

    th e z -axis of th e m ode l. You can se e th is in (Fig. 21). Look for (Fig. 18) to se e th e conne ction parts from th e side pe rspe ctive .

    Re fining th e m ain bodyOk ay... th e m ode l isn't look ing bad, but th e re are still th ings th at ne e d to be m ore inte nsive , e xpre ssive to look naturalistic. For e xam ple : Th e sh e ll se gm e nts (again! ;) ). W e w ill use th e sam e m e th od of m oving one sh e ll se gm e nt unde r its ne igh bor as w e alre ady did w ith th e claw s. Se le ct one row of face s in face - se le ct-m ode , scale th e m a bit sm alle r [S] and m ove [G] th e m unde r th e oth e r face row. (Fig. 22)

    M ode ling a naturalistic butte rfly

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    Now w e w ill finish -up th e back -part of th e inse ct. As se e n in th e re fe re nce again, th e re is a k ind of incision in th e sh e ll w h e re anoth e r part of th e body is visible be tw e e n th e uppe r and low e r sh e ll. You m ay also m ode l th is th e follow ing w ay: First e longate th e uppe r part a bit and de le te th e face s be tw e e n th e uppe r and low e r part. Afte r th is, e xtrude th e borde r face s of th e ope n low e r part to th e m iddle and se condly to th e inne rm ost part of th e inse ct. Th e n, I e xtrude d it again out of th e m e sh and form e d th e body part w h ich is m ark e d in (Fig. 23). Finally, do not forge t to close th e ope n m e sh by se le cting 4 ve rtice s and h itting [V].

    As a th ird de tail, you can e xtrude som e ch ose n face s of th e top th orax and e xtrude th e m too, to cre ate also som e sh e ll se gm e nts on th is place . Se e (Fig. 24) for th is

    M ode ling a naturalistic butte rfly

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    Th e w ingsAs you can also se e in (Fig. 24 and Fig. 25), I se le cte d 2 pairs of face s and e xtrude d th e m on both side s of th e body in th e top pe rspe ctive [Num 7]. You can use th e scale -tool [S] in th at case to e xtrude th e m aw ay from th e m idpoint afte r h itting [E] for e xtrude . Now , start to build a construct of m uscle s and/or ve ins w h ich start at th e body and be com e sm alle r and sm alle r in th e w ings re gion. Th e look of th e se m uscle s/ve ins diffe rs from e ach butte rfly too, so tak e a look at your pe rsonal re fe re nce or e asily

    do it as you lik e :). Do not forge t to m ak e th e se gm e nts a bit th inne r at th e e nd, using th e scale -tool [S] again. Ple ase do th is w h ole action for just one side at first. Now se le ct your one - side construction, m irror it, and attach it to th e oth e r e xtrude d e nds on th e oth e r side by [V]- k e y (Fig. 26).Ok ay.

    Le t's start w ith th e w ings surface s. Th e re are se ve ral m e th ods to ach ie ve th is, e .g. 3d spline s, polygonal surface s e tc. For now , w e w ill continue w ith our

    te ch nique w e use d so far: Go out of e dit-m ode [TAB] to m ak e it e asie r to te xture late r. Now start

    w ith a sim ple cube again and flatte n it so it be com e s ve ry th in (but don't forge t th at it probably be com e s e ve n th inne r w h e n Subsurfs are turne d on). Try to cre ate tw o sh ape s (Fig. 27) by e xtrusion [E] and re fining ([K] for loop cuts or norm al cuts e tc.) w h e re as th e uppe r one (as se e n in (Fig. 28)) ove rlaps th e low e r one just a little bit.

    M ode ling a naturalistic butte rfly

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    Now , turn subsurface s on and m ak e th e w ings in de pth a bit irre gular. For th is, w e can also use th e Proportional Edit Falloff-Tool [O] de spite w e could also use lattice s, e tc. But for now , w e w ill try to m inim iz e th e assortm e nt of tools use d and tak e th e first one . You sh ould pay som e atte ntion to th e w ings th at still ove rlap, but ne arly conne ct to e ach oth e r w ith th e ir low e r and uppe r surface . In (Fig. 29 ), th e de pth s of th e surface I use d h e re are m ark e d, just for

    e xam ple . Now com e s th e last ste p w e ne e d to do: W e w ill ne e d to tak e a look to se e if th e m uscle s or ve ins w e did just som e ste ps be fore are still visibly conne cte d to th e w ings in top [Num 7] and bottom pe rspe ctive . If th e y are not, try to ach ie ve th is by m oving or w e lding th e m w ith th e Proportional Editing Tools [O] and/or th e m ove -tool [G].

    Ok ay - now re cline and be h old your m ode l - did you e ve r im agine th at a butte rfly look s lik e th at? Ch e ck your re fe re nce - if it's ide ntical, you did a ve ry good job.

    M ode ling a naturalistic butte rfly

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    Th e final, ye t unte xture d and unrigge d re sult can be se e n be low. I h ope I h ave succe ssfully cove re d all aspe cts of th e m ode l and h ave w ritte n a com pre h e nsible tutorial

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    Th e Mak ing of Spe cial PEZ Dispe nse rsIn m y re ce nt M FA Th e sis Exh ibition, I pre se nte d PEZ dispe nse rs w h ich w e re constructe d w ith found obje cts, h and fabricate d and com pute r ge ne rate d e le m e nts. In th is article I w ill focus on th e te ch nical possibilitie s th at Ble nde r provide s artists in cre ating CAD ge ne rate d e le m e nts.

    Toge th e r, Ble nde r and Yafray are a ve ry strong toolse t w h ich provide all ne e de d m ode ling and re nde ring tools to visualiz e ide as and e xplore variations in a sh ort pe riod of tim e . W ith its e xce lle nt m ode ling and anim ation tools, Ble nde r allow s th e de signe r to virtually cre ate h is obje ct and proof m e ch anical e le m e nts. Yafray tak e s core for a ph otore alistic re nde ring.

    H ow e ve r, in te rm s of m ode ling, Ble nde r also offe rs th e possibility to

    e xport 3D ge om e try into th e STL (Ste re o Lith ograph y) form at to transcribe to 3D printe rs.

