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Biomass potentials of Rep. of Macedonia
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More information on BEE www.eubee.com Coordination: Barbara Koch, Matthias Dees Department of Remote Sensing and Landscape Information Systems (FELIS), University of Freiburg Tennenbacher Str. 4, 79085 Freiburg, Germany Email: Matthias.Dees@felis.unifreiburg.de Tel. +49 761 203 3697 Fax. +49 761 203 3701

Pove}e informacii za BEE http://public.me.com/kpopovski/ Makedonski del na timot: Kiril Popovski Makedonska geotermalna asocijacija MAGA ul. Dame Gruev br.1-3/16, 1000 Skopje, Makedonija Elektronska po{ta: kpopovski@mac.com, issmaga@gmail.com Tel. +389 (0)2 3118 686 Faks +389 (92) 3173 717

BEE project is funded by the European Commission under the Framework Programme 7 within the "Energy Thematic Area" and contributes to "Harmonisation of biomass resource assessment" activities which focus on assessing and optimising the availability of biomass resources. FP7 GRANT AGREEMENT N: 213417

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Kiril Popovski/Kiril Popovski Slave Armenski/Slave Armenski Elena Popovska/Elena Popovska Sanja Popovska Vasilevska/Sawa Popovska Vasilevska

BIOMASS ENERGY IN MACEDONIA ENERGIJA NA BIOMASA VO MAKEDONIJA

Skopje/Skopje, 2010 3

Energija na biomasa vo Makedonija Biomass Energy in MacedoniaAvtori: Authors: Prof.d-r Kiril Popovski/Prof.Dr. Kiril Popovski Prof.d-r Slave Armenski/Prof.Dr. Slave Armenski M-r Elena Popovska/M-r Elena Popovska Prof.d-r Sawa Popovska Vasilevska/Prof.Dr. Sanja Popovska Vasilevska

Godina na izdavawe: 2010 Year of publication: Izdava~: Publisher: Makedonska geotermalna asocijacija MAGA Macedonian Geothermal Association MAGA Prof.d-r Kiril Popovski Prof.Dr. Kiril Popovski

Za izdava~ot: For the publisher: Recenzija: Review: Tira`: Printing: Copyright:

Prof.d-r Ordan ^ukaliev/Prof.Dr. Ordan Cukaliev Prof.d-r Vlatko Andonovski/Prof.Dr. Vlatko Andonovski 250 250 Site prava se zadr`ani od strana na izdava~ot. Kopirawe na delovi od publikacijata e dozvoleno samo so polno citirawe na izvorot. All copy rights are kept by the publisher. Copying of parts of publications is allowed only with full citing of the source.

ZABELE[KA: Ovaa publikacija ne e od komercijalen karakter. Istata }e bide besplatno distribuirana do relevantni dr`avni institucii, univerziteti, istra`uva~ki organizacii, investitori i drugi zainteresirani lica. NOTE: This publication is not of commercial character. It shall be distributed free of charge to the relevant state institutions, universities, research organizations, investors and other interested persons.

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Sl.1. Pokrienost na zemji{teto na teritorijata na Republika Makedonija Fig.1. Land covering of territory of the Republic of Macedonia

SODR@INAVoved 1. Biomasata kako energetski izvor 2. Drvni otpadoci 3. Otpadoci od zemjodelieto .. 4. Gradski otpad . 5. Biogoriva . 6. Zaklu~ok i preporaki 6 8 11 17 22 25 31

CONTENTSIntroduction 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Biomass as energy source .. Wood residues .. Agricultural waste Urban waste . Biofuels . Conclusion and recommendations 6 8 11 17 22 25 31

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VOVEDBiomasata kako energetski resurs bila i e va`en del na energetskiot bilans na Republika Makedonija. Kontinuirano, vo tekot na zadnite triesetina godini, ogrevnoto drvo u~estvuva vo nego so otprilika 8-10%. So ogled na prisutnite sevkupni preispituvawa na mo`nostite za zgolemuvawe na u~estvo na doma{nite resursi vo popravawe na lo{ata energetskata situacija vo zemjata, se nametnuva pra{aweto dali e posveteno dovolno vnimanie i na ovoj resurs, t.e. dali postojat mo`nosti za negovo podobro iskoristuvawe i, {to e u{te podobro, zgolemuvawe. Koga e vo pra{awe biomasata, najprvo treba da se ras~isti {to se podrazbira pod toj poim, da se sogledaat mo`nostite za energetsko iskoristuvawe na poedine~nite kategorii, za na kraj da se istra`i momentalnata situacija vo Makedonija i mo`nostite na nivnoto iskoristuvawe. Pod biomasa se podrazbira bilo koja organska materija, dobiena so processot na fotosinteza vo rastitelniot svet. Toa e prakti~no bio-razgradliviot del od produktite, otpadocite i ostatocite od zemjodelstvoto (vklu~itelno rastitelnoto proizvodstvo i sto~arstvoto), {umarstvoto i industrijata za prerabotka na drvo, kako i bio-razgradliviot del na komunalniot i industriskiot otpad. Evidentno e deka se raboti za tri posebni sektori, sekoj so svoi posebni karakteristiki i mo`nosti za razvoj, t.e.: [umarstvo; Zemjodelie i sto~arstvo; Komunalen i industriski otpad. Pri toa, treba da se potencira deka: 1. [umite sami za sebe se aktiven energetski resurs na ~ija golemina i produktivnost mo`e da se vlijae preku: Nagolemuvawe na po{umenite povr{ini;

INTRODUCTIONBiomass, as energy resource, has been and is an important part of the energy balance of the Republic of Macedonia. Continually, during the recent 30 years, firewood participates in it with about 8-10%. In accordance with the present reinvestigation of possibilities for increasing the participation of home energy resources in order to improve the bad situation in the country, arises the question if enough attention is paid to this resource, i.e. are there possibilities for its better use and (which is better), its enlarging? When biomass is in question, first of all it is necessary to make clear what is understood under this term and then to investigate possibilities for energy use of different categories of it. After that, present situation and possibilities for its ameliorations in Macedonia can be investigated. Under the term biomass, any organic substance get by the process of photosynthesis in vegetation is understood. That is practically the biodegradable part of the products, waste and residues of agriculture (including plant and livestock production), forestry and wood processing industry, and biodegradable part of the urban and Industrial waste. It is evident that three particular sectors are in question, each one with own charactersistics and possibilities for development, i.e.: - Forestry; - Agriculture and animal husbandry; - Urban and Industrial waste. It is necessary to underline that: 1. Forests are an active energy resource whose capacity can be influenced by: - Enlarging forested area;

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Voveduvawe na namensko odgleduvawe na drvni vidovi so nepogoden kvalitet za industriska upotreba, no so mnogu brz rast i formirawe na drvnata masa; Organizacija na sobirawe i prerabotka na otpadot pri se~a i ras~istuvawe na {umskite povr{ini; i Organizacija na sobirawe i prerabotka ili direktna upotreba na otpadot od drvnata industrija. 2. Zemjodelstvoto mo`e isto taka da bide golem energetski resurs ako se organizira: Sobirawe na otpadoci po `etvata na redica zemjodelski proizvodi; Sobirawe na otpadoci po kroewe na ovo{nite nasadi; Sobirawe na otpadoci od sto~arskoto proizvodstvo; i Organizacija na proizvodstvo na energetski kulturi za proizvodstvo na biogoriva. 3. Urbanite koncentracii i industrijata vo ponovo vreme isto taka dobivaat karakter na energetski resursi preku organizacija na sobirawe na biorazgradliviot del od otpadot i negovata obrabotka ili direktno koristewe vo energetski objekti. Evidentno e deka vo momentot vo Makedonija mnogu malku se koristat nabrojanite mo`nosti, t.e. osven sobiraweto na drvoto za gorewe i nekolku mali kotlarnici vo drvnata industrija, ne se koristi ni edna od niv. Pra{aweto, koe se nametnuva, e kolkava e goleminata na ovoj energetski resurs, dali mo`e da se organizira ekonomski opravdano koristewe na mo`nostite koi sega ne se koristat i dali se isplati investirawe vo zgolemuvawe na postojniot resurs, sporedeno so potrebnite vlo`uvawa vo drugi konkurentni doma{ni i uvozni energetsi resursi? Odgovor na predhodnite pra{awa mo`e da se dobie po organizacija na poopse`ni istra`uvawa, koi treba da obezbedat podatoci za analiza na goleminata i karakteristikite na postojniot resurs, prirodnite, ekonomskite i drugite vlijatelni faktori za optimizacija na negovoto koristewe i eventualno zgolemuvawe. Za `al, prva realna pre~ka, so koja se sudruva bilo koj istra`uva~, e nedostatok na relevantni podatoci. Vo Makedonija ne postoi sihronizirano namensko sobirawe, obrabotka i publickacija na istite, a toa podrazbira individualno inicijalno anga`irawe pri organizacija na bilo kakvo istra`uvawe. So ogled na toa deka pri toa se upotrebuvaat razli~ni metodologii, se dobivaat i razli~ni rezultati, a toa vlijae na kone~nite rezultati na predmet-

- Introduction of growing of trees with a low quality of wood for industrial purposes but with very fast development of wooden mass; - Organization of collection and processing or direct use of waste of logging and cleaning the forests; and - Organization of collection and processing or direct use of waste of wood industry. 2 Agriculture can be also a big energy resource, if it is organized: - Collection of waste after harvesting of a list of agricultural products; - Collection of waste after cutting orchards branches; - Collection of livestock waste; and - Organization of production of energy cultures for biofuels production. 3. Urban concentrations and industry are also getting character of energy resources during the recent years. It is going by organization of collection of biodegradable part of the waste and its processing or direct use in energy production. Evidently, listed possibilities are nearly not used in Macedonia. Except collection of fire wood and several small boilers in wood processing industry, no one of them is applied in the country. Question of the moment is how big is this energy resource, is it possible to organize economically justified use of possibilities which are not presently applied and is it profitable to invest in enlarging the existing resource in comparison to investments in competitive home and imported other energy resources? Answer to above listed questions can be given after organization of wider investigations, which should give necessary information and data for the shape and characteristics of the existing resource, natural, economic and other influencing factors for optimization of its use and eventual enlarging. Unfortunately, the first constraint for any investigator is the absence of relevant data. There is no synchronized concrete collection of data, their elaboration and publication, i.e. individual collection and elaboration is necessary for any investigation. Normally, each investigator uses different methodologies and getting different results, which influences final results of the investigations and their practical applicability.

