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Biodiversity of Coastal Marine Ecosystems Pattern and ... · PDF file Biodiversity of Coastal Marine Ecosystems Pattern and Process ... Herman Hummel, Pim H. van Avesaath. Biodiversity

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Biodiversity of Coastal Marine Ecosystems

Pattern and Process - A Euroconference

Carlo H.R. Heip, Herman Hummel, Pim H. van Avesaath

Biodiversity of Coastal Marine Ecosystems

Pattern and Process A Euroconference

Editors:Carlo H.R. Heip, Herman Hummel, Pim H. van Avesaath

Corinth Greece 05 - 10 May 2001

Euroconference 2001-169organised by

ESF (European Science Foundation)

in association withMARS (Marine Research Stations Network)

BIOMARE (EC Concerted Action EVR 1-CT2000-20002)

Supported by EC, Research DG,Human Potential Programme, High-Level Scientific Conferences

Contract HPCF-CT -2000-00223

With co-sponsoring from UNESCO Venice Office

Chair:: Carlo Heip - NL, Netherlands Institute of Ecology, Yerseke, NLVice-chair: Richard Warwick - UK, Plymouth Marine Laboratory, Plymouth, UK

Topics::

1" General patterns in marine biodiversity2 .. Patterns of coastal marine biodiversity in major groups

3 .. Patterns of biodiversity in different habitats4 ..The human factor

5 .. Methodology, European Co-operation, End Users

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Contentspage

Scientific/technological objectives and ContentCarlo Heip

Acknowledgements 2

Patterns of coastal marine biodiversity in major groups 3Chaired by Jeanine Olsen & Marina Montresor

Microbial (and viral) diversity: general patterns in marine and coastal environments 5Erko Stackebrandt

Diversity of prokaryotes: Water column versus sediments 8Ramon Rossel/o-Mora

Diversity of phytoplankton 10Victor Smetacek

The role of cysts and spores in maintaining diversity of coastal phytoplankton 11Marina Montresor

Diversity of symbiosis in marine invertebrates 14Nicole Dubilier

Molecular genetics in benthic macrophyte diversity research 16Jeanine Olsen

Diversity of zooplankton 18Martin Angel

Ciliate Microzooplankton, An Example of Congruence of Local and Regional Diversity 21John Richard Dolan

Patterns of biodiversity in different habitats 25Chaired by Richard Warwick, Karsten Reise & Victor Smetacek

Animal diversity in shallow water sediments 27John Gray

Thermal ecotypes in a tropical to warm-temperate marine macrophyte: Analysis of thephysiological background of ecotypic differentiation 29Anja Eggert

Diversity of benthic copepods in a dynamic but intensively exploited marine environment 31Wendy Bonne and Magda Vincx

Setting patterns of diversity in marine sediment communities: The importance ofbioturbation 34Stephen Widdicombe

Loss of biodiversity: interactive effects of mussels and limpets in intertidal communities 36Tasman P Crowe, Natalie J Frost, and Stephen J Hawkins

Comparison Characteristic of the Halacaridae Fauna from the Black and MediterraneanSeas 37Maria Gelmboldt

Temporal variations and succession of sublittoral rocky bottom biota in the arcticKongsfjord using underwater photographs and image analysis 39B.. Gulliksen and F Beuchel

Zoobenthic diversity in the Black Sea - constraints in relation to natural andanthropogenic factors 41Valentina Todorova

Methodology, European Co-operation, End Users 43Chaired by John Gray & Frederick Grassle

Rapid assessment of seabed biodiversity: lower taxonomic resolution and indicatorgroups as surrogates for species level identificationFrode Olsgard

Relatedness of species: A neglected aspect of biodiversityRichard Warwick

Diversity of habitats and species at sedimentary shorelines: Restoring losses bynourishing sandKarsten Reise

45

48

51

Biodiversity data 53Karen Stocks

Remote sensing of biodiversity 55Ian Joint

Role of on-line species information systems in taxonomy and biodiversity 58Mark Costello

How does aggregation of macrobenthic data to taxonomic levels higher than speciescorrespond to functional type groupings 60R.M Kennedy and M Solan

The human factor 61Chaired by Mark Costello

Biodiversity and conservation (new approaches for protecting seabed wildlife) 63Keith Hiscock

Impact of fish farming on marine biodiversity 66loannis Karakassis

The use of new tools to integrate Tourism into sustainable management of coastal areas 68Rafael Serde, Conxita Avila, Muntsa Sola, Joan Mora and Sergi Taboada