    It is im portant to k e e p one lim itation in m ind about Ble nde r: Ble nde r doe s not support advance d NURBS tools. And NURBS tools are e sse ntial w h e n de signing sh ape s and e le m e nts th at re quire a h igh am ount of pre cision. And polygons do not offe r th at pre cision e ith e r. H ow e ve r, w h e n a NURBS obje ct is e xporte d into th e STL form at, th e surface is te sse llate d and save d as a polygon m e sh . Good re sults w ill re quire a h igh te sse llation of th e NURBS obje cts. Th is is sim ilar to w ork ing w ith Polygons. W h ile polygons cannot re place NURBS, th e y h ave th e ir ow n advantage s. Organic m ode ling is todays stre ngth of Polygons. Toge th e r w ith Subdivide d Surface s, you not only h ave th e e asy m ode ling tools to quick ly cre ate your de sire d sh ape s, but also Subdivide d Surface s th at are ne e de d for fine te sse llation to gain sm ooth STL file s.

    During th e past th re e se m e ste rs at Bow ling Gre e n State Unive rsity, I h ave e xplore d a de sign proce ss in w h ich I

    include traditional and com pute r-aide d approach e s to e xplore , de ve lop, and construct m y art obje cts.

    Th is proce ss be gins w ith fe w quick sk e tch e s to capture th e m ost im portant ide as of th e proje ct. H and sk e tch ing allow s one to quick ly e xplore m any ide as in a ve ry rough w ay. H ow e ve r sk e tch e s,

    by nature , h ave a h abit of be ing tw o-dim e nsional, static, and disproportionate . Th is is w h e n Ble nde r be com e s an e sse ntial tool. Afte r th e m ain e le m e nts are w ork e d out, Ble nde r is use d to construct ide as in a th re e -dim e nsional space and to re fine th e obje cts.

    Th e M ak ing of Spe cial PEZ dispe nse rs

    Rapid Prototyping w ith Ble nde r for Je w e lry/M e tal Artists

    By Claas Eick e Kuh ne n

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    Th e advantage of sw itch ing to Ble nde r afte r th is be ginning stage is th at th e m ain and im portant ide as are e xplore d and a solid foundation is cre ate d on w h ich Ble nde r can re st. Afte r an initial m ode ling se ssion (w h ich ofte n re quire s quite som e tim e ), applying ch ange s to th e de sign, adding sm all e le m e nts, or ch anging th e point of vie w only re quire fe w click s of th e m ouse . It is during th is stage th at de cisions conce rning m ate rial th ick ne ss, scale and proportions are m ade . Spe cifically, w h e n m e ch anical e le m e nts are involve d in th e de sign, th e ir inte raction w ill be e xplore d and re fine d.

    W ork ing w ith th e corre ct m ate rial th ick ne ss is ve ry im portant

    w h e n you are incorporating rapid prototype d obje cts into your art. For e xam ple , if it is too th in, th e obje ct m igh t crack .

    At th is point, all of th e im portant aspe cts of th e de signs de ve lopm e nt are com ple te . In th e follow ing ste p, orth ograph ic vie w s of th e 3D m ode l are printe d out in 1:1 and use d as a re fe re nce to start constructing th e m e tal e le m e nts.

    Th e m ajority of th e m e tal w ork can be constructe d using flat sh e e ts of m e tal. Th e te m plate s ne e d to be saw e d out,

    file d, be nt, and/or solde re d toge th e r. H ow e ve r, cre ating a re alistic h e ad out of a sh e e t of m e tal is not so e asy. Th is task re quire s a diffe re nt approach .

    Th ank s to Ble nde rs STL e xport fe ature , th e naturalistically m ode le d h e ad could be se nt to a zCore 3D printe r to cre ate m ultiple , re al th re e -dim e nsional re plications. During th is proce ss it w as im portant to w ork w ith close d surface s. Th e zCore softw are ne e ds close d solids, or close d surface s w ith a m ode le d th ick ne ss to calculate w h e re it h as to glue th e starch pow de r toge th e r, w h ich at th e e nd w ill turn into th e de sire d obje ct.

    Th e M ak ing of Spe cial PEZ dispe nse rs

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    Th e zCore 3D Printe r w ork s lik e a re gular printe r, but inste ad of using ink it use s glue .Th e printe r starts by laying dow n a ve ry th in laye r of starch ove r w h ich th e printe r h e ad puts dow n glue drops w h e re th e

    3D m ode l re quire s it. Afte r th at th e printe r brush e s anoth e r th in laye r of starch pow de r ove r th e first one and again glue drople ts are applie d.Th rough th is proce ss th e zCore Printe r cre ate s your 3D re plication laye r by laye r.

    Th e se fragile 3D prints sh ould be se ale d w ith a spe cial and fast-drying e poxy glue to

    pre ve nt any dam age . Th is proce ss w ork s be st w h e n th e 3D prints are place d in an ove n to w arm th e m up. Th e te m pe rature w ill m ak e th e e poxy glue sink de e p into th e surface w h e n applie d. Th is pre ve nts any glue re m aining on top of th e surface and cove ring any structural de tail. Tw o coats of glue are e nough to cre ate a ve ry solid plastic h ull or surface .

    Th e only re m aining ste p is to Ele ctroform th e pie ce s. To e le ctroform m e ans th at you are grow ing m e tal onto your pie ce . In th is case , coppe r is use d. To pre ve nt any dam age to th e solid obje ct or th e e le ctroform e r, th e starch pow de r inside th e 3D print sh ould be w ash e d out w h e n th e 3D print only h as a ve ry th in e poxy glue se aling. It could h appe n, th at som e w ate r w ill flow th rough th e porous e poxy sk in and m ak e th e starch e xpand w h e n place d into th e e le ctroform e r. Th is w ill re sult in crack e d surface s w h ich , h ow e ve r, also can re sult into be autiful crack de tails w h e n de sire d. Afte r applying e le ctrodag (a coppe r paint) to th e h e ad and se aling th e inside w ith w ax and attach ing a coppe r w ire to it, th e 3D h e ad can be place d into th e e le ctroform e r.

    Th e M ak ing of Spe cial PEZ dispe nse rs

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    For th e final h e ad, th e le ft side of th e face got th re e coatings of

    e le ctrodag, w h ile th e righ t side only re ce ive d one ve ry th in laye r. Th is re sulte d in th e le ft side be ing strong and solid and th e le ft side be ing th in, fragile and only partially e le ctroplate d. Th rough a longe r plating proce ss w ith a low am p se tting, a solid and e ve n coppe r surface w as cre ate d. Tow ards th e e nd of th e proce ss, th e am ps w e re incre ase d to cre ate a strong nodulation on th e righ t side of th e face . Th e nodulation turne d into an e ffe ct, w h ich look s lik e th e h e ad is de caye d.