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nite istra`uvawa i nivnata prakti~na upotreblivost. Zada~a na ovaa publikacija e da obezbedi inicijalno nadminuvawe na ovoj nedostatok so primena na zaedni~ki usvoenata harmonizirana evropska metodologija, barem za delot koj se odnesuva za otpadocite vo {umarstvoto, zemjodelstvoto i sto~arstvoto, kako i urbaniot i industriski otpad.

Purpose of this material is to enable initial overcoming of this shortage by application of the commonly accepted harmonized European methodology, at least for the part related to the waste and residues from forestry, agriculture and animal husbandry, urban and industrial waste.

1. BIOMASATA KAKO ENERGETSKI RESURSZa procenka na potencijalot na postojnite izvori na otpadna biomasa se koristat razni metodologii, tipovi na pribli`uvawa, pojdovni pretpostavki i podatoci. Soglasno realnata situacija i postignatata soglasnost vo timot na BEE, vo ovoj materijal e koristena statisti~kata metoda, orientirana kon mo`nostite na resursot. Pri toa, procenuvani se: teoretskiot potencijal; tehni~kiot potencijal; i ekonomskiot potencijal. Teoretskiot potencijal e maksimalnata koli~ina na otpadna biomasa, koja e na raspolagawe soglasno potencijalot na nejziniot izvor. Tehni~ki potencijal e del od teoretskiot potencijal, koj mo`e da se iskoristi za energetski potrebi so zemawe vo predvid na ograni~uvawata vrzani na momentalnite tehnolo{ki mo`nosti, mo`nata upotreba vo ~ovekovata i ishranata na stoka, kako i ekolo{kite ograni~uvawa. Ekonomskiot potencijal e potencijalot koj mo`e da se iskoristi pod momentalnite ekonomski uslovi, t.e go zadovoluva kriteriumot da bide profitabilen. Kako osnovni izvori na podatoci se koristeni: Statisti~kiot godi{nik na Republika Makedonija;

1. BIOMASS AS AN ENERGY RESOURCEDifferent methodologies for estimation of the energy potential of waste biomass can be used, different types of iterations, initial suppositions and data. According to the real situation and reached agreement of the BEE team, the simple resource orientated statistical methodology is used in this material. Following values have been under attention: - Theoretical potential; - Technical potential; and - Economical potential. Theoretical potential is the maximal quantity of waste biomass, which is on disposal according to the potential of its source. Technical potential is part of the theoretical one, which can be used after taking into account the limitations connected to the present technological level, possible use for human and animal feeding, and ecological limitations. Economical potential is the potential which can be used under the present economy conditions, i.e. satisfying the criteria to be profitable. Following basic data sources have been used: - Statistical Yearbook of Republic of Macedonia;

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Godi{ni izve{tai, proizvodni i finansiski planovi na javnoto pretprijatie Makedonski {umi; i Nau~no-istra`uva~ki studii i izve{tai za koli~inite na cvrstiot komunalen i industriski otpad vo R. Makedonija. Energetskata vrednost na poedini tipovi na biomasa se procenuva sprema nejzinata t.n, toplinska mo}, t.e. koli~ina na toplina koja se osloboduva pri direktno sogoruvawe na 1 kg od istata. Se razlikuva gorna i dolna toplinska mo}. Kaj gornata, vodata vo biomasata e

- Annual reports, production plans and finance reports of the Public Utility Macedonian forests; and - Scientific-investigation studies and reports for the quantities of rigid communal and Industrial waste in Republic of Macedonia. Energy value of each type of biomass is estimated according to its heat value, i.e. heat quantity produced by direct burning of 1 kg of it. We are differing the so called upper and low heat value. For upper one, the water

Toplinska vrednost na otpadna biomasa od zemjodelstvo i {umarstvo, vo zavisnost od izvorot Tabela 1 Heat value of waste biomass from agriculture, depending on source Table 1 Toplinska vrednost Toplinska vrednost Topl.vr. Tip na Tip na rasTip na rasrastenie Heat value, kJ/kg Heat value, kJ/kg Heat tenie tenie Type of value, @etva Prerab. @etva Prerab. Type of plant Type of plant plant kJ/kg harvesting Process. harvesting Process. @itarici - Grain plants P~enica sla15750 ma/wheat-straw R` slama 15450 rye-straw Ja~men slama 14800 barley-straw Oves slama 15050 oat-straw P~enka 14700 maize Oriz slama 15600 rice-straw Orizova arpa 15590 rice- shell Sto~na hrana - Fodder cereals Detelina 14600 13140 clover Alfalfa 15100 12830 alfalfa Seno 16100 13680 motley-hay Graorka 15350 13050 forage peas Fura`p~enka 14700 12500 forage maize Fura`-{e}.r. 15100 12830 for.sugar beat Ind. Rastenija - Industrial plants [e}erna 15100 9060 repa/sugar beet Tutun 15900 11300 tobacco Pamuk 16000 13600 cotton Son~ogl.. 14700 13200 Sunflower Piper 13900 9730 ind.pepper Afion 14800 12500 poppy Ovo{tarstvo i lozarstvo Fruit trees and vineyards Jabolki 17600 11440 apple Kru{i 17500 11370 pears Duwi 17400 10440 quinces Slivi 18100 10860 plums Cre{ni 17550 10530 cherries Vi{ni 17550 10530 sour cherries Kajsii 17400 10440 apricots Praski 17450 10440 peaches Orevi 15750 12600 walnuts Lozovi gr. Vineyard branches 16500 9900

Wood waste

Listopadni Deciduous Iglolisni Conifers

Zelen~uk - Vegetable plants Kompiri 13240 9660 potatoes Grav 16240 11850 beans Topl.vr. Zelka 14400 9360 Heat val. cabbage Domati kJ/kg tomatoes 13700 8900 Piperka 18250 peppers 13900 9730 Luk i kromid 12800 19000 garlic & onion 8960 Bostan 12200 7680 watermelons

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Proizvodstvo na biogas od edna tona na |ubrivo od sto~arstvo i `ivinarstvo Biogas production from 1 ton livestock and poultry manure Tabela 2 / Table 2 Sodr`ina na Proizvodstvo na Toplinska mo} Tip na stoka Broj na stoka za probiogas suva masa % `ivinarstvo izvodstvo na 1 t/d Heat value Biogas production Kind of livestock Number of livestock Contents of 3 3 poultry for 1 t/day production dry mass, % m /t MJ/m biogass Goveda / cattle Sviwi / pigs Koko{ki hen-poultry Piliwa/chicken Proizv.na hrana chicken Food processing 20-40 250-300 8000-9000 10000-15000 12 9 30 60 15 25 26 90-150 50-100 46 23-25 21-25 23-27 21-23 21-25

: 25% 40 % Low heat value of rigid urban waste of different sources: without and with 25% and 40% recycling 3 Table 3 , kJ/kg Low heat value, kJ/kg With recycling Without recycling 25% 40% G urban rural urban rural urban rural 7862 4098 6437 3288 5570 2802 16134 13973 11861 2567 4751 1745 3997 862 3105

Source

Communal Hospitals - Building-Destroying Industrial

vo te~na sostojba, a kaj dolnata istata e vo gasna sostojba. Dolnata (Hd) i gornata (Hg) toplinska mo} se presmetnuvaat so upotreba na relaciite:

content is in liquid state, and for the low one in the gas state. Upper (Hg) and low (Hd) heat values are calculated by the use of following relations:

pri {to sodr`inite na jaglerod (S), vodorod (N), sulfur (S) i voda (W) predhodno se utvrduvaat so elementarna analiza na biomasata vo pra{awe. Vo tabelite 1, 2 i 3 se dadeni presmetanite vrednosti za dolna toplinska mo} na raznite otpadoci od biomasa, za uslovi vo Republika Makedonija. Istite se upotrebeni pri vr{eweto na procenki na nivnata energetska vrednost.

where quantities of carbon (C), hydrogen(H), sulphur (S) and water (W) are determined by elementary analyses of biomass in question. Values for the calculated low heat value of different biomass waste for the conditions in Republic of Macedonia are given in the tables 1, 2 and 3, They are used for estimations of their energy values.

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2. DRVNI OTPADOCIVo tek na se~eweto i eksploatacija na {umite, kako i pri industriskata prerabotka na drvoto, se dobivaat ostatoci i otpad vo vid na iskr{eni i o{teteni trupci, lisja, koreni i stebla. Pri se~ata, samo debelite stebla i trupci se izvlekuvaat i magacioniraat, dodeka kro{nite (se sostojat od granki i lisja) i korenite se ostavaat kako otpadno drvo. Pri toa, okolu 6-9% ostatocite se sostojat od lisja i 10-15% od kora. Ova otpadno drvo mo`e da se koristi ili kako gorivo, ili kako surovina vo nekoi tehnolo{ki procesi vo drvnata industrija (prerabotka vo tehni~ko drvo, iverica ili celuloza). Direktnoto sogoruvawe mo`e da se vr{i vo prilagodeni kotlovski postrojki, me|utoa mnogu poefikasno e ako istite predhodno se prerabotat vo popogodni oblici za sogoruvawe, t.e so upotreba na briketirawe, paletizirawe, gasifikacija, piroliza i sl. Generalno, otpadnoto drvo mo`e da se podeli vo dve grupi: otpad dobien pri se~eweto na {umite i otpad dobien pri prerabotka na drvoto vo drvnata industrija. Nivniot sostav se razlikuva. Otpadot od se~ata se sostoi od korki, granki, iverki, strugotini, penu{ki, korewa i lisja. Mo`na e i sodr`ina na opo`areni, suvi i iskr{eni drvja, kako i drvja o{teteni od bolest i insekti, od poplavi, itn. Otpadot od industriskata prerabotka na drvoto se sostoi od korki, iverki, strugotini, ise~oci od kraevite na trupcite i delovite koi se izrabotuvaat, fina drvena pra{ina dobiena pri {mirglawe na drvoto, itn. Otpadnoto drvo mo`e da se koristi za dobivawe na {perplo~i, drvena gra|a, hartija i celuloza, kako i izrabotka na drveni plo~i (iverica). Treba da se zeme vo obzir deka vakvata upotreba }e rasne vo idnina, paralelno so interesot

