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Biometric steganograph y By – Manoj Kumar Mohanty Department of Computer Science and Engineering NIT Rourkela

Biometric steganography

Nov 18, 2014



Piyush Mittal

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Page 1: Biometric steganography

Biometric steganography

By – Manoj Kumar MohantyDepartment of Computer Science and EngineeringNIT Rourkela

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Application Scenarios

LSB Insertion method

Amplitude modulation-based hiding



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Introduction Biometrics data provides uniqueness

but do not provide secrecy. For wide spread utilization of biometric

techniques, security of biometric data is essential.


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Biometric data security






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Application Scenario Biometric data, such as fingerprint

minutiae is hidden in a cover image and is transmitted.

The function of the host or cover image is only to carry the data and it need not be related to the data in any way.


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Cover Images

Synthetic Face ArbitraryFingerprint image imageimage


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Synthetic Fingerprint


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Cover Image

Watermark Encoder

Minutiae Data

Steganography-based minutiae hiding

Secret Key

Watermark Decoder

Secret Key

Stego Image

Extracted Minutiae Data

Communication Channel

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LSB Insertion Method Take the binary representation of the

biometric data and replace it over the least significant bit(LSB) of each byte within the cover image.

In 24 bit color image, the amount of change will be minimal and difficult to detect.


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LSB Insertion cont. Consider three adjacent pixels (9 bytes)

with the RGB encoding as follows 11110101 11001101 10101001 10100110 11001111 11001010 10101111 00010011 11001000

Suppose the data to be hidden in binary is (101101101).


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LSB Insertion Cont.11110101 11001100 1010100110100111 11001110 1100101110101111 00010011 11001000

9 bits successfully hidden by only changing 4 bits.


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LSB Insertion Method: Advantages If message bit is same as the pixel’s

least significant bit then no change is required for that pixel value.

If pixel value is different from message bit then effective change in pixel value is still invisible to human eye.


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LSB Insertion Method: Disadvantages Message can be easily removed by an

intruder as message is in the least significant bit.

Further intruder can modify the least significant bit of all the image pixels.

The least significant bit may get corrupted

by hardware imperfections or noise.


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Amplitude-modulation based hiding technique Convert the minutiae data into a bit

stream. Every field of individual minutiae is

converted to a 9-bit binary representation.

A random number generator initialized with the secret key generates locations of the host image pixels to be watermarked.


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Every watermark bit with the value s is embedded in multiple locations to ensure better decoding rate of the embedded information.

Along with the binary minutiae data, two reference bits, 0 and 1 are also embedded to the image.

These help in calculating an adaptive threshold in determining the minutiae bit values during decoding.


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From decoded watermark bits, the minutiae data hidden in the host image is extracted.

This data hiding model is robust and can handle attacks such as image cropping, and JPEG compression.


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Conclusion The ability of biometrics-based personal

identification techniques to efficiently differentiate between an authorized person and an impostor is one of the main reasons for their popularity in contrast to the traditional security techniques.

However, the security and integrity of the biometric data itself are important issues. Application of steganography is a possible techniques to secure biometric data. Currently research is going on to increase the data hiding capacity of the host images and methods for combining watermarking schemes to achieve better result.


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References[1] A.K. Jain, U. Uludag: “Hiding Fingerprint Minutiae into Images.”, in Proc. AutoID02, NY, March 2002

[2] Chander Kant, Rajender Nath, Sheetal Chaudhary: “Biometrics Security using Steganography”, in CSC online Journal “International Journal of Security” Malashiya vol. 2 Issue-1,PP 1-5. 2008.

[3] Adrian Kapczynski, Arkadiusz Banasik: "Biometric Logical Access Control Enhanced by Use of Steganography Over Secured Transmission Channel", in IEEE International Conference on Intelligent Data Acquisition and Advanced Computing Systems: Technology and Applications, September 2011.

[4] Biometric System Laboratory, University of Bologna, Italy


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