    Th e final stage of th e de sign proce ss is re ach e d. W h ile m ost im portant e le m e nts w e re finaliz e d w ith th e first sk e tch se ssion and late r in Ble nde r, during th e proce ss of asse m bling all e le m e nts, th e de sign is tw e ak e d and ch ange d furth e rm ore . Th e printe d de sign plans are a pe rfe ct playground for som e m ore re fine d sk e tch ing. Quite ofte n is it th e case th at th e proble m solving re quire s you to go forw ard and back w ards be tw e e n th e se tw o approach e s until th e final re sult is re ach e d

    Th e M ak ing of Spe cial PEZ dispe nse rs

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    Alth ough Povray is an e xce lle nt ray-tracing softw are , Ble nde r use rs did not h ave m any w ays of using it cle anly until th e re le ase of Ble nd2Pov. Alth ough Ble nd2Pov w as born as a script, just lik e th e JM S Ble nde r-to-POV e xporte r, th e script e xporte d th e XM L ge ne rate d by Ble nde r for Yafray to a POV form at. Now in th e ir late st ve rsion (0.0.6a at th e m om e nt of w riting th is article ), Ram on Carlos Ruiz (RC Ruiz , th e script auth or) h as succe ssfully inte grate d it as th e re nde r UI w ith in Ble nde r (Figure 1). Th is provide s alm ost se am le ss inte gration for PovRay, base d on cle ve r usage of th e Yafray code . Th is article w ill te ach you h ow to use Ble nd2Pov.

    InstallationTo m ak e it w ork , you w ill ne e d to install th e Ble nd2Pov binary w h ich you can find at Elysiun, and also th e ne w e st ve rsion of

    Povray. You m ay also w ant to install M e gapov, as it is com patible to Povray and h as additional fe ature s lik e H DRI support and Film Exposure .

    Righ t now , th e re is no e xe cutable installation for Ble nd2pov, so you h ave to unz ip th e rar arch ive of ble nd2pov into a folde r and re nam e th e ble nde r.e xe to som e th ing lik e ble nde r2pov.e xe and copy it to th e de fault Ble nde r installation folde r. You m ay also w ant to cre ate a sh ortcut to it for your de sk top.

    Be fore going any furth e r, e xe cute th e Ble nd2Pov program to m ak e sure it loads corre ctly. If it give s som e m issing file e rrors, m ak e sure th at you place d th e re nam e d Ble nd2Pov file in your Ble nde r installation folde r.

    Afte r th e succe ssful installation of Ble nd2Pov and Povray, you'll be able to acce ss it dire ctly from Ble nde r's Re nde r button just as you do w ith Yafray (Figure 1).

    Fe ature sNow w e w ill de scribe e ach one of th e buttons for th e Ble nde r2Pov GUI in th e

    'Re nde r buttons w indow '

    Re nde ring w ith POVRay from Ble nde r

    Re nde ring w ith Povray from Ble nde r

    ByJos M auricio and Rodas R. "M orfe us"

    Fig1. Povray as re nde ring e ngine .

    Fig2. Th e Povray GUI

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    Bak e Radio& Ph otTh e purpose of th is is to save th e radiosity* and ph otons data in "e xp.rad" and "e xp.ph " file s th at are store d in th e de fault Yafray path . If you w ant to re nde r an anim ation w ith PovRay, it is re com m e nde d th at you re nde r th e FIRST fram e w ith th is button activate d. Th e n, disable 'Bak e Radio& Ph ot' and e nable 'Load Pre vious Bak e '. Finally, re nde r th e anim ation. Doing th is w ill save you som e tim e on radiosity calculations.

    Load Previous Bak eTh is button is use d afte r you h ave save d th e Radiosity and or Ph oton data in th e first fram e of your anim ation. It save s tim e during th e re nde ring by using th e save d data from th e "e xp.rad" and "e xp.ph " file s.

    Th e quality of th e radiosity is configure d by de fault pre se ts in Ble n2Pov, w h ich tak e s advantage of th e store d value s in th e "rad_ de f.inc" file s.

    Re nde ring w ith POVRay from Ble nde r

    Fig3. Radiosity se le ctor

    Radios ity is a te ch niq ue us e d for th e calculation of Global Illum ination. Illum ination is done by e m itting ligh t from e ach obje ct in th e sce ne . O bje cts absorb ce rtain q uantitie s of th e e ne rgy and also re fle ct som e part, for w h at can be cons ide re d as ligh t e m is s ion by re fle ction. It is done in such a w ay th at all th e surface s in th e sce ne act as am bie nt ligh ts , and th e re fore e ach one affe cts th e illum ination of th e oth e r surface s (w e ll-k now n ph e nom e non as D iffus e Inte r-re fle ction of th e ligh t ).

    Th e calculation of Radios ity is bas e d on m ath e m atical m e th ods th at are de pe nde nt on Raytrace rs . Povray us e s th e Gre g W ard Me th od for radios ity calculation. Th is provide s a form of re placing th e old calculations (constant value of am bie nce ) w ith a value of ligh t bas e d on th e inte raction of ligh t in th e ne igh boring surface s .

    Radiosity

    Fig4. Radiosity Options

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    Now w e w ill go th rough th e available radiosity type options.No Radiosity: W h e n se le cting th is option Ble nd2Pov doe sn't calculate radiosity.Radiosity De fault: As th e nam e indicate s it loads th e de fault radiosity param e te rs, th e re sults m ay be bad de pe nding on th e sce ne , but it is good e nough to m ak e te st re nde rs w ith out sacrificing re nde r tim e .Radiosity Fast: Th is m ak e s a quick calculation for radiosity, th us is of low quality but supe rior to th e De fault.Radiosity Norm al: Th is use s typical value s of radiosity for sce ne s w h e re ge ne rally a good re nde r is re quire d, but not sacrificing too m uch on re nde ring tim e (for e xam ple , anim ations).Radiosity 2Bounce : Th is use s value s of 'Radiosity Norm al' but m ak e s a double bounce of ligh t, im proving th e sce ne . Th is is ach ie ve d by alte ring a spe cial Povray param e te r calle d 'th e re cursion_ lim it'. Th is param e te r controls th e quantity of tim e s th at th e ligh t inte racts w ith an obje ct. Th e re is m axim um of 20. In th is case , th e value of th e re cursion_ lim it is at 2. Th is also incre ase s th e re nde r tim e .