2. WOOD RESIDUESTimber harvesting process produces waste wood in the form of: broken logs, decadent timber, foliage, stumps and tree trunks. During the timber harvesting, only the billet or log is extracted from the forest, while the crown (consisting of foliage and branches) and the stumps are considered to be wood waste. Between 6 and 9 % of the dry weight of the bole consists of the foliage, and between 10 to 15 % is bark. The waste wood can be used as fuel or as raw material in some wood industrial processes (processing in technical wood, playwood or cellulose). Direct burning can be performed in accommodated boiler plants but it is much more efficient if they are previously processed in more convenient products for burning as it is briquetting, production of pellets, gasification or pyrolisis, etc. Generally, waste wood can be divided in two groups: waste get during cutting of wood in forests and waste get during the wood processing in industry. Their composition is different, i.e. waste wood from timber harvesting is consisting bark, trunks, chips, sawdust, tree stump, tree roots, tree leaves and others. Wood residue from wood processing facilities mainly includes chips, sawdust, shavings, bark, broken logs, reject wood and ends, edgings, knots, lathe cuttings, lily pads, panel trims, peeler cores, reject strips, sander dust, shake blocks, slabs, wood chunks and other wood fragments. Waste wood can be used for production of wooden plates, wooden construction materials, paper and cellulose, etc. Its necessary to take into account that such uses shall

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Sl.2. [umski povr{ini vo Republika Makedonija Fig.2. Forested area in Republic of Macedonia

za negovo koristewe kako gorivo. Kako gorivo, otpadnoto drvo mo`e da se koristi direktno, no i kako surovina za dobivawe na razni vrsti na cvrsto, te~no i gasno gorivo. Vkupniot {umski fond na Republika Makedonija iznesuva 947.653 ha (Tabela br.4). Najgolem del od toa se ~isti nasadi od listopadni drvja (58,4%). 25,6% se me{ani {umi od listopadni i iglolisni drvja, 8,98% se nasadi od iglolisni i 6,34% se iglolisni me{ani so listopadni drvja. Vo tabelata e dadeno i podetalno u~estvo na poedini tipovi na drvja. 89,26% od {umskiot fond e vo dr`avna sopstvenost, a 10,74% vo privatna (Tabela 4). Fondot vo dr`avna sops-

increase in future, in parallel with the interest to use it as fuel. As fuel, waste wood can be used directly or as raw material for production of different rigid, liquid and gas fuels. Total forests area in Republic of Macedonia occupies 947.653 ha (Table 4). Most of it are forests of deciduous trees (58,4%), mixed deciduous with conifers (25,6%), conifers (8,98%) and mixed conifers with decidous (6,34%). Table gives also more detailed composition of tree species on it. 89,25% of forests is under state ownership and 10,74% is private property (Table 4). State owned forests are maintai-

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Tabela 4/Table 4Povr{ini pod {uma {umi po vidovi,Sostojba na 31.12.2004

Forest area - forests by species,Situation as of 31.12.2004

Dr`avni {umi State forests 480279 217639 230825 27311 921 3583 76510 1453 3010 54170 11587 6290 225298

[umi po tip na sopstvenost (ha) Forests by type of ownership, (ha) Privat. % od {umi % od Vkupno vkupno vkupno Privately Total % of % of total owned total forests 86,78 93,33 82,06 80,52 76,75 93,14 89,90 98,11 97,54 87,94 91,83 99,52 92,85 73177 15552 50477 6605 279 264 8594 28 76 7429 1031 30 17355 13,222 6,67 17,94 19,47 23,25 6,86 10,10 1,89 2,46 12,06 8,17 0,47 7,15 553456 233191 281302 33916 1200 3847 85104 1481 3086 61599 12618 6320 242653

% od vkupno % of all total 58,40

^isti nasadi od listopadni drvja Pure tree stands of deciduous tree Buka / Beech Dab (site vidovi)/ Oak (all) Drugi tvrdi listopadni Other hard deciduous Topola / White poplar Drugi meki listopadni Other soft deciduous ^isti nasadi od iglolisni drva Pure tree stands of coniferous tree Smr~a / Spruce Elka / Fir Crn bor / Black pine Bel bor / Scots pine Drugi iglolisni Other conifers Me{ani nasadi od listopadni drvja Mixed tree stands of deciduous trees Buka, dab i drugi listopadni Beech, oak, other deciduous Buka i drugi listopadni Beech-other deciduous Dab i drugi listopadni Oaks-other deciduous Drugi listopadni Other deciduous Me{ani nasadi od iglolisni drvja Mixed tree stands of conifers Smr~a, elka / Spruce-fir Crn i bel bor Black and Scots pine Drugi iglolisni Other conifers Me{ani nasadi od listopadni i iglolisni drvja Mixed tree stands of deciduous trees and conifers Buka, smr~a, ela Beech, spruce, fir

8,98

25,61

27351 19803 152536 25608 5079 296 1297 3486 58708 10656

87,62 82,33 95,75 91,18 79,43 100 49,65 100 97,77 100

3863 4249 6766 2477 1315 0 1315 0 1338 0

12,37 17,67 4,25 8,82 20,56 0 50,34 0 2,23 0

31214 24052 159302 28085 6394 296 2612 3486 60046 10656 6,34 0,67

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Crn bor, bel bor, drugi iglolisni Black pine, Scots pine, other conifers Drugi listopadni i iglolisni drvja Other deciduous and coniferous trees Vkupno / All Total

2762

99,317

19

0,6832

2781

45290 845874

97,17 89,26

1319 101779

2,8299 10,74

46609 947653 100

(Source: Statistical Yearbook of the R. of Macedonia)

Prose~na bruto volumenska koli~ina na drvo od se~a vo R. Makedonija vo 2002 - 2004 i 2006 / 2008 Tabela 5 Average annual gross wood volume quantity from timber harvesting in R. of Macedonia for 2002 2004 and 2006 2008 Table 5 Tip na drvo Type of wood Tehni~ko drvo Technical wood Drvo za gorewe Fire-wood Otpadno drvo Waste wood Vkupno bruto volumen Total gross volume Tip na drvo Type of wood Tehni~ko drvo Technical wood Drvo za gorewe Fire-wood Otpadno drvo Waste wood Vkupno bruto volumen Total gross volume 2002 ise~eno harvested 3 3 x10 m /yr 133 602 75 810 2006 ise~eno harvested 3 3 x10 m /yr 143,907 566,712 81,559 792,178 2003 ise~eno harvested 3 3 x10 m /yr 142 709 79 930 2007 ise~eno harvested 3 3 x10 m /yr 144,047 602,588 82,5 829,135 2004 ise~eno harvested 3 3 x10 m /yr 141 642 62 845 2008 ise~eno harvested 3 3 x10 m /yr 178,718 606,447 91,492 876,657 Tabela 6 Table 6 Vkupno Total x10 m /yr 404,956 253,398 12,229 17,908 16,83 5,298 710,6193 3

% 16,42 74,321 9,2593 100

% 15,269 76,237 8,4946 100

% 16,686 75,976 7,3373 100

% 18,166 71,538 10,296 100

% 17,373 72,677 9,9501 100

% 20,386 69,177 10,436 100

(Source: Statistical Yearbook of the R. of Macedonia)

Asortiman na volumenot na drvo vo R. Makedonija od se~ata 2006 Assortment of wood volume from timber harvesting in R. of Macedonia for 2006 Tip na drvo Type of wood Buka / Beech Dab / Oak Elka / Fir Bel bor / Pinewhite Crn bor / Pineblack Drugi / Other Vkupno / Total Tehni~ko drvo Technical wood x10 m /yr 96,419 0,18 12,229 17,908 16,83 0,341 143,9073 3

Drvo za gorewe Fire-wood x10 m /yr 308,537 253,218 0 0 0 4,957 566,7123 3

Otpadno drvo Waste wood x10 m /yr3 3

% 67,00 0,12 8,49 12,44 11,69 0,24 100

% 54,44 44,68 0 0 0 0,88 100

81,559

(Source: Statistical Yearbook of the R. of Macedonia)

14

Vkupno proizvodstvo na drvo vo 2008 Gross wood volume production in 2008Maks. Godi{na se~a /Maximum annual 3 felling (m ) Planirana godi{na se~a / Planed annual 3 felling (m ) % na koristewe % of utilization

Tabela 7 Table 7Planirano proizvodstvo na drvo vo 2008 Planed wood mass production in 2008 Otpadno drvvo 3 waste wood (m ) % na otpadno drvo / % of 3 waste wood (m ) tehni~ko drvo technical wood 3 (m ) ogrevno drvo / 3 fire- wood (m ) Vkupno Total wood 3 volume (m )

Red.br. Ord. Number

Podra~na edinicaBranch Office

1 1 Malesevo-Berovo Ravna Reka2 Pehcevo 3 Osogovo-K.Palanka 4 Kratovo-Kratovo 5 Osogovo-Kochani 6 Serta-Stip 7 Plackovica-Radovis 8 Plackovica-Vinica 9 Belasica-Strumica Salandzak 10 Valandovo 11 Kozuv-Gevgelija Demir Kapija 12 Demir Kapija 13 Bor-Kavadarci 14 Crn Bor-Prilep 15 Babuna-Veles 16 Sumarstvo-S.Nikole 17 Kajmackalan-Bitola 18 Bigla-Demir Hisar 19 Lipa-Krusevo 20 Prespadrvo-Resen 21 Galicica-Ohrid 22 Jablanica-Struga 23 Stogovo-Debar 24 Lopusnik-Kicevo 25 Sandanski-M.Brod 26 Sar-Gostivar 27 Lesnica-Tetovo 28 Karadzica-Skopje Kumanovo29 Kumanovo 30 Golak-Delcevo Total

2 56983 23013 21411 13374 44806 14852 48660 35300 82224 16866 50684 14568 55738 31022 37333 1450 65393 47408 11686 34545 50768 35400 11766 96868 61212 27377 21186 47151 27390

3=7+8

4=3:2* 100 42283 74,20 17910 77,82

5 16922 8200 3796 2113 6630 0 11000 11656 9875 0 10600 1000 23953 8862 1350 0 19369 2032 80 1800 5532 3746 800 11457 8901 200 1200 2600 636

6 20537 7500 17878 9524 23834 5250 23200 19544 38350 11984 25100 10600 17595 28239 24035 500 20092 36779 13920 23933 30184 23724 8740 49622 31109 19783 11649 29324 15698

7=5+6 37459 15700 21674 11637 30464 5250 34200 31200 48225 11984 35700 11600 41548 37101 25385 500 39461 38811 14000 25733 35716 27470 9540 61079 40010 19983 12849 31924 16334