Synthesis and Scientific Highlights 70Carlo Heip

Abstracts of the poster presentations 77

Biodiversity of continental shelf soft-sediment macrobenthos communities 77Kari E Ellingsen and John S, Gray

Comparitive characteristics of the Halacaridae fauna from the Black and MediterraneanSeas 77M Gelmboldt

Oligotrophic bacterial communities versus communities adapted to eutrophic conditionsas criterion for evaluating the anthropic influence on marine areas 78Giuliano Laura, Yakimov Michail Mand Crisafi Ermanno

Importance of habitat diversity for initial settlement and adult distribution of Macomabalthica 78Iris E Hendriks, Luca A van Duren, T Ysebaert and Peter MJ. Herman

Anchialine caves: Hot-spots of ancient biodiversity at the ocean rim 79D, Jaume

Understanding marine species patterns across spatial scales 79M Johnson

On the Black Sea plankton diversity in relation to some aspects of anthropogenic impact 79L Kamburska and S, Moncheva

Impact of fisheries on diversity of demersal fish communities 80M Lebropoulou and C Papaconstantinou

Species richness and temporal stability in natural macroalgal communities 81Anne Lise Middelboe

Revising the taxonomic composition and distribution of Fucophyceae of the Black Sea 81NA Milchakova

Ecology of the phytoplankton blooms in the coastal Adriatic waters 82Zivana Nincevic and Ivona Marasovic

Microbial diversity in nutrient manipulated mesocosms 83Lise 0vreas, D, Bourne, M Heldal, V, Torsvik and F.. Thingstad

Ecological and evolutionary diversity of macroalgae: examples from the fucoids 83E Serrao, G, Pearson, C, Engel, C, Daguin, L Ladah, C Monteiro, C, Viegas,V da Fonseca and R. Bermudez

Blank spaces in the knowledge of coastal marine biodiversity 84NV, Shadrin

Biological invasions in coastal marine habitats: a population genetics approach 85F.. Viard, F.. and D, Jollivet

The Helgoland biological and oceanographic time series 86K H,Wiltshire, M Hoppenrath, H Spindler, J. van Beusekom and R. Scharek

Participants 89

Scientific/technological objectives and ContentCarlo Heip

The objective of the conference was to inventory, summarise and generalise the scientificknowledge on the structure and function of marine biodiversity in coastal marine areas ofEurope" Now that the Rio Convention has been ratified by nearly all European countries, andby the European Union, it becomes clear that the knowledge required to cover the obligationsof the convention is simply not available, even in Europe where the seas have been exploredsince hundreds of years and taxonomic and general ecological knowledge is well advancedwhen compared to other areas of the world"

Despite the broad definition of biodiversity adopted in Rio, covering variation in genes,species and habitats, biodiversity has for some time been associated with species andtaxonomy only" Several efforts are presently underway to inventory Europe's flora and fauna"These have shown that a lot remains to be discovered, even in Europe, for example microbialdiversity, diversity in cryptic habitats like submarine caves, symbionts and parasites, virusesand fungi etc etc", Perhaps more important is that the ecological role of biodiversity has hardlybeen addressed at all.. The relationships between the three components of biodiversity,genetic, species and habitat diversity have hardly been explored and the role of biodiversity inmarine ecosystem functioning is still largely unknown" Marine research has borrowed itsconcepts and paradigms from terrestrial biodiversity studies and there is no substantial bodyof knowledge on the subject Adequate assessment of the risks to marine systems due tospecies or habitat loss or to accidental species introductions is therefore at presentimpossible"

The EURESCO meeting aimed at increasing relevant knowledge by a stepwise approach inwhich first an inventory is made of what is known on the three aspects of biodiversity (genes,species, habitat) in shallow coastal areas" From such inventories comparisons andgeneralisations are possible and the relevant questions and research priorities to understandwhat causes the observed patterns can be formulated" The meeting also addressed theurgent and important problem of biodiversity assessment using rapid (molecular techniques,functional species, remote sensing) but reliable technology"In a second meeting, that will be prepared over the next two years, the emphasis will be onfunctional studies that try to understand the role of biodiversity in biogeochemical cycles,ecosystem productivity and food web structure,

The Marine Biodiversity Conference brought together the widely separated marinebiodiversity research projects that have been started in many countries as a consequence ofthe Rio Convention, and focussed on the large-scale and the long-term changes and on theproblems in monitoring and surveying biodiversity"

1

Acknowledgements

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