    Re nde ring w ith POVRay from Ble nde r

    De fault (20 Se c) Fast (38 Se c)

    Norm al (1 50 Se c)

    Above com parison of th e q uality and re nde r tim e s w ith diffe re nt radios ity on th e sam e sce ne :

    2Bounce ( 5M in 50 Se c)

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    Radiosity Final: As th e nam e indicate s, it is use d for h igh quality re nde rs and as you gue sse d w ith e ve n h igh e r re nde r tim e s. Radiosity OutdoorLQ: Th e low -quality radiosity re nde ring for outdoor sce ne s. It w ill be spe e die r. It is use d to sim ulate radiosity in e xte rnal sce ne s in w h ich th e ligh t com e s from a source of punctual ligh t. Th e re nde r is of low quality and is ide al for te sting due to th e low re nde r tim e s. Radiosity OutdoorH Q: Th is is th e opposite of th e pre vious se tting and is use d for h igh - quality re nde rings of outdoor sce ne s.Radiosity OutdoorLigh t: Th is is use d to sim ulate radiosity in e xte rnal sce ne s w ith th e sun as a prim ary source of ligh t. H ow e ve r, th e quality is sim ilar to OutdoorLQ.Radiosity IndoorLQ: Th is is use d to sim ulate radiosity in inte rior sce ne s. It use s a 're cursion lim it' value of 2.Radiosity IndoorH Q: Th is is use d to sim ulate radiosity in inte rior sce ne s using a 're cursion_ lim it' value of 3. Th e re nde r tim e is h igh so, th is is be st use d for your final re nde rs.

    Re nde ring w ith POVRay from Ble nde r

    Final (13 M in 37 Se c) Outdoor LQ (32Se c)

    Outdoor H Q (12 M in 11 Se c)

    Above com parison of th e q uality and re nde r tim e s w ith diffe re nt radios ity on th e sam e sce ne :

    Outdoor Ligh t (20 Se c)

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    You can ach ie ve be tte r radiosity configurations by m odifying th e radiosity param e te rs inside Povray or, by m odifying th e PovGlobalRad value from w ith in Ble nde r. Re m e m be r, w h e ne ve r you m odify Radiosity param e te rs in Ble nd2POV you w ill h ave to ge ne rate ne w Bak e Radio& Ph ot.

    Ph otons Th is button e nable s th e ge ne ration of caustics in your sce ne . If not activate d by de fault, fak e caustics are ge ne rate d, w h ose re sults can som e tim e s be good. Th e param e te rs of th e ph otons for caustics are store d in th e "e xp.ph " file . Th e ph otons are use d as h e lpe rs for Radiosity calculations.

    Alth ough th e fak e caustic re sults are not so gre at, th e se can be use ful in sce ne s w ith large quantitie s of w ate r (for e xam ple , unde rw ate r in a se a or a pool). In th e se type of e nvironm e nts, re nde ring th e caustics w ith ph otons w ill tak e a ve ry, ve ry long tim e . So, it is sugge ste d to use fak e caustics h e re . Th is can be dire ctly adjuste d from Povray using th e k e yw ord caustics pow e r, th is com m and can h ave a value be tw e e n 0.0 and 1.0. Note th at caustics are not sim ulate d w h e n th e value is se t to 0.0. Th e value of caustics pow e r is introduce d as an Inte rior param e te r of th e m ate rials.

    Re nde ring w ith POVRay from Ble nde r

    Indoor LQ (46 Se c) Indoor H Q (25 M in 36 Se c)

    Radiosity 2bounce (11 M in 34 Se c) Radiosity 2bounce (4 M in 47 Se c)

    W ith Ph otons W ith out Ph otons

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    Jitte rTh is is a condition for th e are a ligh t th at m ak e s it ge ne rate a random sam pling of th e are a ligh t, th e re by sm ooth ing th e laye rs of ligh t & sh adow sam ple s. Th is, h ow e ve r, cause s proble m s in anim ations as it ge ne rate s random sam ple s of th e sm ooth ne ss and se e m s to jum p in th e anim ations. Se e th e e xam ple im age s for a be tte r unde rstanding of its e ffe ct.

    De fault Am bie ntTh is produce s th e sam e e ffe ct as th at of Ble nde r's 'Em it' function.

    Exe c. PovRayTh e function of th is button is ve ry sim ple , to run PovRay for re nde ring as soon as re nde r button is pre sse d. If Exe c. PovRay is activate d, th e sce ne ge ts e xporte d to th e Povray form at and th e im age is re nde re d dire ctly w ith in Povray.

    Auto AAIf th is button is pre sse d, th e re nde r is Anti-aliase d in Povray. It is ide al for a te st re nde r. It is pre sse d by de fault. If you de se le ct th is button, th re e ne w options w ill appe ar: AA Sam ple s, AA Passe s and Th r (AA Th re sh old). Th e se ne w options

    w ill allow you to h ave m anual control ove r anti-aliasing.

    Th e AA Sam ple s is use d w h e n using DOF (De pth of Fie ld). AA Passe s is th e quantity of passe s th at are use d in th e re nde r for aliasing. Th r (AA Th re sh old) is th e se paration value of th e pixe l re gion to anti-alias.

    Re nde ring w ith POVRay from Ble nde r

    Fig5. Antialiasing options

    Radiosity 2bounce (5 M in 14 Se c) Radiosity 2bounce (7 M in 55 Se c)

    W ith Jitte r W ith out Jitte r

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    Rayde pthTh is is th e num be r of bounce s of th e ray and is im portant for glass and m irrors. H igh e r num be rs e qual be tte r re sults. Th is also w ill e ffe ct th e re nde ring tim e .

    Proce ssorsTh is option is curre ntly not active in th is ve rsion of Ble nd2Pov.

    Gam aGam m a is re late d to th e OSA proce dure , th e ove rsam pling of pixe ls th at are m ixe d to ge ne rate th e final re nde r. Th e conve ntional re nde ring h as a Gam m a of 1.00.

    ExposureTh is addition sim ulate s a de cre ase of re active ch e m icals in film e m ulsion during e xposure . Th e are as th at h ave re ce ive d m ore ligh t re act le ss th an oth e r are as. Use ful for h igh contrast sce ne s as it brings out th e dark are as and lim its brigh t are as.

    ConclusionI h ope th is basic e xplanation of th e Ble nde r2Pov param e te rs w ill ge t you starte d w ith using th e aw e som e PovRay

    raytrace r from w ith in Ble nde r. And, of course , as Ble nd2Pov de ve lops, you w ill be able to use e ve n m ore pow e rful fe ature s of PovRay w ith m inim um fuss from w ith in Ble nde r

    ble nde 2povray dow nload.h ttp://w w w.graph icall.org/builds/builds/sh ow build.ph p?action=sh ow & id=116& PHPSESSID=b4c1a7c0379 5db2af8e fe 72e 0349 6217Code r: RCRuiz

    Re nde ring w ith POVRay from Ble nde r

    To use Exposure you w ill ne e d to h ave M e gapov installe d, since Povray doe sn't support th is function. If you use it w h ile re nde ring, M e gapov w ill be e xe cute d autom atically.