9=8:3* 100 4824 11,41 8 2210 2408 567 4968 606 3798 3465 5997 1374 3570 1288 6541 4122 2622 60 4354 4312 1555 2860 3969 3053 1060 6496 5150 2100 1427 3192 1763 1781 91492 12,34 9,99 4,65 14,02 10,35 9,99 9,99 11,06 10,31 9,09 9,99 13,60 9,99 9,36 10,71 9,94 9,99 9,99 10,00 10,00 10,00 10,00 9,61 11,40 9,50 9,99 9,08 9,74 12,33 10,28

24082 112,47 12204 91,25 35432 79,08 5856 39,43 37998 78,09 34665 98,20 54222 65,94 13322 39270 12888 48089 41223 28007 560 43815 43123 15555 28593 39685 30523 10600 67575 45160 22083 14273 35116 18097 78,99 77,48 88,47 86,28 132,88 75,02 38,62 67,00 90,96 133,11 82,77 78,17 86,22 90,09 69,76 73,78 80,66 67,37 74,48 66,07

33956 14445 1120390 876654

42,54 4408 8256 12664 79,91 178718 606483 785201

(Source: JP Macedonian Forest, production-financial plan for 2006, p-8)

tvenost e upravuvan od strana na javnoto pretprijatie Makedonski {umi, sostaveno od podra~ni edinici (Tabela 7), koi ja pokrivaat celata teritorija na Republika Makedonija. Vo tabelata 5 se dadeni podatoci za

ned and exploited by the public utility Macedonian forests, composed of regional units (Table 7) all over the territory of Republic of Macedonia. Data about the total annual quantity of

15

vkupnite koli~ini na drvo, koi se se~ele vo Republika Makedonija vo periodot od 2002 do 2008, sredeno po namena, t.e. upotreba. Evidentno e nagolemuvawe na vkupnata se~a za okolu 8%, pri {to se zabele`uva i promena vo u~estvoto na poedinite nameni, t.e. u~estvoto na ogrevnoto drvo opa|a od 74,5% vo 2002 na 68,2% vo 2006, na tehni~koto drvo od 16,4% na 20,4% i na otpadnoto drvo od 9,3% na 10,4%. Pri toa, koli~inata na ogrevnoto drvo ostanuva prakti~no ista, t.e. se nagolemuva od 602 na 606h103

cutted trees are given in Table 5, for the period from 2002 to 2008. It is possible to follow that annual quantity was increased for about 8% and that participation of wood for different purposes is changed, i.e. participation of firewood is decreased from 74,5% in 2002 to 68,2% in 2008, of technical wood is increased from 16,4% to 20,4% and of wood waste from 9,3% to 10,4%. However, due to the fact that quantity of firewood remained 3 practically the same (from 602 to 606x10

16

m3/god. Vkupnoto zgolemuvawe se dol`i na zgolemenoto proizvodstvo na tehni~ko drvo (133 na 178h103 m3/god), {to istovremeno rezultira i so zgolemuvawe na koli~inata i promena na sostavot na otpadnoto drvo. Vo tabela 6 e daden sostavot na vkupno ise~enite drva sprema tipot na drva, kade se gleda deka iglolisnite se upotrebuvaat samo kako tehni~ko drvo, kako i deka otpadnoto drvo u~estvuva so 11,5%. Vo tabelata br.8 e napraveno rezime na vkupnoto prose~no godi{no proizvodstvo na otpadno drvo vo Republika Makedonija po vid na drvo (od listopadni i iglolisni drvja) i po poteklo, t.e. operacija od koja poteknuvaat. Soglasno izvr{enite ispituvawa (Armenski, 2008), vo makedonski uslovi ekonomski e opravdano da se transformira vo energija 65% od tehni~kiot potencija na otpadot pri se~eweto na {umite, 60% od otpadot pri podgotovka na ogrevno drvo, 90% od pilewe na trupcite i obrabotkata na tehni~ko drvo. Toa rezultira so vkupen mo`en ekonomi~en kapacitet za proizvodstvo na energija od 1,22 RJ/god. (1,03 RJ/god.) od listopadni i 0,19 RJ/god. od iglolisni.

m /yr), total increase is result only due to the increase of technical wood production (133 3 3 na 178x10 m /yr), resulting also with the increase of quantity and composition of the waste wood. Composition of tree species in the total wood volume is given in Table 6. It can be followed that coniferous trees are used only as technical wood, and that the waste wood participates with 11,5%. A summary of average production of waste wood in Republic Macedonia is given in Table 8, arranged according to the origin (deciduous or coniferous) and the operation of which they are produced. According to the realized investigations (Armenski, 2008), in Macedonia is economically justified to use for energy purposes 65% of the technical potential of residues get During the forest cutting, 60% of the waste is of firewood preparation, 90% of the one produced during the logs sawing and processing of technical wood. That results with a total economically justified possible energy production of 1,22 PJ/yr (1,03 PJ/yr of deciduous and 0,19 PJ/yr of coniferous).

3

3. OTPADOCI OD ZEMJODELIETO I STO^ARSTVOTOZemjodelskoto proizvodstvo rezultira, me|u drugoto, so regularna produkcija na golemi koli~ini na razli~en otpad. Toa se ostatoci po `etvata na `itnite i industriskite kulturi, zelen~ukot, kako i grankite od kroeweto na ovo{nite i lozovi nasadi. Vo sto~arstvoto, toa e |ubrivoto vo tvrd i te~en oblik. Sega{na praktika e otpadocite da se zatrupuvaat so orawe, da se palat na lice mesto kade se sobiraat, da se ostavat sami da se raspadnat, ili da se iskoris-

3. AGRICULTURAL AND ANIMAL HUSBANDRY WASTEAgricultural production results, between other products, with regular production of large quantities of waste. These are residues after harvesting the grains and industrial cultures, branches after regular annual cutting of orchards and vineyards. In animal husbandry, that is the manure in rigid or liquid shape. Present habit is to burying the waste by ploughing, burning at the site where they ha-

17

. (1997-2004) 9 Average annual waste from grains in R. Macedonia for the period 1997 2004 Table 9 . . Harvest. Dry mass Area ha, ha t/g, t/yr 1997-2001 . . ski ski ki . . Harvest Harvest. Theore- Technical EconomiDry mass tical cal . Area Area ha, ha t/g, t/yr ha, ha t/g, t/yr 2002-2004 /Average 1979-2004 328066,3 5996,8 127443,2 3510,7 91129,5 4331,1 45313,1 1560,3

--wheat straw - rye straw - barley straw - oat straw p maise (branches and leaves) - rice straw - rice shell Total

115899 374353,8 102893 332344,4 112853,9 364518,1 6437 7981,9 4310 5344,4 5373,5 6663,1

50773 147749,4 2620 4087,2

46549 135457,6 2381 3714,4

48661,0 141603,5 2500,5 3900,8

36310 4061

81697,5 29909,3

33437 2590

75233,3 19075,3

40389,7

90876,8 24492,3 8164,1 640218,7

81789,1 22043,1

40894,6 19593,9

9969,8 6358,5 216100 655748,8 192160 577527,8

7755,9 7755,9 576605,1 210578,4

tat kako dobito~na hrana. - Soglasno izvr{enite istra`uvawa, no i prakti~ni iskustva, golem del od ovaa biomasa mo`e da se iskoristi za proizvodstvo na energija. Nekoi od niv mo`e da se upotrebat za direktno sogoruvawe, a drugite mo`e da se prerabotat vo te~ni ili gasni goriva, so ~ie sogoruvawe mo`e da se proizveduva toplina ili elektri~na energija, ili da se upotrebat kako pogonski goriva. Vo princip, se koristat tri grupi na tehnologii, i toa: termotehni~ki transformacii (sogoruvawe, gasifikacija i proizvodstvo na mata-nol); biohemiska transformacija (anaerobna transformacija za dobivawe na biogas i aerobna za proizvodstvo na etanol); i hemiska transformacija (biodizel i masla za podma~kuvawe). Vrz osnova na definiranite koli~ini na otpadna biomasa vo zemjodelstvoto i sto~arstvoto vo Republika Makedonija i prethodno definiranite vrednosti na dolnata toplinska mo} za sekoj vid na biomasa vo makedonski uslovi, mo`no e da se opredeli koli~inata na energija koja bi mo`ela da se proizvede od istata. Prose~nata ekonomski raspolo`iva energija od otpadnata masa od zemjodelstvoto iznesuva 6,72 RJ/god. Za delot sobran od samoto

ve been collected, to let them to decay, or to use them for animal feeding. - According to realized investigations and practical experiences, large amount of this biomass can be used for energy production. Some of it can be used for direct burning, and some can be transformed in liquid or gas fuels. By their burning, heat or electricity can be produced, or they can be used as driving fuel. Principally, three groups of technologies can be applied, i.e.: Thermotechnical transformations (burning, gasification and methanol production); Biochemical transformation (anaerobic transformation for biogas production and aerobic for ethanol production); and Chemical transformation (biodisel and lubricants). Based on the defined quantities of waste biomass in agriculture and animal husbandry in Republic of Macedonia and previously determined low heat values for each type of biomass in Macedonian conditions, it is possible to calculate the energy which could be produced from it. Average economical energy potential from the waste biomass from agriculture is 6,72 PJ/yr for the part collected from open field and 0,36 PJ/yr for the part

18

. 1997-2004 Tabela 10 Average annual quantity of waste from harvesting and processing vegetable plants in R. Macedonia for the period 1997 2004 Table 10 O P a Harvested Yield Type of vegetable area plant potato beans cabage Domati tomatoes paprika L, garlic, onion melons and water melons Total ha 13333 17548 3581 6715 7694 5538 7988 62397 t/yr 166352 13780 67582 126312 111059 39739 O Waste biomass Harves- Processted sed t/yr t/yr 4019,3 20857,7 4930,2 5569,0 544,4 14700,0 1295,0 12211,2 1924,5 11343,3 751,8 6928,7 V t/god Total t/yr mi~na Theoreti- Technical Economi -cal cal 24877,0 10499,2 15244,4 13506,2 13267,7 7680,5 21145,0 14926,2 9974,2 7874,4 12958,0 6097,8 12156,0 5402,5 11941,0 6633,9 6528,4 3840,2

117836 760,0 43731,1 44491,2 35593,0 22245,6 642660 14225,2 115341,0 129566 110295,6 67020,6