    Im portant

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    IntroductionTh is article focuse s on a ve ry im portant part of 3D Ch aracte r M ode ling k now n as th e 2D Sk e tch ( or Conce pt De sign). Th e sk e tch artw ork is th e basis for th e succe ssful 3D ch aracte r th at e ve ryone h ope s to h ave in th e ir anim ation. It's during th e Conce pt De sign ph ase th at w e de fine e ve ry aspe ct of th e ch aracte r; providing a w e ll-structure d form and ide a w h ich , if prope rly follow e d, is

    difficult to lose w h ile 3D m ode ling. Oth e rw ise , w e m igh t turn our ch aracte r into som e k ind of de form e d alie n, w h ich m ay only be h e lpful if w e do inte nd to m ak e one . ;) Above , you can se e one good-look ing ch aracte r sk e tch but, it is not ve ry h e lpful w h ile 3D m ode ling. So, for th at re ason I h ave de cide d to do a little sk e tch tutorial about w h at goe s into m ak ing a succe ssful 3D ch aracte r starting from th e 2D Sk e tch ph ase .

    Th e Ch aracte rTh e styliz e d fictitious guy in th e picture is Orion. H e volunte e re d h im se lf to illustrate w h at w ill be de scribe d in upcom ing paragraph s. For th is, you w ill ne e d a digital table t or th e traditional pape r and pe ncil.

    Conce pt De sign vs 2D Sk e tchSom e tim e s, th e gap be tw e e n th e se tw o te rm s is blurre d, th us e asily m isunde rstood. Conce pt De sign re fe rs to th e actual cre ative proce ss of th ough t or ide a and th e de sign proce ss th at suits th e final outcom e . It is usually re pre se nte d visually th rough continuously im prove d sk e tch e s or draw ings of som e obje ct or ch aracte r from th e ve ry first ide a until

    th e com ple tion of a production-re ady draw ing. It also include s th e sce ne de tails lik e e nvironm e nt style , ch aracte r spe cialtie s, ligh ting and m ood of th e sce ne and th e te xture style as w e ll.

    Th e 2D Sk e tch is a single part of th e Conce pt De sign proce ss. It give s you th e basic form and h ape to h e lp m ate rializ e th e ide a th at w ill gain, ove r tim e , a m ore organic sh ape on th e pape r. It can also be calle d a rough pre -visualization of th e final ide aliz e d draw ing.

    Tim e -Saving TipsUnle ss you're a ve ry gifte d artist w ith th e ability to draw quality sk e tch e s ligh tning fast, you w ill ne e d lots of tim e and a fle xible de adline . Re m e m be r, since th is is a sk e tch for pre -visualization of a 3D m ode l, you m ay ch oose to be le ss de scriptive on th e pape r.

    If you are draw ing th e sk e tch digitally, use Laye rs in your favorite paint program . Use e ach Laye r for se parate th ings. For instance , put th e h e ad in Laye r 1, th e h air in 2, body in 3, cloth e s in 4 and so on.

    Ch aracte r de sign - 2d sk e tch to 3d

    Ch aracte r D e sign2D Sk e tch to 3D

    by - Rogrio Pe rdiz

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    Using Laye rs can som e tim e s be trick y but, in th e e nd it w ill be ne fit you quite substantially, saving you pre cious tim e .

    Th e Sh e e tTh e first th ing you ne e d to re m e m be r is th at w h e n you finish th e 3D m ode l, you'll also ne e d to Rig(*) it so th e ch aracte r can be pose d in th e sce ne . It is h igh ly re com m e nde d th at you pose your ch aracte r w ith th e arm s and le gs sligh tly spre ad apart. You w ant to do th is be cause , for instance , if th e righ t le g is ve ry close to th e le ft it w ill be a m ad job assigning th e ve rtice s to th e bone s. Th is type of pose facilitate s th e arm ature bone positioning and m ak e s it a lot e asie r to

    m ode l and w ork w ith th e ch aracte r's pose .

    For th e m ain ch aracte r sk e tch , your goal sh ould be a 3- side d ch aracte r sh e e t (Front, Side and Back ). Th is is a ve ry crucial ste p for th e 3D m ode ling ph ase of your ch aracte r. You ne e d to de fine th e 3-dim e nsional fe ature s of th e ch aracte r in th e sk e tch lik e m uscular volum e and th e strik ing contours. Afte r th at, if it's possible , you can de fine m ore de tail on a clay m ode l, but for now your 3- side d ch aracte r sh e e t sh ould give you an acce ptable 2D flatte ne d re fe re nce . Th is sh ould be e nough to ge t you going. In addition, if you w ish , you m ay also do

    som e pe rspe ctive sk e tch e s of your ch aracte r w ith re laxe d pose s. I use th e pe rspe ctive draw ings for additional re fe re nce . I alw ays use a

    3D block m ode l m ade in Ble nde r as m y re fe re nce for th e pe rspe ctive pose s. It give s a natural cam e ra vie w fe e l to th e pe rspe ctive draw ings and it s re ally e asy to de fine th e volum e of th e ch aracte r.

    Sk e tch ing UpW h e n I use d to se e draw ings m ade by profe ssionals, I th ough t to m yse lf "W h ooo!! Ill ne ve r be able to m ak e th at, th e se guys are gods and sim ple m ortals lik e m e w ill ne ve r re ach th e m ." W e ll, w h at h appe ns is th at w e usually only se e th e final draw ing, and ignore th e ste ps th at th e yve use d to ge t th e re . You can com pare draw ing to th e construction of a h ouse or a building. In th e e nd, it look s pre tty. But w h ile th e artists are w ork ing, its just a lot of dirt, trash and individual parts.

    Ch aracte r de sign - 2d sk e tch to 3d

    Placing an arm ature or bone inside th e m e sh to e nable th e m anipulation of th e ch aracte r's pose .

    Rigging

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    Th e Golde n Rule of 2D Ch aracte r Sk e tch ing

    Ne ve r forge t th at th e re is a h e ad unde r th e h air and a body unde r th e cloth e s. If som e th ing is w rong, you w ill instinctive ly k now it. You m ay not k now e xactly w h at's w rong but, you w ill k now th at som e th ing isn't quite righ t. Youll be fine if you k e e p th at in m ind.