. 1997-2004 11 Average annual yield quantities of waste biomass from harvesting and processing of industrial plants in R of Macedonia for 1997-2004 Table 11 . . si_ Harvest. Yield Area ha 1989 22418 100 9510 801 291 35109 t/god. t/yr 58442 26563 60 10963 3291 183 99502 , t/god Waste biomass Total. t/yr mHarvested Proces- ska sed EconomiTheoretical Technical cal t/god. t/god. t/yr t/yr 513,45 6130,6 6644,07 5315,26 4318,64 6175,82 2470,3 8646,12 6052,28 2161,53 40 3 43 34,4 10,75 9112,2 1873,6 10985,8 9887,22 7140,77 200,25 329,1 529,35 423,48 158,805 50 21,5 71,54 57,232 42,924 16091,72 10828,1 26919,88 21769,9 13833,4

Type of industrial plant

. sugar beet tobacco cotton sunflower -- pepper-ind. poppy Total

zemjodelsko proizvodstvo i 0,36 RJ/god. Za delot koj preostatanuva od industriskoto proizvodstvo. Toa pravi vkupno 7,08 RJ/god. Evidentno e golemoto u~estvo na biomasata od proizvodstvo na `itarici (45,5%) i otpadot od re`eweto na ovo{ki i lozovi nasadi (32,1%). Ekonomski opravdanata raspolo`iva energija od sto~arstvoto i `ivinarstvoto iznesuva 0,94 RJ/god. Interesen e odnosot na teoretskiot sprema tehni~kiot i ekonomskiot potencijal. Kako {to e ve}e spomenato, toj se razlikuva za razli~ni tipovi na otpad,

from industrial production. That makes a total of 7,08 PJ/yr. Evident is significant participation of the biomass, collected after grains harvesting (45,5%) and the one collected from orchards and vineyards (32,1%). Economical energy potential from animal husbandry is 0,94 PJ/yr. Interesting is the relation between the theoretical, technical and economical potential. As it was already mentionned, it is different for different type of waste. However, the

19

. 1997-2004 12 Average annual quantity of waste biomass from logging fruit trees and vineyard in R of Macedonia for 1997-2004 Table 12 , t/god Total quantity of waste biomass. t/yr V , number of Yield Was ka trees te Type of fruit trees Trees Proces- and vineyard sing Theoretical Technical Economical kg/ x1000 t/g t/g t/g tree apple 3650 69273 2 7300,0 6802,9 14102,9 10577,2 6346,3 1736,1 pears 558 6952 2 1116,0 620,1 1302,1 781,3 quinces 51 726 2,5 127,5 120,5 247,9 198,4 111,6 plums 1516 21777 7 10612,0 2532,3 13144,4 9201,0 5257,7 cherries 166 3325 4,5 747,0 487,4 1234,4 987,5 555,5 sour 975,4 4742 4,5 4389,3 659,8 5049,1 4039,3 2272,1 cherries apricots 162,4 2819 8 1299,2 286,1 1585,3 1268,3 713,4 peaches 507,7 8541 7 3553,9 914,3 4468,2 3351,1 1787,3 walnuts 173 2538 5 865,0 505,7 1370,7 1028,0 616,8 vineyard 91615 205790 1,6 146584,0 11275,6 157859,6 110501,8 63143,9 Total 99374,5 326483 176594,9 24204,7 200798,6 142454,6 81585,9 , . (1997-2004) 13 Average annual theoretical, technical and economical quantity of waste biomass from livestocks in R. of Macedonia (1997-2004) Table 13 V Type of livestock number of livestock V stall total heads heads ead mass Head kg/ kg/head 500 500 100 50 2,5 waste manure Mass Theoretical Technical Economical kg/den t/god t/god t/god kg/day t/yr t/yr t/yr 32,6 3166633,3 2216664,71 1773331,77 28 523437,74 130867,1 78520,26 6,5 456172,44 319321,893 255457,514 2,4 1154747,6 577371,6 173211,48 0,15 168663,73 118064,608 70838,7649 5469654,8 3362289,91 2351359,79

cattle 266126 186290 horses 51217 12805 pigs 192275 134593 sheep 1318205 659100 poultry 3080616 2156431 Total

no vkupniot prosek e kako {to sleduva: teoretski potencijal 19,03 RJ/god. (100 %), tehni~ki potencijal 14,08 RJ/god. (74,42%) i ekonomski potencijal 7,08 RJ/god. (37,20%). Treba da se zeme vo obzir deka ovie odnosi se so promenliv karakter, zavisno od sostavot na zemjodelski kulturi, organizacijata na proizvodstvo i sobirawe na otpadnata biomasa, kako i pazarnite uslovi za plasman na proizvedenata energija vo sporedba so drugite mo`ni primeni na biomasa.

total average relation is as follows: theoretical potential 19,03 PJ/yr (100%), technical potential 14,08%) and economic potential 7,08 PJ/yr (37,2%). It is necessary to take into account that these relations are of changeable character, depending on the composition of agricultural cultures, organization of production and collection of biomass waste, as also the market conditions in comparizon with the other possible uses of biomass.

20

21

4. GRADSKI OTPADCvrstiot komunalen otpad mo`e isto taka da se tretira kako energetski resurs, so ogled na toa da sodr`i organski materii. Toa dozvoluva negovo sogoruvawe so dodavawe na mali koli~ini na dopolnitelno gorivo, ili duri i bez toa. Od energetska gledna to~ka, kvalitetot na otpadot zavisi pred se od negoviot sostav. Vo razvienite evropski zemji sostavot ne organski materii dostignuva do skoro 80% od vkupniot otpad, od koi nad 65% se od biolo{ko poteklo (hartija, prehrambeni i `ivotinski otpadoci). Vo Republika Makedonija prisustvoto na organskite materii e zna~itelno ponisko, a so ogled na sporedbeno poniskiot standard na naselenieto. So ogled na faktot deka vo Republika Makedonija ne se vr{at regularni analizi na sostavot na cvrstiot otpad, vo ovoj materijal se upotrebeni podatoci na avtorite od dosega{ni studii i istra`uvawa (Armenski, 2009), vo koi se vklu~eni i rezultatite od pove}e snimawa na sostojbite na poedini lokaliteti i analizi na uzorci na lokalniot otpad, kako i podatoci od analizi, vr{eni od organizaciite koi stopanisuvaat so smetot. Odlo`uvaweto na cvrstiot otpad i negovoto ponatamo{no tretirawe e eden od najgolemite nere{eni problemi vo Republika Makedonija. Vo pogolemite naseleni mesta, istiot se odlaga vo otvoreni deponii, kade naj~esto se spaluva. Toa rezultira so zagaduvawe na vozduhot i vodata, uni{tuvawe na obrabotliva zemja, pojavi na nekontrolirani po`ari, kontinualna opasnost po zdravjeto na naselenieto i uni{tuvawe na prirodnite resursi. Skoro edna tretina od naselenieto na Republika Makedonija e locirano vo Skopje i negovata okolina. Natamo{ni 49% od naselenieto `ivee vo 14 gradski op{tini (Bitola, Prilep, Ohrid, Tetovo,

4. URBAN WASTECommunal waste can be also treated as energy resource due to the fact that containing organic matters. That allows its burning with addition of small quantities of other fuels or even without that. Quality of urban waste, from energetic point of view, depends mainly on its composition. In developed European countries nearly 80% of total waste is organic. Above 65% of it is of biological origin (paper, food and animal wastes). In Republic of Macedonia this presence is much lower, due to the lower living standard of population. Taking into account that regular analyses of the composition of the communal waste are not performed, results of own studies and investigations of the authors (Armenski, 2009) are used, including the results of more scannings of situation of more localities and analyses of samples of local waste, plus data of analyses made by entities governing the collection and storing the waste. Deposition of the communal waste and its treatment is one of the biggest unsolved problems in Republic of Macedonia. In bigger urban centers it is normally deposited in open deposits, where being burned afterwards. That results with air and water pollution, destroying of land, appearance of not controlled fires, continual danger for the health of population and destroying of natural resources. About one third of the total population of Macedonia is located in Skopje and its surrounding. Further 49% live in 14 town municipalities (Bitola, Prilep, Ohrid, Tetovo, Gostivar, Kicevo, Kumanovo, Shtip, Strumica,

22

Prose~na toplinska mo} na cvrst komunalen otpad od gradski i selski naselbi vo Republika Makedonija Tabela 18 Average heat value of rhe rigid communal waste from towns and villages in Republic of Macedonia Table 18Hd Hd % kJ/kg , Hd of kJ/kg % of waste Hd of comOrganic matter mass kJ/kg ponent kJ/kg Towns 24 14700 2646 Paper 20 5735 1147 Waste from food 19600 235 -Waste from leather 1,2 6,1 26940 1643 / Plastics 2,4 23250 558 Rubber 4 16275 651 Textil 1,3 7694 100 Streets & Yards 59 7862 Total Hd Hd % kJ/kg , Hd of kJ/kg % of waste Hd of commass kJ/kg ponent kJ/kg Villages 18 14700 2646 12 5735 688,2 1,2 19600 235,2 4,6 26940 1239 1,8 23250 418,5 4 16275 651 1,3 7694 100 42,9 5977,9

Sl.br.3.Komunalen cvrst otpad vo R. Makedonija Grupirawe po regioni Fig.3. Communal rigid waste in R. Macedonia Collection regions

Gostivar, Ki~evo, Kumanovo, [tip, Strumica, Gevgelija, Veles, Struga i Ko~ani). Ostatokot `ivee vo selski naselbi, bez regularno sobirawe na smetot. Za da se ovozmo`i organizacija na regularno sobirawe na smt pod ekonomski oravdani uslovi, predlo`eno e da teritorijata na istata se podeli na 7

Gevgelia, Veles, Struga and Kocani). The rest lives in villages without regular collection of waste. In order to enable organization of regular collection of waste under economically justified conditions, it is proposed to organize 7 regional deposits of waste (Fig.3), where to

23

Vkupno teorisko proizvodstvo na urban cvrst otpad vo regionite vo Makedonija Tabela br.19 Total theoretical production of rigid urban waste in regions in R. Macedonia Table 19 Sign of the region (t/god) Total theoretical quantity of rigid waste (t/yr) Hospitals Industry Total theoretic + Building+ destroying

Region

A B C D E F G

- () Nord/West (Tetovo) () Nord (Skopje) - () Nord/East (Kumanovo) - () South/West (Ohrid) () Palagonia (Bitola) - () Ceantral/South (Veles) () East (Shtip)

+ Residencies + comer/cial

71453,1 167129,4 64291,4 44071 64538,8 63464,5 83705,5 558653,8

265 395 145 165 250 110 155 1485

8122,2 19432,6 4857,9 5147,9 7142,3 5611,7 9856,7 60171,3

2350 16320 5835 4065 11440 12240 12470 64720

82190,258 203277 75129,35 53448,908 83371,175 81426,2 106187,25 685030,14

regioni, vo koi da se organiziraat regionalni deponii na otpad (sl.br.3), kade ponatamu da se tretira so posovremeni tehnologii. Pri procenkata na koli~inite na cvrst otpad po poedinite regioni, koristeni se rezultatite od sopstveni merewa i od merewata na postojnite deponii. Usvoeno e deka vo gradskite naselbi se proizveduva 0.82 kg/den otpad po ~ovek (300 kg/god), vo selskite naselbi 0,41 kg/den po ~ovek (150 kg/god), a vo komercijalnite objekti 0,14 kg/den spet po ~ovek (50 kg/god). Normalno, procenetiot teoretski potencijal ne mo`e tehni~ki da se sobere i odlo`i vo deponija, za ponatamo{en tretman, sortirawe na surovini ili proizvodsvo na energija. Dopolnitelno, treba da se zeme vo predvid deka del od koli~inite (posebno vo selskite naselbi) na otpadot se otfrla incidentno, ili se koristi za sopstveni potrebi (dobito~na hrana ili sogoruvawe). Toa e pri~inata tehni~kiot potencijal da e pomal od teoretskiot. Pri procenkata na ekonomi~niot potencijal, pome|u drugoto, treba da se zeme vo predvid i toa deka del od otpadot mo`e da se reciklira , t.e. povtorno da se vnese vo industriskite tehnolo{ki procesi za dobivawe na novi proizvodi, ili za dobivawe na kompost, t.e. organsko |ubrivo. Razvoj na vakvi recikla`ni aktivnosti vo Republika Makedonija e vo tek vo zadnite desetina godini, no

organize its treatment with modern technologies. For the estimation of quantities of rigid waste in Macedonian regions, results of own measurements and the ones made by local staff are applied. It is accepted that in urban concentrations 0,82 kg/day per human been is produced (300 kg/yr), in villages is 0,41 kg/day and 0,14 kg/day per human been (50 kg/yr) in commercial units. Normally, the estimated theoretical potential cannot be collected and stored in deposits for further treatment, classification of raw materials or energy production. Plus, it is necessary to take into account that a part of it (particularly in villages) is collected incidently or is used for own needs (animal food or burning). Thats the reason why technical potential is smaller than the theoretical one. For the estimation of economical potential, beside other factors, it is necessary to take into account that part of the waste can be recycled, i.e. returned back to the industrial technological processes for production of new products or for production of compost, i.e. organic manure. Development of such recycling activities is in flow during the last decade in Macedonia, however situation is still far of being satisfactory. In any case, there are no official data neither for the

24

opfatenosta e seu{te daleku od zadovolitelna. Vo sekoj slu~aj ne postojat oficijalni podatoci niti za koli~inite na sobran otpad, niti za procentite na recikla`a. Toa e i pri~inata da pri procenkata na ekonomskiot potencijal za proizvodstvo na energija se koristeni dve varijanti, t.e. so 25% i so 40% recikla`a na hartija i plastika. Prose~niot vkupen ekonomski potencyjal na energija vo gradskiot otpad (vo slu~aj na 25 reciklirawe na hartija, plastika i guma) iznesuva 56,7% od tehni~ki raspolo`iviot potencijal, a vo slu~aj na 40% recikla`a, samo 48,1%. Najgolemo u~estvo vo ekonomski opravdaniot potecijal ima otpadot od doma}instvata (66,7%), komercijalniot otpad (19,5%) i industriskiot otpad (10,3 %). Otpadot od gradba i ru{ewe i klini~kiot otpad imaat zanemarlivo u~estvo (2,9% i 0,7%). Na nivo na zemjata, prose~niot vkupen ekonomski energetski potencijal (so 25% recikla`a na hartija, plastika i guma) iznesuva 2,33 RJ/god., a vo slu~aj na 40% recikla`a 1,98 RJ/god. Dadenite procenki mo`e da pretrpat zna~ajni izmeni, vo zavisnost od odlukite, koi }e bidat doneseni po odnos na na~inot na odlagawe i tretmanot na gradskiot otpad, t.e. orientacija kon proizvodstvo na biogas, ili kon "trajno sogoruvawe. Zasega ne e izrabotena ni edna sporedbena studija, koja da ilustrira prednosti i negativni "strani na nivna primena vo makedonski uslovi.

quantities of collected waste nor for the percents of recycling. That is the reason why, for the need of estimation of economical potential for energy production, two variants have been used, i.e. 25% and 40% recycling of paper and plastics. The average economic potential for energy production (in the case of 25% recycling of paper, plastics and rubber) is 56,7% of the technically available quantity of waste, and in the case of 40% recycling it is only 48,1%. The waste of households has the biggest participation in the economically justified energy potential, then it is waste of commercial units (19,5%) and industrial waste (10,3%). Participation of the waste from civil engineering activities and hospitals can be neglected (2,9% and 0,7%). At the country level, the average economically justified energy potential is 2.33 PJ/yr (with 25% recycling of paper, plastics and rubber) and 1,98% with 40% recycling. Given estimations can be significantly changed, depending on the decisions which shall be taken for the way of deposition and treatment of the waste, i.e. orientation towards direct burning or biogas production. Temporarily, there is no any comparative study on disposal, illustrating advantages and disadvantages of their application in Macedonian conditions.

5. BIOGORIVAPra{aweto za mo`nostite, obemot i na~inot na razvoj na t.n.biogoriva e vo momentot pod centralno vnimanie na nau~nata javnost i energetskata politi-

5. BIOFUELSThe question of possibilities, volume and ode of development of s.c.biofuels is presently under central attention of scientists and energy policy in Europe, at least when

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ka na Evropa, barem koga se vo pra{awe obnovlivite energetski izvori. Edino biogorivata nudat mo`nost za barem delimi~no osloboduvawe od sega{nata 100%-na uvozna zavisnost vo transportniot sektor i toa pod mnogu povolni uslovi vo odnos na za{tita na ~ovekovata okolina. Pod posebno vnimanie e mo`nosta za proizvodstvo na biodizel, koj vo potpolnost mo`e da ja zameni upotrebata na dizel gorivoto, ako se upotrebuva samostojno, ili da mu gi podobri svojstvata po odnos na negativnoto dejstvo na okolinata, vo kolku se upotrebuva kako dodatok.

renewable energies are in question. Only biofuels offer possibility of escaping of the present 100% dependence of import in the transport sector and that is under very convenient conditions, when influence to the human environment is in question. Production of biodiesel is under particular attention because enabling full substitution of diesel fuels, when used independently, or to improve its characteristics related to the negative impact to the environment when being added. Technology of biodiesel production is already developed and proved all over the world. New investigations are directioned towards its improvements related to the inTabela br.20 Table 20 Izvadeno maslo od 100 kg seme Produced oil of 100 kg seed kg 42 30 37 13 14 50

Seme od rastenija kako surovina za dobivawe na biodizel Plant seed as raw material for production of biodiesel Maslo sodr`ano vo semeto Vid na rastenie Oil contained in seed Type of plant % Oil contained in seed Kikiritki Peanuts 46-48 Son~ogled Sunflower 32-40 Seme od repka Beat seed 38-45 Seme od pamuk Cotton Seed 18-22 Soja Soya 18-22 Susam Poppy 52-56

Tehnologijata na proizvodstvo na biodizel e ve}e vo potpolnost sovladana i doka`ana {irum svetot. Novite istra`uvawa se usmereni kon nejzino usovr{uvawe, vo odnos na nagolemuvawe na efikasnosta na transformaciite i opremata, kako i sni`uvawe na tro{kovite na proizvodstvo. Osnovna surovina za proizvodstvo na biodizel se maslata, sodr`ani vo odredeni vidovi na rastitelni kulturi (Tabela 20). Istite mo`e da se ektrahiraat i, kako takvi, direktno da se upotrebuvaat kako gorivo vo redica na dizel motori. Sepak, a pred se zaradi postigawe na potrebnata viskoznost, normalno maslata se dorabotuvaat preku transformacija vo esteri, kako op{to prifaten oblik na biodizelot. Treba da se napomene deka esterite mo`e da se dobijat ne samo od rastitelni masla, tuku i od `ivotinska mast i otpadno maslo za gotvewe, koi se isto taka trigliceridi. Prednoto zna~i deka sekoja zemja

icrease of the efficiency of transformationsand equipment, as also for the decrease of production costs. Basic raw material for production of biodiesel are the oils, contained in some plant cultures (Table 20). They can be extracted and directly used as fuels in many types of diesel engines. Anyhow, and due to the need to reach requested viscosity of the fuel, they are normally improved by transformation in esters, as generaly accepted shape of biodiesel. It is necessary to underline that esters can be get not only from plant oils but also from animal fat and waste edible oil, which are triglicerids, too. The above said means that each country can organize its own production of biodiesel, in the frame of possibilities of own agricultural production and animal husbandry. Limitations are related to the influence of the existing (end requested in future) food production. Their overcoming requests organization of wide investigations and determination of sustainable development strategy

26

(Armenski, 2009)

27

Prose~na koli~ina na otpadno maslo za jadewe od doma}instva i ugostitelstvo Average quantity of wasye oil of households and restaurants Tabela br.23/Table 23 Broj doma}instva Number of households 502000 Specifi~en otpad Specific waste kg/dom kg/home 3 Otpadno maslo Waste oil t/god t/year 1506 Broj na `iteli Population 2050000 Otpadno maslo Waste oil kg/`itel kg/head 1,0 Otpadno maslo Waste oil t/god t/year 2050 Vkupno Total t/god t/year 3556(Armenski, 2009)

Procena na mo`ni koli~ini na biodizel vo R. Makedonija [t/god] Estimation of possible quantities of biodiesel in R. Makedonija [t/year] Surovina Raw material Koli~ina Quantity Rastitelni masla Vegetable oils Reciklirano maslo Recycled oil

Tabela br.24 Table 24 Vkupno Total

@ivotinska mast Animal fat

Vlezni surovini Raw materials Rafinirano maslo Refined oil 1000,00 Metanol - Methanol 107,00 KOH - KOH 10,00 Kiselina - Acid 8,00 Voda - Water 17,00 Elektricitet, Kwh electricity, kWh 20,00 Izlezni proizvodi - Products Biodizel - Biodiesel Glicerin - Glycerine \ubrivo - Fertilizer 1000,00 125,00 23,00