    Im not going to de scribe ste p-by- ste p h ow to draw , but if you find m y sk e tch e s gre at th e n you re ally are in trouble and I re com m e nd th e follow ing site s th at h ave quick tutorials on 2D ch aracte r de sign. Th e y are focuse d m ainly on th e Japane se anim e style but, th e te ch nique s de scribe d are fle xible and e asily adaptable to any style (de dicate d draw ing book s are pre fe rable but, if th e y are out of your re ach , th e se site s are good one s and cove r w e ll th e basics):

    h ttp://w w w.h ow todraw m anga.comh ttp://w w w.bak ane k o.comh ttp://w w w.polyk arbon.com

    Th e Front Vie wNow th is is w h e re all th e fun be gins! Ladie s and Ge ntle m e n! Start th e GIM P (or w h ate ve r your favorite 2D im age e ditor h appe ns to be ) or just grab a bunch of pape r and your favorite pe ncil. Th e m ost im portant th ing, if you're using an im age e ditor, is to USE LAYERS, SEPARATE TH INGS, and DON'T DELETE ANYTH ING.

    If youre using pe ncil and pape r, also m aintain th e th ings se parate d. Use a ligh t table or ce ll pape r to draw , for

    e xam ple , th e h air on top of th e h e ad. W h e n you're done , scan e ve ryth ing and join th e m in th e com pute r.

    Lik e in 3D, th e first th ing you ne e d is a block m ode l, in th is case a block ovaliz e d draw ing. Th is w ay you can de fine th e are a and position of your ch aracte r on th e pape r and avoid boring th ings lik e , afte r alm ost com ple ting th e ch aracte r, not h aving e nough room le ft on th e pape r to draw th e fe e t.

    Using sim ple circle s and ovals is ge ne rally a good m e th od to de fine th e body proportions, but is far from be ing th e only m e th od. Use circle s to re pre se nt th e h e ad and th e joints lik e sh oulde rs, e lbow s and k ne e s. Use ovals to conne ct th e m .

    Ne xt, draw th e h e ad h airle ss, add th e h air, draw th e body and finally cove r h im w ith som e Coth e s. Ne ve r forge t to put e ach th ing on a diffe re nt laye r.

    Ch aracte r de sign - 2d sk e tch to 3d

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    Th e Side Vie wW h e n you finish th e Front vie w , it's tim e to m ak e th e Side vie w

    (Im age le ft bottom ).Now h e re , som e tim e s th ings can be com e trick y. W h at h appe ns is th at th e Front vie w m ust coincide , as pe rfe ctly as possible , w ith th e Side vie w. Th ats calle d Fore sh orte ning.

    Fore sh orte ningFore sh orte ning isnt e asy to say th e le ast. W h ate ve r youre using, th e GIM P or pape r, youll ne e d to draw h orizontal line s from k e y parts of th e Front vie w and use th e m to draw your ch aracte r from th e Side vie w. In th e GIM P, you can just activate th e Vie w Grid function but, its a lot h arde r, tim e -consum ing and e rror-propitious.

    Pre ss th e [sh ift] k e y w h ile ch oosing tw o points in th e GIM P or use a rule r on pape r.

    Ch aracte r de sign - 2d sk e tch to 3d

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    Oh M y! So Many Line s!!!

    Dont panic just ye t. Its just lik e a h ouse , e ve ryth ing is m ade progre ssive ly. Ive m ade th e im age be low to sh ow you th e ste ps Ive tak e n and th at its e ve n use ful w ith a diffe re nt pose .

    First, you only trace line s from th e k e y parts of th e block m ode l lik e th e h e ad,

    w aist, k ne e s, fe e t (1) th e n, you trace som e m ore to re fine th e h e ad (2) and so on draw h air, draw th e body (3) and dre ss h im (4) just lik e th e Front vie w. Dont forge t to use Laye rs.

    Pe rfe ction h e re is th e k e y. Th e m ore pe rfe ctly you can do it, th e e asie r it w ill be to m ode l th e ch aracte r in 3D. I th ink th ats w h y I alw ays h ave so m uch trouble in th e m ode ling ph ase .

    Th e Back Vie wTo cre ate th e Back vie w you use a fusion of th e m e th ods youve alre ady use d in th e Front and Side vie w s. Th e re s noth ing m ore to it th an th at. Afte r finish ing th e Back vie w , youre re ady to fire up th e Ble nde r th ruste rs!

    Re ady to Ble ndW h e n you finish draw ing, it's tim e to save th e picture s to JPEG file s. Th is save s space and is Ble nde r-frie ndly. Any oth e r file type you pre fe r is OK as w e ll, as long as Ble nde r can re cognise it (don't go w ith BM P's).

    H e re is w h e re th e Laye r division proce ss pays off. Th e first th ing youll w ant to do is m ode l th e h e ad (I alw ays pre fe r to start w ith th e h arde st th ing be cause th e n,

    it's all dow nh ill from th e re . But, th at is just m e , fe e l fre e to start w h e re ve r you lik e .). Start by just se le cting your h airle ss h e ad's laye r and m ak e e ve ryth ing e lse invisible . Save th e im age to som e th ing lik e h e adGuide .jpg and, using Ble nde r, ope n it in th e Front and Side vie w ports (in th e 3D vie w port h e ade r, pre ss Vie w |Back ground Im age ... and th e n click th e Use Back ground Im age button) . You can adjust th e position to focus only on th e one th at m atte rs. Se tup th e Front vie w port to use th e Front vie w sk e tch and th e Side vie w port to use th e Side vie w sk e tch as back ground im age s.

    Ch aracte r de sign - 2d sk e tch to 3d

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    Issue 4 M ay 20063d~W ORKSH OP

    Afte r you m ode l th e h e ad, youll w ant to do th e body. So, se le ct th e Front, Side and Back body laye r and m ak e sure th at e ve ryth ing e lse is invisible . Save th e im age to som e th ing lik e bodyGuide .jpg and ble nd on. For th e cloth e s, you also can and sh ould use th e sam e proce ss.

    Closure Note sRe m e m be r, its alw ays pre fe rable to do a sk e tch be fore going to 3D, e ve n if youre draw ing sk ills are not ve ry de ve lope d. Youll find a lot of draw back s, anatom ical issue s and annoying com plications in your ch aracte r de sign during th e 2D sk e tch ph ase th at you, for sure , dont w ant to find w h ile m ode ling in 3D.

    Note th at I ve only sh ow n you h ow to draw a full ch aracte r. Som e tim e s it's e nough but, if you re ally w ant to spe cify de tails, it's be tte r, or is e ve n re quire d, to do sk e tch e s of only th e h e ad, th e fe e t, som e spe cific article of cloth ing, e tc. th at occupie s an e ntire page . H ow e ve r, th e m e th od is pre tty m uch th e sam e .

    W e ll, it's th e e nd of th e journe y w ith m e . I h ope th is tutorial w as som e h ow use ful to you and pre pare s you w e ll for all th e

    cool w ays to do 3D ch aracte r m ode ling th at are in th is e dition of ble nde rart m agaz ine ... Im in fle as to re ad th e m . H o! About Orion... w e ll, pe rh aps you'll se e h im again som e day. Until ne xt tim e ...

    Ch aracte r de sign - 2d sk e tch to 3d

    3D Vie w s of Orion

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    Issue 4 M ay 2006Insiderview

    W h at is M H ?M ak e H um an is a softw are pack age , w ritte n com ple te ly in C+ + and available for all th e m ain platform s (W indow s, OSX, Linux, e tc..). Its aim is th e m ode ling of th re e dim e nsional h um anoids.

    Use rs can se t up th e age , w e igh t, se x, race , siz e of th e nose , sh ape of th e face , proportions of arm s and le gs, and a w h ole se rie s of oth e r w e ll de fine d param e te rs, so w e can say th at M H is an artistic/para m e trical m ode ling tool.

    Eve ry fe ature is de fine d by ch oosing it's pe rce ntage , and all th e fe ature s are "adde d" to e ach oth e r to obtain e ndle ss com binations of form s. Th is allow s th e cre ation, w ith a fe w click s, of e xtre m e ly

    re alistic ch aracte rs, re ady for use in a varie ty of profe ssional graph ics applications.

    Sh ort H istory

    Th e ance storM ak e H um an w as born, ne ar th e e nd of th e ye ar 2000 in an Italian com m unity of ope n source graph ic softw are de ve lope rs. M anue l Bastioni h ad pre viously de ve lope d som e th ing sim ilar: a pyth on script for Ble nde r, w h ich m ode le d only th e ch aracte rs' h e ad. It w as a sim ple tool calle d "M ak e H e ad", and base d on Ble nde r's ve rte x k e ys, w h ich can be conside re d, in e ve ry re spe ct, M ak e H um an's ance stor.

    First script for Ble nde rM anue l's ne w proposal w as to do som e th ing m ore fle xible , w h ich allow e d

    m ode ling an e ntire ch aracte r, from h e ad to foot. Oth e rs lik e d th e ide a, and afte r about four m onth s of de ve lopm e nt, th ank s to th e first group of program m e rs, in particular, Filippo di Natale and M ario Latronico, th e first alph a ve rsion w as finish e d and im m e diate ly re le ase d unde r th e GPL lice nse .

    Oth e rs w e re re sponsible for th e translations (Fabriz io Cali', Lore nzo Dave ri), for logos and oth e r aspe cts re lating to th e m ate rial's publication.

    Th e M ak e H um an Proje ct

    M ak e H um an"M ak ing" H um anoids Since 20 0 0 !

    M anue l Bastioni (English ve rsion)Ale ssandro Proglio

    Antonio Di Ce cca Giovanni Lanza

    M artin M ack inlay

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    First m odelEve n if th e GUI w as de fine d, and th e m orph ing code w as m ostly re ady, th e re w as anoth e r de licate and im portant proble m : th e re alization of base h um anoid, w h ich h ad all th e ne ce ssary ch aracte ristics for it to be transform e d into any ch aracte r, and w h ich w as also an optim iz e d m e sh , from w h ich could be cre ate d th e ch aracte r of a m ovie or a low re solution ch aracte r suitable for vide o gam e s.

    Furth e rm ore th e basic m e sh h ad to be se xle ss, age le ss and race -le ss, just to m ak e th ings a little m ore com ple x. Afte r m uch discussion, it w as finally m ode le d by Enrico Vale nza. Th is w as th e first ve rsion of th e m ode l, w h ich w as be use d up until tw o ye ars ago, as w e sh all soon

    se e . Afte r som e tim e , th e proje ct w as officially re cogniz e d by th e Ble nde r Foundation, by supplying im portant ne w tools, lik e a m ailing list, a spe cific forum , bug track e r, and w as include d in Ble nde r's proje ct page .

    Unfortunate ly, due to inte rnal disagre e m e nts, th e collaboration w as re duce d conside rably, and th e official site w as m ove d to de dalo-3d. Afte r a sh ort pe riod tim e , M ak e H um an h ad an im portant m odification. Th e passage from an old com ple x GUI to a ligh te r one w as finally com ple te d, base d on th e input from a console w ritte n in pyth on by th e proje ct adm inistrator. Th is m ade w ay for th e re le ase of ve rsion 1.6.

    Afte r th is re le ase , th e participation of th e e arlie r de ve lope rs, w ith th e e xce ption of th e adm inistrator and a fe w oth e rs (Lore nzo Dave ri and Cicca), w as re duce d drastically, and th e proje ct se riously slow e d dow n. Fortunate ly, it w as only a pe riod of transition in w h ich M ak e H um an w as going to adopt a m ore inte rnational look th ank s to th e contribution of Craig Sm ith on m ode ling, to th e contributions of Olivie r Saraja, to th e code of M ich ae l Sch ardt (im port-e xport ve rts group) and to th e syste m of bone s from Andre w Kator.

    Th ank s to th e se ne w aids and num e rous ne w fe ature s, a ne w ve rsion w as re le ase d w h ich jum pe d dire ctly from ve rsion 1.6 to 1.8 in a sh ort pe riod of tim e .

    Th e M ak e H um an Proje ct

    Ve rsion 1.6 and th e Ble nde r Foundation Th e stable ve rsion in Pyth on 1.6

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    FACSDue to th e succe ss of th is ne w ve rsion as w e ll as to th e m e diation of Craig and Lore nzo, th e proje ct re ce ive d an im portant donation w h ich consiste d of an e ntire docum e ntation of 20 ye ars of re se arch of th e dott k now n as FACS. Th is so-calle d FACS (Facial Actions Coding Syste m ), allow e d for study of an e ntire syste m of coding of facial e xpre ssions. Th e donation cam e from Paul Ek m an, w h o w as a psych ology te ach e r in th e de partm e nt of psych iatry at th e Unive rsity of San Francisco.