3556,40 380,53 35,56 28,45 60,46 71128,00 3556,40 444,55 81,79

3556,00 380,49 35,56 28,44 60,45 71120,00 3556,00 444,50 81,79

4484,00 479,79 44,84 35,87 76,22 89680,00 4484,00 560,50 103,13 Tabela 25 Table 25

11596,4 1240,81 125,96 100,77 214,14 231948,00 11596,40 1449,55 266,72(Armenski, 2009)

Vkupna energetska vrednost na biodizelot vo R. Makedonija Total energy value of biodiesel in R. Macedonia Hd kJ/kg 38600 39200 39500

Proizvodstvo od: Production from: Rastitelno maslo Plant oil Reciklir maslo Recycled oil @ivotinska mast Animal fat Vkupno - Total

Biodizel Biodiesel kg 3556400 3556000 4484000 11596400

Sodr`ana energija vo biodizelot Energy contained in biodiesel GJ/god MWh/god 137277,04 139395,20 177118,00 453790,24 38121,83 38721,20 76843,03 153686,06

Dizel Diesel t/god 3431,92 3484,88 4427,95 11344,76

(Armenski, 2009)

mo`e da organizira sopstveno proizvodstvo na biodizel, vo ramki koi se definirani so mo`nostite na sopstvenoto zemjodelsko i sto~arsko proizvodstvo. Ograni~uvawata se odnesuvaat na vlijanieto na postojnoto (i idnoto potrebno) proizvodstvo na hrana. Nadminuvaweto na istite podrazbira {iroki predhodni prou~uvawa i definirawe na odr`liva strategija za razvoj preku reorganizacija na postojnoto proizvodstvo na hrana i razvoj na novi proizvodni povr{ini.

through reorganization of existing food production and development of new production areas. The problem is very sensitive and possible solutions depend very much on many factors. Present process of globalization influences both, i.e. the food and energy market. Optimal solutions are in direct correlation with the possibility of the country to cover economically its needs for food and export power to cover the import of more and more expensive fuels. The most unfavorable is the situation of poor undeveloped coun-

28

Cena na ~inewe na proizveden kg biodizel vo R. Makedonija Production price of biodiesel in R.Macedonia Instaliran kapacitet Installed capacity t/god 3432 3485 4428 11345

Tabela br.26 Table 26

Izvor Source

Metanol Mathanol

Investicii Investments x10 $ 1,89 1,92 2,43 6,246

Specifi~na cena Specific price Investicii Investments $/kg 0,55 0,55 0,55 Ostanati Other $/kg 0,63 0,52 0,64 Vkupna Total $/kg 1,18 1,07 1,19

t/god 380,50 380,50 480,00 1241,00

Rastitelno maslo Vegetable oil Reciklirano maslo Recycled oil @ivotinska mast Animal fat Vkupno - Total

(Armenski, 2009)

Zemjodelie - Koristewe na zamji{teto Tabela 27 Agriculture Land Use Table 27 Upotreba na zemji{teto Land Use Obrabotlivo zemji{te Arable crop land Navodnuvano - Irigated Bez navodnuvawe - Rainfed Pasi{ta - Pastures [umi i po{umeno zemji{te Forests and woodland Drugo zemji{te Other land

1990 1999 ha 612.200 60.153 550.050 630.00 997.37 331.93

2000 2005 ha 634.297 31.755 602.500 707.263 934.13 191.35(Armenski, 2009)

Problemot e mnogu ~uvstvitelen i mo`nite re{enija zavisat od mnogu faktori. Sega{niot proces na globalizacija ima vlijanie na dvata, t.e. na energetskiot i pazarot na hrana. Optimalnite re{enija se vo direktna korelacija so mo`nostite na zemjata ekonomi~no da gi pokrie sopstvenite potrebi za hrana i ekonomskata sila za pokrivawe na se poskapite goriva. Najnepovolna e situacijata vo siroma{nite nerazvieni zemji so uvozno orientirani ekonomii i nerazvieno zemjodelie. Od druga strana, vakvite zemji raspolagaat so golemi povr{ini na obrabotlivo zemji{te, koe mo`e da se preorientira kon proizvodstvo na energetski kulturi. Makedonija e tipi~en primer na vakvite tipovi na ekonomii, t.e. nejzinoto vkupno stopanstvo e uvozno orientirano i ne e sposobno da gi pokrie sopstvenite potrebi za hrana. Sprema toa, napravenite procenki za mo`no proizvodstvo na biodizel vo zemjata (Tabeli br. 21-25) se samo ilustrativni, t.e osem vo delot za recikla`a, upotrebata na bio-energetskite

tries with import orientated economy and undeveloped agriculture. On the other hand, such countries have on disposal rather large areas of arable land, which can be orientated towards production of energy cultures. Macedonia is a typical example of such type of economies, i.e. its total economy is import orientated and it is not capable to cover own needs for food. Therefore, estimations made for possible production of biodiesel in the country (Tables 21-25) are only for illustration purposes, i.e. except in the part with recycled ones, the use of bio-energy raw materials would have direct influence to the quality and volume of the supply of national food market. On the other hand, problem of Macedonian agriculture and animal husbandry is not absence of possibilities for satisfactory production of food but impossobility to get enterence to the international markets with its competitive part of production and absence of protection of import of foreign subvencionned products. That results with its stagnation during the whole period of transition. Its evident that orientation towards production of energy cultures on the abando-

29

surovini direktno bi se odrazila na kvalitetot i obemot na snabduvawe na pazarot na hrana. Od druga strana, problemot na makedonskoto zemjodelstvo i sto~arstvo ne e nevozmo`nosta na dovolno proizvodstvo na hrana, tuku otsustvo na pristap do me|narodnite pazari so konkurentniot del na proizvodite i otsustvo na merki na za{tita na sopstvenoto proizvodsvo od uvoz na stranski subvencionirani proizvodi. Toa rezultira so negova stagnacija vo celiot tek na tranzicioniot period. Evidentno e deka orientacija kon proiz-vodstvo na energetski kulturi na del od napu{tenite i na novoosvoeni povr{ini mo`e da bide re{enie na del od negativnite sostojbi. Ova tvrdewe mo`e da se podr`i so: - Proizvodnite tro{kovi (Tabela br. 26), vo kombinacija so evropskite zeleni merki za podr{ka se, ili }e bidat mnogu skoro prifatlivi, a vo soglasnost so razvojot na cenite na gorivata na svetskiot pazar; - Ima na raspolagawe dovolno slobodni obrabotlivi povr{ini (Tabela br.27); - Toa ovozmo`uva ispolnuvawe na obvrskite kon Evropskata Unija, po odnos na usloveno minimalno u~estvo na biogoriva vo transportot so doma{ni, a ne kako sega so uvozni surovini; i kone~no - Otvara proizvoden sektor za zemjodelstvoto so garantiran plasman i prifatlivi otkupni ceni. So ogled na serioznata usmerenost na EU kon postigawe na zacrtanite celi do 2020 i ponatamu 2030 i 2050 god., problemot na razvoj na sopstveno proizvodstvo na biogoriva treba da se razbere mnogu seriozno i da se pristapi kon potrebnite tehni~ko/tehnolo{ko/ ekonomski istra`uvawa i izrabotka na odr`liva strategija za razvoj. Vo sprotivno, mo`e da se slu~at povtoruvawa na gre{ki, kakva {to e izgradbata na pogonot za proizvodstvo na 30.000 t/god biodizel bez sopstvena surovinska baza.

ned and new arable land can be solution for a part of present negative situation. Such statement can be supported with the fact that: - Production costs (Table 26) in combination with European green incentives are or shall be acceptable very soon, according to the development of fuel prices at the international market; - There is enough free arable land on disposal (Table 27); - Enable fulfillment of the obligations towards EC, related to the conditioned minimal participation of biofuels in the transport sector with home and not, as it is presently, with imported raw materials; and finally - Its opening a new production sector for agriculture with guaranteed market and acceptable buying prices. According to the serious orientation of EC towards fulfillment of planned targets for 2020 and furthermore for 2030 and 2050, the problem of development of own production of biofuels should be understood very seriously and it is necessary to begin with technical/yechnological/economy investigations and preparation of a sustainable development strategy. If not, country shall face repetition of mistakes, as it is completion of the biodiesel production plant with capacity of 30.000 t/year, without own raw materials production base.

30

6. ZAKLU^OCI I PREPORAKIIzvr{enite procenki na teoretskiot, tehni~kiot i ekonomskiot energetski potencijal na otpadnata biomasa vo Republika Makedonija (otpadno drvo, zemjodelstvo, sto~arstvo i komunalen otpad), kako i mo`nostite za proizvodstvo na biodizel, ovozmo`uvaat da se izvr{i zbirna procenka na istite i u~estvoto na poedinite kategorii vo nea. Vkupniot prose~en energetski potencijal na otpadnata biomasa vo Republika Makedonija e pretstaven na sl. br.3, po kategorii i tip na otpadoci, za periodot od 1997 do 2004.god. Najgolemo u~estvo vo vkupniot godi{en potencijal na otpadnata biomasa vo Republika Makedonija imaat otpadocite

6. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONSEstimations made for the theoretical, technical and economic energy potential of waste biomass in Republic of Macedonia (forestry, agriculture, animal husbandry and communal waste) enable to make also the estimation of its summary and participation of different categories in it. At Fig.3, total average energy potential of waste biomass in Macedonia is presented for the period from 1997-2004, arranged according to criteria and type of waste. Largest participation in the total economical energy potential of waste biomass in

Sl.4. Prose~en vkupen godi{en energetski potencijal na otpadna biomasa vo Republika Makedonija za periodot od 1997 - 2004 Fig.4. Total average energy potential of waste biomass in Republic of Macedonia for the period 1997 - 2004