    Ve rsion 2.0 in pyth on, unstableAt th is point w ith ve rsion 1.8, th e de ve lopm e nt of th e pyth on script substantially stoppe d. Tw o oth e r ve rsions h ad com e out and w as w ritte n alm ost e ntire ly by a ne w de ve lope r, nam e d Paolo Colom bo, th at introduce d an innovative GUI, be tte r th an th e pre vious one . But th at unfortunate ly re m aine d in th e e xpe rim e ntal ph ase due to som e com patibility proble m s w ith Ble nde r, Ope nGL, and vide o cards. Th e se draw back s cause d se ve re de lays th at Paolo h ad to re w rite th e GUI se ve ral tim e s in orde r to adapt it to th e ch ange s of th e pyth on API of Ble nde r and to avoid proble m s w ith th e

    vide o cards.

    Th e ne w m e shVe rsion 2.0 of th e script w as conce ive d in a ne w m anne r th at w as optim iz e d for profe ssional use and ne ve r succe e de d in m oving be yond th e unstable ph ase . Eve n th ough it w asn't fully usable , it did h ave a ve ry im portant ne w fe ature th at re taine d afte r m onth s of w ork : a ne w basic m e sh . Th e first ve rsion h ad in fact be gun to sh ow it's lim itations as m e sh e s th at w e re too optim iz e d (about 7000 ve rte x), did not succe e d in cove ring all th e re quire d m orph ings, and w as lack ing in som e fundam e ntal e dge loops for th e facial and m uscular anim ation. For th is re ason, a ne w m ode le r, Kaush ik Pal, alre ady auth or of e xce ptional h um anoid m ode ls for Ble nde r and M aya (CGtalk th re ad), cre ate d a ne w m e sh . W h ile not using an e xce ssive num be r of ve rts (about 11000), th e m ode l k e pt up w ith all th e profe ssional

    re quire m e nts w h ich w as th e re sult of studie s of m ore w e ll-k now n m e sh e s. In th e follow ing im age s th e m ain diffe re nce s be tw e e n th e tw o m e sh e s are illustrate d (th e "critical" points of th e old m e sh are m ark e d in re d).

    Th e M ak e H um an Proje ct

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    De spite th e fact th at Kaush ik 's m e sh w e re alre ady h igh le ve l, th e M ak e H um an te am w ante d to pre se nt th e m ode l also to th e atte ntion of fam ous m ode le rs. Am ong th e se artists, of w orld-w ide re putation Ste ve n Stah lbe rg and e xpe rt subdivide m ode ling Tam s Varga just to nam e a fe w.

    H e re w e quote th e w ords of M r. Stah lbe rg, of w h ich w e are particularly proud, answ e ring to our post (by Tom M usgrove ):

    "Tom , th at's a gre at re source for artists w h o w ant to study topology. No re al crits, e xce pt m aybe you could ch ange th e dire ction of e dge s dow n th e ch e e k , to e asie r incorporate th e infraorbital fold (w h ich is one of th ose th ings th at e ve ryone h as, alth ough it's ve ry subtle w ith som e ). To com m e nt th e face , I th ink th e re d and blue loops are re ally im portant, but th e brow n and gre e n one s don't re ally ne e d to be pe rfe ct loops. Th e y can be , but th e re 's no pre ssing ne e d im o"

    Original th re ad

    Fe w w ords, but ve ry gratifying for th e te am . Obviously th e n th e infraorbital line h as since be e n put into place , as w e ll as th e oth e r sugge stions th at cam e out during th e

    discussion.

    At th e e nd of th e w ork , w e h ave colle cte d som e e xplanatory im age s, particularly conce rning th e facial topology, and in w h ich th e so-calle d line s of action h ave be e n h igh ligh te d.

    Th e turning point: th e standalone ve rsion in CH ow e ve r, e ve n w ith th e ne w m e sh , ve rsion 2.0 of th e script w as still lim ite d by th e proble m s de scribe d above . Finally w e re aliz e d th at th e functions, pe rform ance , and stability w e w ante d to ach ie ve w e re n't possible w ith M ak e H um an as a pyth on script. It w as ne ce ssary to "m ove " it outside Ble nde r, and to re w rite it from scratch in h igh -pe rform ance language s, such as C or C+ + . Th e first ste p of th is m ajor transform ation w as possible th ank s to a m ajor contribution from Paolo, w h o alone , and in ve ry little tim e h ad w ritte n a ne w

    M ak e H um an com ple te ly in C, m ulti-platform , and w ith an innovative inte rface .

    W e 'd lik e to m e ntion in particular th e "slide r- im age s", a ne w button w h ich auto zoom s on m ouse -ove rs (w ork ing as a pre vie w of th e targe t) w h ich pe rm its h olding th e m ouse button to se t th e pe rce ntage of m orph ing. Since th is w as a com ple te ly diffe re nt ve rsion from th e pyth on script and w e h ad re w ritte n it from scratch , th e standalone ve rsion h ad a low e r ve rsion num be r: 0.8a.

    Th e M ak e H um an Proje ct

  • Dow nloading of th e standalone ve rsion of M ak e H um an can be found using h osting provide d by Source Forge .

    In th is w ay, th e pyth on ve rsion h oste d by th e Ble nde r Foundation, re m ains se parate from th e ve rsion w ritte n in C. Th e ve rsion

    curre ntly available on Source Forge is still Paul's ve rsion, but w ith som e additions and bug fixe s due carrie d out by oth e r program m e rs (OBJ e xporte r by Andre as Voltz, OSX porting by Tan M e ng Yue ). End use rs found th e program to be quite usable , but program m e rs continually w ork e d to furth e r advance th e code , in h ope s of significantly im proving th e usability for th e e nd use r. W e th e n arrive d at a ne w ve rsion th at's going to be re le ase d.

    Ne xt ve rsion: Mak e H um an 1.0 (be ta), in C+ +Anim orph sW h ile w e w e re w ork ing on M ak e H um an ve rsion 0.8, Andre as Voltz, a stude nt of Applie d Com pute r Scie nce s at th e Unive rsity of Fulda, in Ge rm any, w as

    de ve loping som e conce pts of th e pyth on ve rsion in orde r to construct a ne w , m ore fle xible , library th at w as platform inde pe nde nt and w ritte n e ntire ly in C+ + . H is aim w as to use it for th e softw are th at h e w as pre paring for h is bach e lor th e sis calle d "M e asure H um an". H e w ante d to not only m odify aspe cts of 3D

    h um anoid base d on targe ts lik e M ak e H um an, but also on use r input m e asure m e nts.

    Andre as h ad gotte n in touch w ith th e te am , announcing th at afte r re ce iving h is de gre e , h e w ould m ak e h is librarie s available unde r th e GPL. Th is w as gre at ne w s; th e librarie s w e re w e ll

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