31

od zemjodelstvoto, so 7,10 RJ/god. Vtor resurs po zna~aj e komunalniot otpad so 2,33 RJ/god, potoa otpadnoto drvo so 1,22 RJ/god i, na krajot, energetskiot potencijal na sto~arstvoto so 0,94 RJ/god. Toa pravi vkupno 11,59 RJ/god. Zna~eweto na energetskiot resurs od otpadocite od {umarstvoto, zemjodelstvoto, sto~arstvoto i gradskiot otpad ne treba da se tretira oddelno od vkupniot energetski potencijal na biomasa vo Republika Makedonija, t.e. oddelno od energetskiot potencijal na {umite i proizvodstvoto na energetski kulturi. Podatocite samo potvrduvaat deka vo pra{awe e golem energetski resurs, koj mo`e zna~itelno i pozitivno da vlijae na pokrienosta na energetskata potro{uva~ka so doma{ni energetski izvori. Od druga strana, evidentno e deka otsustvuva poprecizna orientacija za mo`nostite i potencijalnata golemina na energetskiot resurs, t.e.: Vo uslovi na kontinualno opa|awe na {umskite povr{ini vo zadnite 20-tina godini, ne postoi odr`ana strategija za razvoj, bazirana na prirodnite mo`nosti i potencijalniot zna~aj za razvojot na energetikata vo Republika Makedonija. Iako toa e i sega eden od najzna~ajnite energetski resursi vo zemjata, evidentno e deka so planski pristap {umarstvoto mo`e da se razvie i da prevzeme u{te pogolemo u~estvo vo energetskiot bilans na zemjata. - Pra{aweto na koristeweto na {umskiot otpad e direktno povrzano na predhodnoto, a so ogled na toa da istiot iznesuva otprilika 10% od vkupno ise~enata drvna masa. [umskiot otpad sega voop{to ne se sobira i koristi. - Vrzano na {umskiot fond i negovoto koristewe, neophodno e da se potencira i ilegalnoto nekontrolirano se~ewe, koe sprema nekoi procenki iznesuva duri 30% od legalnata se~a. - Problemot na otpadocite od zemjodelstvoto i sto~arstvoto e mnogu kompleksen. Tu|ite iskustva ne mo`e da se primenuvaat vo Makedonija, a so ogled na specifikite na organizacijata na proizvodstvoto, mo`nostite za nivno sobirawe i nivnoto koristewe za drugi nameni. Pred donesuvawe na bilo kakvi kone~ni zaklu~oci i definirawe na strategija za razvoj, neophodni se detalni istra`uvawa i preispituvawa preku organizacija na pilot proekti vo razli~ni vlijatelni uslovi. - Istoto se odnesuva i za gradskiot otpad. Iako se vo tek aktivnostite za

Republic of Macedonia is the one of agricultural waste, with 7,1 PJ/yr. Second one is the communal waste with 2,33 PJ/yr, then the wood waste with 1,22 PJ/yr and, at the end, energy potential of the waste from animal husbandry with 0,94 PJ/yr. That makes altogether 11,59 PJ/yr. Importance of the energy resource from forests, agricultural and waste from animal husbandry and urban concentrations should not be treated separately of the total biomas energy potential in Republic of Macedonia, i.e. of the energy potential of forestry and production of energycultures. Listed data only underline that a big energy source is in question, which can significantly and positively influence the level of covering the total energy consumption of the country with home energy resources. On the other side, its evident that more precise orientation for the possibilities and potential largeness of the energy resource is missing, i.e.: Under the conditions of continual decrease of forest areas during the last 20 years, a sustainable strategy for recovery and development, based on the natural possibilities and potential significance for the energy development in the Republic Macedonia, doesnt exist. Even thats already one of the most important energy resources in the country, its evident that, by a good planned approach, it can be developed and take larger participation in the state energy balance; - Question of the use of forests residues is directly connected to the above said because it is about 10% of the totally cutted wood mass. Presently, there is no organized collection and use of it. - Connected to the forest fund and its use, it is necessary to underline the existence of illegal cutting in the country. According to some estimations, it takes about 30% of the legal one. Problem of the agricultural and animal husbandry waste is very complex. Foreign experiences cannot be used in Macedonia due to the specifics of production organization, possibilities for their collection and their use for other purposes. Before taking any final decisions and composition of development strategy, its necessary to perform de-

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organizacija na sobirawe na istiot, evidentno e deka energetskata komponenta na problematikata e potpolno zanemarena. Vo slu~ajot na skopskata deponija Drisla, istata se pojavuva vo razni varijanti na ponudenite re{enija, no so orientacija smo kon edna (skapa) tehnologija, bez da se elaboriraat vkupnite ekonomski efekti i mo`nostite na sredinata da gi pokrie rezultira~kite organizaciski i pogonski tro{kovi. Iako e jasno deka istata e kompletno neprimenliva za drugite planirani deponii, ne postoi elaboracija za primenlivosta na organizacija na proizvodstvo na biogas (landfill technology). - Kone~no, evidentno e deka ne postoi niti osnovna orientacija za mo`nostite i opravdanosta na proizvodstvo na energetski kulturi vo Makedonija. Iako transportniot sektor e kompletno orientiran kon skap uvoz na goriva i Makedonija prevzemala odredeni obvrski sprema EU za minimalno u~estvo na biogoriva vo vkupnata potro{uva~ka, dosega ne se prevzemeni nikakvi aktivnosti za sogleduvawe na realnite prirodni mo`nosti i ekonomskata opravdanost na po{iroka organizacija na sopstveno proizvodstvo na biogoriva. Od druga strana, prehodnata diskusija ilustrira deka se raboti za pove}esloen kompleks od ekonomski i tehni~ko/tehnolo{ki problematiki, koi uslovuvaat po{iroki organizaciski merki i aktivnosti za opredeluvawe na optimalni re{enija i nivna implementacija. Evidentno e deka prednoto ne mo`e da se sprovede bez definirana pozitivna dr`avna politika i inicijale pozitiven tretman, vo sporedba so uvoznite fosilni goriva. Potrebata za definirawe na takva politika se potvrduva i so pozitivnite iskustva od porazvienite zemji, kade istata obezbedila mo`nosti za razvoj na mali i sredni pretprijatija, t.e. otvarawe na novi rabotni mesta vo ruralnite sredini. Istovremeno, toa bi bil i zna~aen pridones kon unapreduvaweto na uslovite na `ivotnata sredina. Kone~no, treba da se potencira sega{nata energetska situacija vo Makedonija i nejziniot o~ekuvan ponatamo{en razvoj. Uvozot na energija i energetski surovini zazema zna~ajno mesto vo vkupniot (negativen) ekonomski bilans na zemjata. Negovoto natamo{no nagolemuvawe }e vlijae negativno na vkupnite ekonomski sostojbi, a so toa i na mo`nostite za razvoj na site ekonomski sektori i zagrozuvawe na idninata na zemjata.

tailed investigations and checkings by organization of pilot projects in different influencing conditions. - The same can be stated for the urban waste. Even the activities for organization of its collection are in flow, its evident that the ebergy component of the problem is completelly neglected. It is appearing in different variants in the case of the deposit Drisla in Skopje, but with orientation to only one (expensive) technology, without elaboration the whole economy effects and possibilities of the the town to cover the resulting organizational and exploitation costs. Even it is clear that this technology cannot be applied in the other planned deposits, there is no elaboration made for the feasibilty of biogas production (landfill) technology. Finally, its evident that even a basic orientation for the possibilities and justifiableness of production of energy cultures doesnt exist in Macedonia. The transport sector is completelly orientated toward the import of expensive fuels and Macedonia accepted defined obligations towards EC for minimal participation of biofuels in the total consumption, but up to now there is no activity for determination of the real national potential and economic justification of wider organiztion of production of biofuels. On the other hand, our discussion illustrates that a multilayer composition of economic, technological/technical problematics is in question. It requests wide organizational measures and activities for determination of optimal solutions and the way of their implementation. Evidently, it cannot be performed without defined positive state policy and initial privilleged treatment in comparizon with the imported fossil fuels. The need of determination of such a policy is confirmed by the positive experience of more developed counyties, where it resulted with development of new employment in rural communities by development of small and medium enterprises. In the same time, it should be a significant contribution to the improvement of human environment. Finally, it is necessary to underline the present energy situation in Macedonia and its expected further development. Import of energy and energy raw materials takes significant part of the (negative) economy balance of the country. Its further increase will

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Navedenite podatoci vo ovaa publikacija doka`uvaat deka energetskiot resurs na biomasa vo Makedonija ve}e sega e eden od najzna~ajnite vo zemjata. Istovremeno, evidentno e deka toj nudi mo`nosti za razvoj koi ovozmo`uvaat zna~ajno nagolemuvawe na u~estvoto vo energetskiot bilans i namaluvawe na uvozot na goriva. Negovoto ponatamo{no zanemaruvawe bi pretstavuvalo nedozvoliv akt kon namaluvaweto na izgledite na uspeh na naporite za stabilizacija na dr`avnata ekonomija.

negatively influence the whole economy and, with that, possibilities for development of all economy sectors and future of the country. Listed data in this publication prove that energy resource of biomass in Macedonia is already one of the most important in the country. In the same time, its evident that it offers pssibilities for development, enabling significant improveent of its participation in the state energy balance and decrease of import of fuels. Furher neglection is an unallowed act of decrease of chances for success of efforts for stabilization of the state economy.

LIT ERATURA - REFERENCES1. Todorova M., Mijovska M., Georgievska, L. & Nedanovska L. Statistical Yearbook of the Republic of Macedonia, 2002, 2005, 2008, Skopje 2. Production and financial plan, PU Macedonian forests, Skopje 2006, 2008 and Annual Report 2006. 3. K. Popovski: Macedonia. Renewable Energy Coordinated Development in the Wes-tern Balkan Countries Acronym: RECOVER.6th Framework Programme on Research, Technological Development and Demonstration, 2005-2006 4. K. Popovski: Macedonia. Acceleration of the Cost-Competitive Biomass Use for Energy Purposes in the Western Balkan Countries - Acronym: ACCENT; 6th Framework Programme on Research, Technological Development and Demonstration, 2006-2007 5. K. Popovski: Macedonia. Rural Sustainable Development through Integration of Renewable Energy Technologies in Poor European Regions - Acronym: RES IN-

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TEGRATION; FP6 Integrating and strengthening the European Research Area, Specific Measures in support of International Cooperation (INCO) 20042007 S. Armenski: Biomass Energy, book, Publisher "Alfa-94", 243 pp, Skopje, May 2009. Biomass Energy Europe: Harmonization of biomass resources assessments. Volume I. Best practices and methods handbook, Draft, June 2009. S. Armenski: Bioenergy from Agriculture and Livestock, Renewable Energy Sources in R. of Macedonia- MAGA edition of the renewable energies identification and development in Macedonia, pp.14-33, Kat-lanovo 2005. . Cukaliev: Production of straw and other agricultural residue in R.of Macedonia and possibilities for use as bio fuel, Workshop Cereals straw and agricultural residue for bioenergy in New Member State and Candidate Countries, 2-3 October 2008, Novi Sad, Serbia

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